Mind–Its Mysteries and Control







Twelfth Edition: 1994
World Wide Web (WWW) Edition : 1998

WWW site: https://www.dlshq.org/


This WWW reprint is for free distribution

© The Divine Life Trust Society

ISBN 81-7052-006-1

Published By
P.O. Shivanandanagar–249 192
Distt. Tehri-Garhwal, Uttar Pradesh,
Himalayas, India.




1st July 1946

Beloved Dheerender!

Fear not. The mind is no doubt extremely turbulent. Through repeated attempts youcan perfectly subdue it.

You are the master of the mind. By Abhyasa and Vairagya assert your mastery. Feelthe power, bliss and splendour that result from perfect self-conquest.

Curb the mind ruthlessly. Annihilate desire. When desire dies mind is your slave.Become desireless and be victorious.

May you rest in your pristine freedom!



O Thou Invisible One! O Adorable One! O Supreme! Thou permeatest and penetratest thisvast universe from the unlimited space down to the tiny blade of grass at my feet. Thouart the basis for all these names and forms. Thou art the apple of my eye, the Prema of myheart, the very Life of my life, the very Soul of my soul, the illuminator of my intellectand senses, the sweet Anahata music of my heart, and the substance of my physical, mentaland causal frames.

I recognise Thee alone as the mighty Ruler of this universe and the Inner Controller(Antaryamin) of my three bodies. I prostrate again and again before Thee, my Lord! Thouart my sole refuge! I trust Thee alone, O ocean of mercy and love! Elevate, enlighten,guide and protect me. Remove obstacles from my spiritual path. Lift the veil of ignorance,O Thou Jagadguru! I cannot bear any longer even for a second, the miseries of this body,this life and this Samsara. Give Darsana quickly. O Prabho! I am pining. I am melting.Listen, listen to my fervent, Antarika prayer. Do not be cruel, my Lord. Thou artDinabandhu. Thou art Adhama-Uddharaka. Thou art Patita Pavana (Purifier of the fallen).

Om Santih Santih Santih

Publishers’ Note

To everyone striving for success in life, the invariable stumbling block proves to bethe turbulent vagaries of the mind. An undisciplined mind makes a man slave and wrecks hislife. Controlling and subduing it is the most vexing of problems to the earnest seeker ofhappiness. The vital importance of the subject, therefore, prompted H.H. Sri Swami Sivanandaji Maharaj to write this comprehensive work “MIND-ITS MYSTERIES ANDCONTROL.” It is meant to serve as a valuable guide to all aspirants and it is also ofimmense help to anyone in any walk of life. Being the outcome of personal experience ofthe revered author and written with a practical end in view, “MIND-ITS MYSTERIES ANDCONTROL” is a treasure worthy to be possessed and studied constantly.



Happiness has for ever been the prime aim of every human being. All activities of manare directed towards acquiring the maximum happiness in life. But, through the wrongdeluded notion that objects will give happiness, man searches for it outside. The resultis that in spite of all his lifelong efforts, he gets disappointment only. Vexation andmisery alone are to be seen everywhere. The real lasting happiness lies within man. Suchhappiness or Ananda is the Inner Self, the Antaratman. The very nature of Atman is pureJoy. This is never perceived because the mind is completely externalised. As long as themind is restlessly wandering about amidst objects, ever fluctuating, excited, agitated anduncontrolled, this true joy cannot be realised and enjoyed. To control the restless mindand perfectly still all thoughts and cravings is the greatest problem of man. If he hassubjugated the mind, he is the Emperor of emperors.

For gaining mastery over the mind, you have to know what it is, how it works, how itdeceives you at every turn and by what methods it can be subdued. In this book, thesubject has been dealt with; and the nature of the mind, the various forms that itassumes, the secret of its inner workings and the way to control it are fully and clearlyexplained. The previous editions were eagerly read and appreciated by thousands ofaspirants who wrote to say how immensely they were helped by the instructions. The lessonsand instructions are eminently practical and many helpful ideas and suggestions got duringmy meditations have been recorded and put down here. Very useful hints on concentrationand meditation will be found in the book which, if faithfully followed, will bring successin a short time without fail.

I pray to every aspirant to study constantly the valuable instructions with care andfollow the practical hints given in his Sadhana and daily life. It will doubtless enableyou to gain control over your passions and cravings and to get established in Yoga. TheBhakta, the student of Vedanta, the Raja Yogin, the Karma Yogin-all will find this book anindispensable guide. The later stages of Yoga Sadhana are common in all the four paths andDharana and Dhyana are quite impossible without first subduing the mind. All Sadhanas are,therefore, aimed at obtaining mastery over the mind. Hence it is that I have tried topresent the ways and means of achieving this through simple, yet well-tried and effectivemethods. My efforts would be amply fulfilled if even a single earnest aspirant is helpedon the spiritual path and attains the Goal.

May the Lord, the Antaryamin, the Supreme Indweller inspire all to attempt mind-controland Yoga! May He bestow success on the sincere aspirants that struggle to master theunruly mind! May you reach the Goal of Life, Immortality, Supreme Knowledge and Bliss!


Chapter 1

What Is Mind?

“He who knows the receptacle (Ayatana) verily becomes the receptacle of hispeople. Mind is verily the receptacle (of all our knowledge).” (ChhandogyaUpanishad, V-i-5)

That which separates you from God is mind. The wall that stands between you and God ismind. Pull the wall down through Om-Chintana or devotion and you will come face to facewith God.

The Mind-a Mystery

The vast majority of men know not the existence of the mind and its operations. Eventhe so-called educated persons know very little of the mind subjectively or of its natureand operations. They have only heard of a mind.

Western psychologists know something.

Western doctors know only a fragment of mind. The afferent nerves bring the sensationsfrom the periphery or extremities of the spinal cord. The sensations then pass to the medullaoblongata at the back of the head, where the fibres decussate. From there, they passon to the superior frontal gyrus or superior frontal convolution of the brain in theforehead, the supposed seat of the intellect or mind. The mind feels the sensations andsends motor impulses through the afferent nerves to the extremities-hands, legs, etc. Itis a brain-function only for them. Mind, according to them, is only an excretion of thebrain, like bile from liver. The doctors are still groping in utter darkness. Their mindsneed drastic flushing for the entry of Hindu philosophical ideas.

It is only the Yogins and those who practise meditation and introspection that know theexistence of the mind, its nature, ways and subtle workings. They know also the variousmethods of subduing the mind.

Mind is one of the Ashta-Prakritis. “Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, reasonand egoism-these constitute the eightfold division of My Nature” (Gita, VII-4).

Mind is nothing but Atma-Sakti. It is brain that wants rest (sleep), but not the mind.A Yogi who has controlled the mind never sleeps. He gets pure rest from meditation itself.

How The Mind Originated

Mind is Atma-Sakti. It is through mind that Brahman manifests Himself as thedifferentiated universe with heterogeneous objects. Brahma thought, “There, indeed,are the worlds; I shall create the protectors of the worlds.” He gathered the Purusha(Hiranyagarbha) from out of the waters only and fashioned him. He heated him by the heatof meditation. When he was thus heated, his heart burst out. From the heart, the mindcame; from the mind the moon, the presiding deity of the mind. (Heart is the seat of themind; so, the mind came out when the heart burst out. In Samadhi, the mind goes to itsoriginal seat, i.e., heart. In sleep also, it rests in the heart with a veil of ignorancebetween it and Brahman) (Aitareya Upanishad, 1-3-4).

Cosmic Mind And Individual Mind

Hiranyagarbha, otherwise known as Karya Brahman and Sambhuti, is cosmic mind. He is thesum total (Samashti) of all the minds. The individual mind is connected with the cosmicmind. Cosmic mind, Hiranyagarbha, superconscious mind, infinite mind, universal mind aresynonymous terms. Different authors have used different terms. Do not be puzzled. Do notbe confused. It is Sabda-bheda only.

Hiranyagarbha is cosmic Prana also. He is the Sutratman (thread-like Self). Herepresents the electric, cosmic, power-house. The different Jivas represent the different,small bulbs. Electricity from the power-house flows through the insulated copper wiresinto the bulbs. Similarly, the power from Hiranyagarbha flows into the Jivas.

The mind, being very subtle, is in close apposition or contact with other minds, thoughthe human skull intervenes between them. As mind evolves, you come into conscious relationwith the mental currents, with the minds of others- near and distant, living and dead. Theindividual mind of A, although separated from the mind-substance used by otherindividuals, B, C, D, E, X, Y, etc., by a thin wall of very finest kind of matter, isreally in touch with the other apparently separated minds and with the universal mind ofwhich it forms a part.

If A is a friend of B, A’s mind is connected with B’s mind. The minds of friends,relatives, brothers of A are attached to A’s mind. Several minds are similarly linked toB’s mind also. The minds of those who are attached to A’s mind are, therefore, connected,in turn, with the minds of those who are hanging on B’s mind. In this manner, one mind isin touch with all minds in the whole world. This is the Vibhu theory of mind of Raja Yoga.

Mind In Sankhya Philosophy

In Sankhya philosophy, Mahat is the term used to denote “cosmic mind” or”universal mind.” It is the first principle that is derived from Avyakta. It isthe first principle that is manifested out of the unmanifested Avyakta. The wheel of thebullock-cart rests on the spokes. The spokes rest on the nave. Even so, the mind rests onPrakriti and Prakriti rests on Brahman.

From Mahat comes Ahankara. From Sattvic Ahankara comes mind; from Rajasic Ahankaracomes Prana; from Tamasic Ahankara, Tanmatras; from Tanmatras, gross elements; from grosselements, the gross universe. Mind is no other than Ahankara, the idea of ‘I’. It is,indeed, difficult to eschew this idea of ‘I’. Mind always attaches itself to somethingobjective (Sthula). It cannot stand by itself. It is only this mind that asserts itself as’I’ in this body.

The idea of ‘I’ is the seed of the tree of mind. The sprout which first springs up fromthis seed of Ahankara is Buddhi. From this sprout, the ramifying branches called Sankalpashave their origin.

Linga Sarira And Antavaha Sarira

Mind is the most important Tattva of Linga Sarira. Linga Sarira is the astral body orSukshma Sarira that is linked to the physical body through physical Prana. It separatesitself at death from the physical body and travels to Svarga or heaven. It is this bodythat does Avagamana (coming and going). This body melts in Videha Mukti (disembodiedsalvation).

There is a difference between Linga Sarira and Antarvaha Sarira. Linga Sarira is astralbody with seventeen Tattvas, viz., five Karma-Indriyas, five Jnana-Indriyas, five Pranas,Mind and Buddhi. Antarvaha Sarira is very pure. It is full of Sattva. It is free fromRajas and Tamas. It is with this body that a Yogi passes from one body to another(Parakaya-Pravesa). Lila, through the grace of Sarasvati, came out of the physical bodyand travelled to higher worlds with this Antarvaha Sarira. You will find this in theYogavasishtha. Sri Sankaracharya, Raja Vikramaditya, Hastamalaka and Tirumular hadAntarvaha Sarira. With the help of this special kind of pure body, they passed into thebodies of other persons. A Yogi with Antarvaha Sarira has Sat-Sankalpa or Suddha Sankalpa.

Mind Is Subtle Matter

Mind is not a gross thing, visible and tangible. Its existence is nowhere seen. Itsmagnitude cannot be measured. It does not require a space in which to exist.

Mind and matter are two aspects as subject and object of one and the same all-fullBrahman, who is neither and yet includes both. Mind precedes matter. This is Vedantictheory. Matter precedes mind. This is scientific theory.

Mind can be said to be immaterial only in the sense that it has not the characteristicsof ponderable matter. It is not, however, immaterial in the sense that Brahman (PureSpirit) as such is. Mind is the subtle form of matter and hence the prompter of the body.Mind is made up of subtle, Sattvic, Apanchikrita (non-quintuplicated) Tanmatric matter.Mind is all electricity. According to the Chhandogya Upanishad, mind is formed out of thesubtlest portion of food.

Mind is material. Mind is subtle matter. This discrimination is made on the principlethat the soul is the only source of intelligence; it is self-evident; it shines by its ownlight. But the organs (mind and senses) derive their principle of activity and life fromthe soul. By themselves, they are lifeless. Hence the soul is always a subject and neveran object. Manas can be an object of the soul. And it is a cardinal principle of Vedantathat that which is an object for a subject is non-intelligent (Jada). Even the principleof self-consciousness (Aham Pratyak-Vishayatva) or Ahankara is non-intelligent; it doesnot exist by its own light. It is the object of apperception to the soul.

The Mental Body

Just as the physical body is composed of solid, liquid and gaseous matter, so also themind is made up of subtle matter of various grades of density with different rates ofvibration. A Raja Yogi penetrates through different layers of mind by intense Sadhana.

The mental body varies much in different people. It is composed of coarse or finermatter, according to the needs of the more or less unfolded consciousness connected withit. In the educated, it is active and well-defined; in the undeveloped, it is cloudy andill-defined.

There are several zones or slices in the mental body just as there are variouscompartments in the brain for particular types of thought. During intense anger, the wholemind is suffused with the black hue of malice and ill-will, which expresses itself incoils of thunderous blackness, from which fiery arrows of anger dart forth, seeking toinjure the one for which the anger is felt.

Types Of Mind

Every man has a mental world of his own. Every man entirely differs from another man inmode of thinking, temperament, taste, mentality, physical characteristics, etc. Physicallyalso a man differs from another man, although there might be slight resemblance. Observecarefully the nose, the ears, the lips, the eyes, the eyebrows, the arrangement of teeth,the shoulders, hands, fingers, toes, look, voice, gait, way of talking, etc., of differentmen. You will find vast differences between any two persons. Even the lines of the palmwill differ. No two leaves are alike. Variety is the beauty of creation.

There are various types of mind. The Bengali type of mind is emotional and fit fordevotion and art. The Madrasi type of mind is intellectual and clever in Mathematics. ThePunjabi type of mind and Maharashtra type of mind are chivalrous. Bengal has producedemotional saints, Lord Gouranga or Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa Deva,etc. Madras has produced intellectual philosophers like Sri Sankara and Sri Ramanuja.Punjab has produced Guru Nanak, Guru Govind Singh, etc. The Sadhana and path of Yoga varyaccording to the type of mind, temperament and capacity. Tastes also differ. The sight ofa fish brings excessive joy to a Bengali. The sight of tamarind and chillies excites theglosso-pharyngeal nerve of a Madrasi. The sight of a Palmyra fruit excites the JaffnaTamil of Ceylon and brings excessive joy. The sight of meat brings a peculiar joy to ameat-eater. Is this not a mystery that an object lies outside and saliva appears in thetongue at the sight of it? Because you have this experience daily in everyday life, you donot attach much importance to it. Mind is very mysterious. So is Maya, too.

Even an infinitely superior mind is yet a mind and of the same mould as any man’s.

Size Of The Mental Body

Mind is atomic (Anu) according to the Nyaya School; is all-pervading (Vibhu) accordingto the Raja Yoga School of Maharshi Patanjali; is of middling size (same size as that ofthe body) according to the Vedantic School.

Mental Aura

Mind has got aura (mental aura or psychic aura). Aura is Tejas, brilliance or halo thatemanates from the mind. The aura of those who have developed their minds is extremelyeffulgent. It can travel long distances and affect in a beneficial manner a large numberof persons who come under its influence. The spiritual aura is more powerful than eitherthe psychic or Pranic aura.

Influence Of Strong Mind Over Weak Minds

A strong mind has influence over weak minds. A hypnotist with a strong mind hypnotisesa whole bunch or circle of boys of weak minds.

There are those among us who are much more sensitively organised than others. As anorganism, their bodies are more finely and more sensitively constructed. These, generallyspeaking, are people who are always more or less affected by the mentalities of otherswith whom they come in contact, in whose company they are.

He who has purified his mind becomes a centre of force. All the lesser, impure, weakminds are unconsciously drawn towards the purified, greater mind, because they derivepeace, power and strength from the greater, purified mind.

Mark the influence of a highly developed mind over a less developed mind. It isimpossible to describe what it is like to be in the presence of a Master or developedadept. To sit in his presence, though he hardly speaks a word, is to feel a thrillingsensation so much as to feel new inspirations touching one mentally. It will be anextraordinary experience.

If you want to drink water at a tap, you will have to bend your body. Even so, a lowermind will have to bend (to be humble) before a developed mind if it longs to imbibe itsvirtues. The thought itself must be calm and unruffled. Then only you can drawinspirations. In such conditions only benign influences can be thrown down into the lowermind from the higher. In such calm, mental states, you can hold communion with God.Planning, angry and depressed moods-all disturb the mind and act as stumbling blocks toGod-realisation.

Mind Is Ever Changing

Mind is nothing but a collection of Samskaras. It is nothing but a bundle of habits. Itis nothing but a collection of desires arising from contact with different objects. It isalso a collection of feelings aroused by worldly botherations. It is a collection of ideasgathered from different objects. Now, these desires, ideas and feelings constantly change.Some of the old desires and feelings are constantly departing from their storehouse, themind, and new ones are replacing them.

This constant change does not in any way interfere with the harmony of mentaloperations. Only some of the old desires, ideas and feelings depart. Those that remainwork in healthy co-operation and concord with the new arrivals. The new arrivals arestrongly magnetised by the old ones. They both work in harmony and this harmony sustainsthe identity of the mental existence.

Mind is not only made daily, but always made. Every minute, it changes its colours andshape like a chameleon. It is very Chanchala (wavering) and Asthira (unsteady)-(Gita, VI,26). Mind is constantly changing. You are gaining new experiences daily. Your beliefs andconscience of 1932 and the faculty which judges right from wrong will change in 1942. Themind evolves through experience. The world is the best teacher or Guru.

According to the state of his knowledge, man’s conscience is built up and changes fromtime to time with the correction of his views, in the light of further knowledge gainedsubsequently. Conscience is one’s own convictions arrived at either instinctively or byreasoning. The conscience of a child or a savage is entirely different from the conscienceof a fully grown civilised man and, even amongst civilised men, knowledge varies so muchthat their consciences direct different lines of conduct. The conscience of a Sattvic manconsiderably differs from that of a Rajasic man. The conscience of a Sattvic man is very,very clean and pure.

Fourfold Mind Or Antahkarana Chatushtaya

Antahkarana is a term used by the Vedantins to include mind, Buddhi, Chitta andAhankara. When used in a broad sense, it means the internal instrument. ‘Antah’ meansinternal; ‘Karana’ means instrument. It is the inner instrument (as distinguished from theterm Bahya Karana, outer instrument or the senses or Indriyas) through which you sense,perceive, think and reason out.

Ahankara is derived from Prithvi-Tanmatra. (Tanmatras are Sukshma Bhutas or subtleelements. The five gross elements are derived from the Tanmatras.) Chitta is derived fromJala-Tanmatra; Buddhi from Agni-Tanmatra; mind from Vayu-Tanmatra; heart fromAkasa-Tanmatra.

Mind is Chetana (intelligent) when compared with the senses. It is Jada(non-intelligent) when compared with Buddhi. Sankhya Buddhi or Buddhi in SankhyaPhilosophy is will and intellect combined. Some put Chitta under mind, Ahankara underBuddhi.

Manas, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahankara are only Vritti-bhedas or functional aspects of themind. The Manas has all things for its objects and extends through the past, present andfuture; it is one only, but has various functions. You are a Judge when you exercise yourjudicial powers in the court. You are a cook when you work in the kitchen. You are apresident of an association when you sit in the chair in that capacity. You are the sameman, but you function differently and you are called by different names according to thosedifferent functions. Similarly, when the mind does Sankalpa-Vikalpa (will-thought anddoubt), it is called Mind; when it discriminates and decides, it is Buddhi; when itself-arrogates, it is Ahankara; when it is the storehouse of Samskaras and seat of memory,it is Chitta; also when it does Dharana and Anusandhana.

Who gave coolness to water, warmth to fire, motion to air? These qualities are theirvery nature. Even so, mind has got its Svabhava of running towards objects, Buddhi ofdetermining, Ahankara of self-assertion and self-identification, Chitta of thinking(Smriti) of those objects which are identified by Ahankara.

When the mind is at work, Buddhi and Ahankara work simultaneously along with the mind.Mind, Buddhi and Ahankara work in healthy co-operation. Mind makes Sankalpa-Vikalpa. Itthinks whether a certain thing is good or bad. Buddhi comes for determination. It isBuddhi which discriminates the Vishaya (Nischyatmika, Vyavasayatmika).

The Svarupa of mind is thought only. Mind is Sankalpa-Vikalpatmaka. It isVyakaranatmaka when it forwards the decisions of Buddhi, the messages from Buddhi, to theorgans of action for execution. Mind selects, attends and rejects.

Functions Of Mind

Sensation, thought and volition are the threefold functions of the mind. Cognition,desire, volition are the three mental processes.

Mind has three states, viz., active, passive and neutral. Mind always wants variety andnew sensations. It is disgusted with monotony.

Law of Association, Law of Continuity and Law of Relativity are the three principallaws of the mind.

These are the characteristics of the mind, viz., change (Parinama), activity (Cheshta),suppression (Nirodha), ideation in action (Sakti), physical life (Jivana),characterisation (Dharma).

Thinking, planning, feeling, knowing are the various activities that are going on inthe mind. Sometimes you plan. Sometimes you feel. Sometimes you try to know. Sometimes youthink seriously. Sometimes you will (volition). Volition brings all the mental facultiesinto play. You must be able to know by introspection what exactly is going on at differenttimes in the mind.

Aspects Of Mind

Conscious mind or objective mind, subconscious mind or subjective mind (Chitta) andsuperconscious mind are three aspects of the mind. You see, hear and read with theobjective mind.

Sensational mind, rational mind and intuitive mind are three aspects of mind accordingto another classification of Western philosophers.

Heart is the seat of four Tattvas-Prana, Mind, Ahankara and Atman. According toVedanta, the seat of mind is the heart. Ajna Chakra, which consists of two lotuses andwhich is tentatively situated in the space between the two eyebrows, is the seat of mindaccording to the Hatha Yoga School.

Seat Of Mind

Mind has various faculties and centres and operates through corresponding physicalcentres in the brain. Mind, Buddhi and understanding are in the Linga Sarira; but theyoperate through corresponding centres in the physical brain. The brain is not mind as theWesterners think. Mind has its seat in the physical brain. It gains experiences of thisphysical universe through the vibrations of the brain.

A king, though he has complete sway over his whole territory, though the whole kingdombelongs to him, has got special places for his residence. He has got a splendid palace inthe capital and another beautiful, palatial building in Mussoorie or Mount Abu for hisstay in summer. Even so, the mind, though it is all-pervading throughout the body, has gotthree places to reside in during the three states-Jagrat, Svapna and Sushupti. The seat ofmind in deep sleep is heart. In dream, the seat of the mind is neck. In waking state, theseat of the mind is the right eye or Ajna Chakra. Just mark what you do in Alochana (deepthinking). You hold your finger in the chin, turn the neck to the right side, turn thegaze towards the space between the two eyebrows and then begin to think seriously on theproblem in hand. This goes to show that the seat of the mind is the Ajna Chakra.

Mind Is Not Atman

In the West, the psychologists make a serious mistake in saying that consciousness is afunction and attribute of the mind. It is Chit or Atman only that is Pure ConsciousnessItself. Mind borrows its light from time to time from its source-Atman, the Light oflights or the Sun of suns and glitters temporarily like consciousness, like the goldengilt in brass. Mind borrows its light and power from Brahman, the source (Yoni), just asthe iron-rod borrows its heat and effulgence from fire. Mind is Jada or non-intelligent,but appears to be intelligent by borrowing light from Brahman, just as water exposed tothe sun borrows heat from the sun.

Mind can do only one thing at a time. It is finite (Parichhinna). It is Jada. It is theeffect (Karya) of Sattva Guna. It is Vinasi (perishable). It is Chanchala(ever-fluctuating). It is a bundle of ideas, Samskaras, habits, impulses and emotions. Itborrows light from the Adhishthana (the underlying substratum), Brahman. You can controlthe mind. The thinker is different from thought. There is no functioning of the mind indeep sleep. You always say, “My mind”, as if mind is one of your instrumentsjust like your walking-stick or umbrella. Therefore, mind is not the self-shining Atman.

Even in cases of delirium or in cases where there is paralysis of the mental functions,where a man loses his memory and other faculties partly or wholly, ‘He’ remains. The ‘I’exists (Aham Asmi). The mind seems to be as much your property and outside of youas the limbs, the dress worn or the building you dwell in. Therefore, mind is differentfrom ‘I’.

Mind gropes in darkness. It forgets every moment. It is changing every second. If foodis withdrawn for a couple of days, it cannot think properly. There is no functioning ofthe mind during deep sleep. It is full of impurities, Vasanas and Trishnas (cravings). Itgets puzzled during anger. In fear, it trembles. In shock, it sinks. How can you take themind, then, as the pure Self?

Manas is an organ of sensation and thought. This instrument must be under the controlof someone who uses it. The Jiva or human soul is not the director of the mind, because wesee that ordinary men cannot control their minds. They are simply swayed hither andthither by petty Raga-Dvesha, emotion and fear. Therefore, there must exist some otherBeing, who is Director of the mind. Who is that Being? He is the Manasah pati (Lord ofmind), Antaryamin, Kutastha Brahman.

Just as you see the tree in front of you, there must be somebody to see and know whatis going on in the mind of Jivas. That somebody is Kutastha. Kutastha is Brahman Himself.There is a tumbler in front of you. It cannot see itself. An instrument, eye and a seerare needed. If you say that the tumbler can see itself, then there will beKarmakartritva-bhava-virodha. It is a logical absurdity. Therefore, you have to admit thatthere is a silent Sakshi of the mind, who is eternal, unchanging, eternal knower, alwaysthe knowing subject. He is witnessing the motives and modifications that arise in theminds of Jivas.

Isvara or Saguna Brahman (Personal God) has full consciousness of Nirguna Brahman. Thatis His Svarupa- Lakshana. At the same time, he has full cosmic consciousness. He knowswhat is going on in every mind.

Consciousness per se or the Absolute Consciousness is common in all. This pureconsciousness is one. It is Kutastha Chaitanya. All the workings of the mind, allmodifications that arise in the minds of all are presented to the one common consciousnesswhich is the witness of the mental Vrittis. Even though consciousness is one, when Rama isstung by a scorpion, only Rama feels and not his friend Krishna who is standing near him.Antahkarana or mind is different in every individual. It is Antahkarana that limits a manwho is, in reality, identical with the Brahman or Supreme Soul! This identity is realisedwhen the Avarana or veil of ignorance is removed.

The mind is an object of perception for Brahman. Atman directly cognises all thephenomena of the mind, viz., desire, imagination, doubt, belief, disbelief, shame,intelligence, fear, etc. He remains Himself quite unattached and unaffected like theomnipresent ether, like the crystal which reflects different coloured objects, like thesun.

Atman-the Source For The Mind

Manas, which expands through Sankalpas and Vikalpas, is generated with Brahman as itscause. The form which the endless Atman (Supreme Spirit) assumes through Sankalpa is Manas(mind). It first turned its back to discrimination and hence entangled itself in the foldsof Vasanas of objects. The underlying substratum, Adhishthana of the mind, the source orbasis for mind is Atman or Brahman or Absolute Conscious- ness. The Power of powers whogives power to the mind, the Light of lights who sheds light on the mind, the Seer ofseers who witnesses the motives of and movements in the mind, the Support of supports onwhich the mind rests in sleep is BRAHMAN.

“Om Keneshitam Patati Preshitam Manah-Willed and directed by whom does themind go towards its desired objects?” (Kenopanishad). To that Power of powers I bowwith folded hands. That Power of powers I am (Soham, Sivoham).

That Secondless Supreme Being who resides in the chambers of your hearts as Antaryaminor Inner Ruler or Controller or Sutradhara or Sakshi (silent Witness), Antaratman (InnerSelf), who has no beginning, middle or end, who is the source of this world, the Vedas,body, mind, Indriyas and Prana, who is all-pervading, who is unchanging, who is OneHomogeneous Essence (Ekarasa), who exists in the past, present and future, who isself-existent (Svayambhu), who is independent (Svatantra) and who is self-luminous(Svayam- jyotis) is God or Atman or Brahman or Purusha or Chaitanya or Bhagavan orPurushottama.

During dream, you are splendid, effulgent light. Where does it come from? From Atman.The light that is present in the dream clearly indicates that Atman is self-luminous(Svayamjyotis, Svaprakasha).

God is Truth. God is Love. God is Light of lights. God is Peace. God is Knowledge. Godis the embodiment of Bliss. God is Sat-Chit-Ananda-Existence Absolute, Knowledge Absoluteand Bliss Absolute. God is Eternity. God is Immortality. God is Infinity. God is Avinasi,Supreme Vastu. God is All-pervading Essence or Substance. God is the only Sara Vastu. Godis Infinite Beauty.

Bhagavan is a synonymous term for God. He who has the six attributes, viz., Jnana(wisdom), Vairagya (dispassion), Yasas (fame), Aisvarya (divine powers), Sri (wealth) andDharma (righteousness) in their fullest measure is Bhagavan.

According to Vayu Purana, “Omniscience, satisfaction, eternal knowledge,independence, constant presence of power, infinity of power-these six are said to be theaspects (Angas) of the Great Lord.”

Sarvajnatva (omniscience, knowledge of all the worlds, their Jivas and their Karmas),Sarvesvaratva (supreme rulership of all, the power of dispensing the fruits of all Jivas),Sarvantaryamitva (inner control of all names and forms and all Indriyas and minds),Sarvakaranatva (causality for the creation, preservation and destruction of all),Sarvaniyantritva (doing everything without failure of Niyama), Sarvakartritva (the doingof all actions), Sarvasaktimatva (omnipotence), Svatantratva (absolute independence) arethe eight attributes of God.

“Knowledge, desireless, power of control, purificatory action, truth, forgiveness,endurance, creation, the Knowledge of the Self, and being the substratum of allactivities-these ten unchangeable (Avyaya) qualities always live in the Great Source ofall Good.”

Srishti (creation), Sthiti (preservation), Samhara (destruction), Tirodhana (veiling)and Anugraha (blessing) are the five kinds of action (Panchakrityas) of God.

God is the Niyamaka (ruler), Antaryamin (knower of the heart) and Preraka (prompter)also. He helps the Sadhakas in a variety of ways, viz., through dreams, the Inner Voice,by talking through the mouths of others in daily conversations and advice from friends.

Nitya Sukha (eternal bliss), Parama Santi (supreme peace), Nitya Tripti (eternalsatisfaction), infinite happiness, Akhanda Sukha (unbroken joy) can be had only in God.Attain this God-consciousness or Self-realisation or Darshana of God through Ananya Bhaktior Vichara. This is the goal of life. This is your highest duty. All other duties aresecondary.

The essence of Indriyas is the mind; the essence of mind is Buddhi; the essence ofBuddhi is Ahankara; the essence of Ahankara is Jiva (the individual soul). Brahman orSuddha Chaitanya is the womb or Yoni or Adhishthana or substratum for everything. He isthe Sakshi or witness of everything.

Atman is the proprietor of a big firm, this mental factory. Buddhi is the manager. Mindis the head clerk. The head clerk has got two functions to perform. He gets direct ordersfrom the manager and he has to supervise the workmen also. Even so, the mind has got twofunctions. It has connections with the Buddhi, the manager and Karma-Indriyas, theworkers.

Mind is more internal than speech. Buddhi (intellect) is more internal than the mind.Ahankara is more internal than Buddhi. Jiva Chaitanya (Abhasa, reflected intelligence) ismore internal than Ahankara. Atman or Kutastha is more internal than the Jiva Chaitanya.There is nothing internal to Atman. It is Paripurna (All-Full).

When, by analysing your own mind, you come face to face with something which is neverdestroyed, something which is by its own nature eternally pure, perfect, self-luminous andunchanging, you will no longer be miserable, no more unhappy.

One Essence only exists. It is One without a second (Ekameva Advitiyam Brahma).It is Ananta, spotless, ever pure and Paripurna. Meditate upon It without fluctuation ofmind and free yourself from all pains with true calmness of mind. Being quite unreal,Ahankara will perish through efforts.

Proof For The Existence Of Mind

What is the nature of the Atman or Brahman? It is Sat-Chit-Ananda. Atman is Vyapaka.Then, what is it that limits the individual soul’s vision? It is only mind. This factproves the existence of an internal instrument, the mind.

In the commentary on the Brihadaranyaka, Sri Sankara gives two proofs of the existenceof Manas.

One is that it is Manas which renders all knowledge through senses possible. It iscalled Sarva Karma Vishaya Yoga. Sense-knowledge is the product of the connection betweenthe mind and the sensory organs. That is why there is no simultaneity of the knowledge ofthe impressions received through the various sensory organs. People say, “My mind waselsewhere. I did not see that.” The impossibility of this simultaneity of knowledgethrough various sensory organs is an indication of the existence of the mind.

The soul is a constant factor. Between the Atman and the organs of senses, a connectinglink is necessary. We have to acknowledge the existence of an internal organ (Mind),through whose attention and non-attention, perception takes place. If we do not admit theinternal organ, there would result either perpetual perception or perpetualnon-perception-the former when there is a conjunction of Atman, the sense (Indriya) andthe object (Vishaya), the three constituting the instruments of perception. If, on theconjunction of these three causes, the effect did not follow, there would take placeperpetual non-perception. But, neither is the case. We have, therefore, to acknowledge theexistence of an internal organ on whose attention (Avadhana) and non-attention(Anavadhana) perception and non-perception take place. This is the argument for theexistence of Antahkarana or mind.

The other proof is the capacity for judgment which we possess. Somebody whom we cannotsee touches us; and, we infer the person. Now, mere touch cannot make us aware of thisfact. The faculty by which we make such an inference is Manas.

Special Knowledge That Differentiates
Man From Animal

An animal is not able to “know itself.” It has only physical consciousness.It has no self-consciousness. An animal feels the discomfort and pain. It is not able toanalyse its own mental states. A man not only “knows”, but he “knows thathe knows.” This is either mental consciousness or self-consciousness. The man notonly “feels” or “senses” things, but he has words to express hisfeelings and sensations. He can vividly describe his feelings. He may think of himself asexperiencing them. He can separate himself from the sensation of feeling. He is able tothink, “I feel; I hear; I see; I smell; I taste; I desire; I act; I enjoy,”

“I know this book.” “I know also that I know this book.” This isself-consciousness peculiar to human beings only.

In the Police Station, the Chaprasi (peon) strikes ten at the gate. The sound vibratesand passes into the ears of men and animals. The animals also hear ten times the beating.But the man counts them and knows through his Buddhi, “Now it is ten o’clock.”He has got this Visesha Jnana (special knowledge); whereas animals have got Samanya Jnana(ordinary knowledge). It is this special knowledge that differentiates a man from ananimal. Ahara (food), Nidra (sleep), Bhaya (fear) and Maithuna (copulation) are common toboth. Through this Visesha Jnana he knows right from wrong, good from bad, what to do(Kartavya) and what not to do (Akartavya).

The Four Sources Of Knowledge

Inspiration, revelation, insight, intuition, ecstasy, divine sight and Paramanandastate are the seven planes of knowledge. There are four sources of knowledge, viz.,instinct, reason, intuition and super-intuition or Brahma-Jnana.


When an ant crawls in your right arm, the left arm automatically moves towards theright arm to drive away the ant. The mind does not reason there. When you see a scorpionin front of your leg, you withdraw your leg automatically. This is termed instinctive orautomatic movement. As you cross a street, how instinctively you move your body to saveyourself from the cars! There is no Vritti in such mechanical movement.

Instinct is found in animals and birds. In birds, the ego does not interfere with thefree divine flow and divine play. Hence the work done by them through their instincts ismore perfect than that done by human beings. Have you not noticed the excellent work doneby birds in their building of wonderful nests?


Reason is higher than instinct and is found only in human beings. It collects facts,generalises, reasons out from cause to effect, from effect to cause (a priori and aposteriori methods of reasoning), from premises to conclusions, from propositionsto proofs. It concludes, decides and comes to judgment. It takes you safely to the door ofintuition and leaves you there.

Belief, reasoning, knowledge and faith are the four important psychic processes. Firstyou have belief in a doctor. You go to him for diagnosis and treatment. He makes athorough examination and then prescribes certain medicines. You take them. You reason out:”Such and such is the disease. The doctor has given me Iron and Iodide. Iron willimprove my blood. The Iodide will stimulate the lymphatics and absorb the exudation andgrowth in the liver. So I should take it.” Then the disease is cured, by a course ofthese drugs, in a month. Then you get knowledge of and perfect faith in the efficacy ofthe medicine and the proficiency of the doctor. Then you recommend to your friends thisdoctor and his drugs.


Intuition is spiritual Anubhava. Knowledge through functioning of Karana-Sarira isintuition. Sri Aurobindo calls it super-mind or supramental consciousness. There is directperception of truth (Pratyaksha) or immediate knowledge through Samadhi. You know thingsby a flash. Professor Bergson preached about intuition in France to make the peopleunderstand that there is another higher source of knowledge than intellect. In intuition,there is no reasoning process at all. It is Pratyaksha. Intuition transcends reason, butdoes not contradict it. Intellect takes a man to the door of intuition and returns back.Intuition is Divyadrishti. It is Jnana-Chakshus. Spiritual flashes and glimpses of truthcome through intuition. Inspiration, revelation, spiritual insight come through intuition.


Atma-Jnana is above intuition. It transcends the Karana-Sarira. It is the highest formof Knowledge. It is the only Reality.

Chapter 2

Mind And Body

Body, The Mould For Mind’s Enjoyment

The body with its organs is no other than the mind. The physical body is the outwardmanifestation of the mind. Mind is the subtle form of this physical body. The mindcontemplating upon the body becomes the body itself and then, enmeshed in it, is afflictedby it. All the bodies have their seat in the mind only. Should the mind be paralysed, thenthe body will not evince our intelligence. Without water, can a garden exist? It is themind which transacts all business and is the highest of the bodies. Mental actions are thereal actions. The mind performs all actions very speedily in the Linga Sarira andfluctuates thereby. But, the gross body knows not anything and is inert. Even should thisgross body be dissolved, the mind will assume fresh bodies to its liking very quickly.This physical body is the mould, as it were, made by the mind for its own enjoyment, forits outpouring of its energy and thereby gaining different experiences of this worldthrough the five avenues or channels of knowledge, the five Jnana-Indriyas (organs ofknowledge or perception).

Thoughts Make The Body

The actions of the mind alone are indeed actions; not so much those of the body. Thebody is really our thoughts, moods, convictions and emotions objectivised, made visible tothe naked eyes. It is a point worthy to note with care that every cell in the body suffersor grows, receives a life-impulse or a death-impulse, from every thought that enters themind, for you tend to grow into the image of that which you think about most.

When the mind is turned to a particular thought and dwells on it, a definite vibrationof matter is set up and often more of this vibration is caused, the more does it tend torepeat itself to become a habit, to become automatic. The body follows the mind andimitates its changes. If you concentrate your thought, the eyes become fixed.

Every change in thought makes a vibration in your mental body and this, whentransmitted to the physical body, causes activity in the nervous matter of your brain.This activity in the nervous cells causes many electrical and chemical changes in them. Itis thought-activity which causes these changes.

Face: An Index Of Mind

Mind is the subtle form of this physical body. The physical body is the outwardmanifestation of the mind. So when the mind is rough, the body is rough too. As a man ofrough appearance generally cannot invoke love and mercy of others, so a rough-minded mancannot invoke love and mercy of anybody. Mind very conspicuously reflects on the face itsvarious states which a man of intelligence can very easily read. Face is an index of themind, just as the tongue is an index of the stomach.

The body follows the mind. If the mind thinks of falling from a height, the bodyprepares itself immediately and shows external signs. Fear, anxiety, grief, cheerfulness,hilarity, anger-all produce their various impressions on the face.

The eyes which represent the windows of the soul bespeak of the condition and state ofthe mind. There is a telegraphic instrument in the eyes to transmit the messages orthoughts of treachery, cunningness, fraud, pure love, compassion, devotion, depression,gloom, hatred, cheerfulness, peace, harmony, health, power, strength and beauty.

If you have the faculty to read the eyes of others, you can read the mind at once. Youcan read the uppermost thought or dominant thought of a man if you are careful to mark thesigns in his face, conversation and behaviour. It needs a little pluck, acumen, training,intelligence and experience.

Your thoughts, sentiments, modes and emotions produce their strong impressions on theface. The face is like an advertisement board wherein is advertised what is going oninside the mind. In face, you can hardly hide your thoughts. You may foolishly think thatyou have kept up your thoughts in secret. Thoughts of lust, greed, jealousy, anger,revenge, hatred, etc., at once produce their deep impressions on your face. The face is afaithful recorder and a sensitive registering apparatus to register and record all thethoughts that are running in your mind. The face is a polished mirror to indicate thenature of the mind and its contents at a particular time.

He who thinks that he can hide his thoughts is a dunce of the first water. His positionis like that of the ostrich which, when chased by the hunters, hides its head underneaththe sand and imagines that it cannot be seen by anyone.

Your face is like a gramophone record or plate. Whatever you think is at once writtenon your face. Every vicious thought serves as a chisel or needle to write down thethoughts on your countenance. Your faces are covered with the scars and wounds which aremade by the vicious thoughts of hatred, anger, lust, jealousy, revenge, etc. From thenature of the scar in your face, I can at once read your state of mind. I can at oncediagnose your disease of the mind.

Mutual Influence Between Mind And Body

The mind is intimately connected with the body. The mind acts upon the body and thebody reacts upon the mind. Mind has influence over the body. A pure, healthy mind means ahealthy body. Grief in the mind weakens the body. Body influences the mind also in itsturn. If the body is strong and healthy, the mind also becomes healthy and strong. If thebody is sick, the mind also becomes sick. A pain in the stomach causes depression in themind.

Bad Thoughts, The Primary Cause Of Disease

The primary cause of diseases which afflict the body is bad thoughts. Whatever you holdin your mind will be produced in the physical body. Any ill-feeling or bitterness towardsanother person will at once affect the body and produce some kind of disease in the body.Intense passion, hatred, longstanding bitter jealousy, corroding anxiety, fits of hottemper actually destroy the cells of the body and induce disease of the heart, liver,kidneys, spleen and stomach. Violent fits of hot temper do serious damage to the braincells, throw poisonous chemical products into the blood, produce general shock anddepression and suppress the secretion of gastric juice, bile and other digestive juices inthe alimentary canal, drain away your energy, vitality, induce premature old age andshorten life.

When the mind is agitated, then this body also is agitated. Wherever the body goes, themind follows. When both the body and mind are agitated, the Prana flows in a wrongdirection. Instead of pervading the whole body steadily and equally, it will vibrate at anunequal rate (unrhythmically). Then the food is not digested properly. Diseases originate.If the primary cause is removed, then all diseases will disappear.

The pains that afflict the physical body are called secondary diseases, whilst theVasanas that affect the mind are termed mental or primary diseases. If bad thoughts aredestroyed, all bodily diseases will vanish. Purity of mind means healthy body. Therefore,be careful in your thinking, in the selection of your thoughts. Always entertain noble,sublime, loving and kind thoughts. You will have harmony, health and beauty.

A Lamentable Practice

It is lamentable, indeed, to note that most of the doctors in the world, particularlythe allopaths, do more harm than good to their patients. They exaggerate the nature of thedisease to their patients. They fill their minds with imaginary fears of all sorts. Theydo not know the power of suggestions and their influences on the minds of their patients.As greed is ingrained in their minds, as the desire to become rich is deep-rooted in theirminds, they try their level best to extract from their patients as much money as they can.If they say to their patients, “This disease is nothing. I will make you all rightwithin a couple of hours,” who is going to pay them amply? They give wrongsuggestions to their patients: “This is a terrible disease. This is an incurabledisease. A dangerous poison, a dangerous microbe is lurking in your lungs.” The poorpatient spends sleepless nights on account of imaginary fear, on account of wrongsuggestion given by the doctor. Every moment he thinks: “I may die at any moment. Thedoctor has said that my disease is dangerous and incurable.” He drags a cheerlessexistence. The worry and anxiety and fear destroy millions of red blood-corpuscles daily.The doctor gives the wrong suggestions to glorify his skill, dexterity in the professionalso.

The Root Of All Evils

The erroneous imagination that you are the body is the root of all evils. Through wrongthinking, you identify yourself with the body. Dehadhyasa arises. You are attached to thebody. This is Abhimana. Then, Mamata (mineness) arises. You identify yourself with yourwife, children, house, etc. It is identification or attachment that brings about bondage,misery and pain. You never wept when millions of Germans died in the war. Why? Because,there was no identification and attachment. But, you weep profusely when your son dies, onaccount of attachment. The word ‘My’ produces wonderful influence in the mind. Note thedifference in effects produced in the mind when you hear the two sentences: ‘Horse isdead’ and ‘My horse is dead.’

Pain Is In Mind Only

Pain is evident so long as you connect yourself with the mind. There is no pain insleep. If there is an inflammatory swelling on your back with throbbing pain, you do notexperience any pain at night when you are asleep. Only when the mind is connected with thediseased part through nerves and thinking, you begin to experience pain. There is no painwhen the mind is disconnected from the body by the administration of chloroform. Duringmoments of great joy, the severe pain entirely ceases, as the mind is taken away from thebody, from the seat of the pain. If you can consciously withdraw the mind from thediseased part by concentrating it on God or any other attractive object, you will notexperience any pain even when you are wide awake. If you have a powerful will and strongTitiksha (power of endurance), then also you will not experience any pain. By constantthinking of any trouble or disease, you only augment your pain and suffering. Pain is inmind. Atman or spirit is Anandasvarupa (full of bliss).

Conquer The Mind To Control The Body

With the majority of mankind, the mind is greatly under the control of the body. Theirminds being very little developed, they live on Annamaya Kosha mostly. Develop theVijnanamaya Kosha and, through Vijnanamaya Kosha (Buddhi), control the Manomaya Kosha(mind). The Vijnanamaya kosha is developed by abstract thinking and reasoning, bysystematic meditation, Brahma-Chintana, study of the Upanishads, Yogavasishtha and BrahmaSutras.

When you have controlled the mind, you have perfect control over the body. The body isonly a shadow of the mind. It is the mould prepared by the mind for its expression. Thebody becomes your slave when you have conquered the mind.

Chapter 3

Mind, Prana And Kundalini

Prana-the Outer Coat Of Mind

There are two principal Tattvas in the universe, viz., mind and Prana. Wherever thereis Prana, there is mind also. Even in the external movement of breath beyond the nose, themind is mixed with the external breath. Prana (energy) is the outer overcoat for the mind.Prana digests the food, turns it into chyle and blood and sends it to the brain and mind.The mind is then able to think and do Brahma-Vichara (enquiry into Brahman). The life ofthe mind is kept up through the vibration of the subtle psychic Prana which gives rise tothe formation of thought.

Prana is gross. Mind is subtle. Mind is formed out of the conglomerate Sattvic essenceof the five Tanmatras; whereas, Prana is formed out of the sum total of Rajasic essence ofthe five Tanmatras. That is the reason why mind is more Sukshma than the Prana.

The Pranamaya Kosha (vital sheath) is more subtle than the physical body. It overlapsthe Annamaya Kosha (physical sheath) and is more extensive than it. Manomaya Kosha is moresubtle than the Pranamaya Kosha and more extensive than the vital sheath. You have totouch the body of another man to have a physical influence over him. Whereas you can standat a distance and by mere ‘passes’ you can impart your Prana to him; because, Prana(vital) is more subtle than the body. You can influence a man mentally through thoughteven though he lives a thousand miles away from you, because mental force is more subtlethan Prana.

Inter-Dependence Of Mind And Prana

Prana and mind stand to one another in the relationship of the supporter and thesupported. Both these are only like the flower and its odour or a sesamum seed and the oilin it. If either of them is slain, then the other also will cease to exist. If the mindand Prana cease to exist, then thoughts will not arise at all. The destruction of bothwill confer Moksha on all.

Ekagrata (one-pointedness) and Nirodha (controlled state) are two Avasthas of the mind.Spanda (subtle or Sukshma) and Nirodha are two Avasthas of the Prana. When the mindbecomes one-pointed, Spanda Avastha of the Prana comes by itself. If the mind is purifiedwith true Sattva Guna, the Prana will be distributed freely throughout the body. The foodwill be digested thoroughly.

Mind, Prana And Virya

Mind, Prana and Virya (semen) are under one Sambandha (connection). If you can controlany one of these three, the other two are controlled by themselves, quite easily. HathaYogins try to control the Prana. Raja Yogins try to control the mind. Jnana Yogins starttheir Sadhana with Buddhi and will.

Benefits Of Pranayama

By Pranayama (control of Prana or restraint of breath), you can also increase themental energy and develop thought-control and thought-culture. This will helpconcentration and meditation. This will make the mind steady. This will remove Rajas(passion) and Tamas (inertia). This will burn the dross in the mind.

By Pranayama, the mind gradually moves from the gross to the subtle. It, therefore,exercises a wholesome check upon sexual irritation. When some evil thought disturbs yourmind, at once take to Padmasana or Siddhasana and do Pranayama. The thought will leave youimmediately.

The Superiority Of Prana Over Mind

The sight is more internal than speech as the sight generally informs withoutcontradiction. Similarly, the hearing than the sight, as the eye may convey falseimpressions, e.g., the mother of pearl as silver, but the ear never hears a non-existingsound. Similarly, the ear only exercises its functions with the aid of the mind’sattention and, similarly, the mind depends on the Prana or life. Prana is, therefore,Brahman, the Innermost of all.

“Forsooth, mind departed from the body. It returned after a year’s absence andenquired of the organs: ‘How did you survive my separation?’ ‘In the same way’, repliedthe organs, ‘in which an infant not possessing the power of reflection breathes throughthe agency of his respiratory organs, speaks through the organ of speech, sees by hiseyes, hears by his ears.’ Mind resumed its place. Then did mind say unto Prana, ‘Thequality of containing all, which belonged to me, is due to thee.’ The function of mindbelongs to Prana; from Prana or life proceed all.” (Chhandogya Upanishad, V-xiv-15).This parable illustrates the superiority of life (Prana) over mind and other organs. Inreality, there was no dispute of any kind.

Mind And Kundalini

Kundalini, the serpent-like coiled power that lies dormant with 3 coils with the facedownwards in the Muladhara Chakra, the basal lotus at the end of the spinal column, isconnected with Prana and Prana is connected with the mind.

Even a Vedantin (student of the path of Jnana) can get Jnana-Nishtha (superconsciousstate) only through the awakening of Kundalini Sakti. No superconscious state or Samadhiis possible without the awakening of this primordial energy, whether it is in Raja Yoga,Bhakti Yoga or Jnana Yoga.

Kundalini Sakti can only be aroused when the mind is actually free from passions anddesires. Sakti-Chalana or Asvani Mudra, Tadana, Pracharana-all help in awakening theKundalini. Mahabheda helps in taking the Kundalini higher up. When the Kundalini Sakti isawakened, the mind enters, along with Prana and Jiva, the Sushumna and all perceptions arein the mental space (Chidakasa). After Kundalini is awakened, Prana passes upwards throughSushumna or Brahma Nadi within the spinal cord, along with mind and Agni. The Yogin isfreed from physical consciousness. You are shut out from the external objective world. Assoon as Kundalini is awakened for the first time, a Yogin gets these six kinds ofexperiences which last for a short time, viz., Ananda (spiritual bliss), Kampana (tremorof various parts of the body), Udbhava (rising above the ground from his Asana), Ghurni(intoxication divine-the body moves in a circle), Nidra (sleep) and Murchha (fainting).After awakening the Kundalini, you will have to take it up to Sahasrara in the top of thehead.

When this Kundalini moves from Chakra to Chakra (from centre to centre), layer afterlayer of the mind opens up. The Yogin experiences different kinds of bliss (Ananda) ateach new centre. He gets different experiences also as well as different powers. He getscontrol over the five elements. He perceives the universe in its subtle or causal form. Hegets full knowledge of the types of various kinds of the causal plane. When Kundalinireaches the Sahasrara Chakra, you are in the Chidakasa (knowledge space).

Chapter 4

Mind And Food

“Aharasuddhau Sattvasuddhih
Sattvasuddhau Dhruva Smritih
Smritilabhe Sarvagrantheenam Vipramokshah.”

“When the food is pure, the whole nature becomes pure; when the nature becomespure, the memory becomes firm; and when a man is in possession of a firm memory, all theties are severed.”

(Chhandogya Upanishad, VII-xxvi-2)

Mind Is Made Of Food

Mind is manufactured out of the food that we take. Subtlest part of food reaches upwardto the heart and thence entering the arteries called the ‘Hita’, and thereby bringing intoexistence the aggregate of the organs of speech and being changed into the form of themind, it increases the mind. And thus, the mind, being increased by food, is material andnot eternal as held by the Vaiseshikas.

The Upanishadic philosophers believed that the mind depends upon the food for itsformation. “The food that we take is transformed in three different ways: the grossor the heaviest part of it becomes the excrement; that of medium density is transformedinto flesh and the finest part goes to form the mind.” (Chhandogya Upanishad, VI-v-1)”Just as in the churning of curd, its fine particles rise up and are transformed intobutter, so when food is consumed, the subtlest part rises up and is transformed intomind.” (Chhandogya Upanishad, VI-vi-1 & 2). Later, even in the days of theBhagavad-Gita, we find that the three different mental temperaments-the Sattvic, theRajasic and the Tamasic-were supposed to be due to the three different kinds of food whatwe eat. (Bhagavad-Gita, XVII-8 & 10).

Quality Of Mind Depends Upon Quality Of Food

Food has a direct and intimate connection with the mind and plays a vital part in themake-up of the mind. Sattvic diet calms the mind. Rajasic diet excites the mind. Mark thedifference in nature between a tiger which lives on flesh and a cow which lives on grass.Food exercises important influence on the mind. You see it clearly every day. It is verydifficult to control the mind after a heavy, sumptuous, indigestible, rice meal. The mindruns, wanders and jumps like a monkey all the time. Alcohol causes tremendous excitementin the mind.

Food plays an important role in meditation. For purposes of meditation, the food mustbe light, Sattvic and nutritious. The body is Annamaya (made up of food). Bhairavi Chakrais in Annamaya Kosha. Bhairavi Chakra is Maya. Light Sattvic food, such as fruits, milk,etc., takes you to Vishnu Chakra and thence to Nirvikalpa state quite easily.

When the quality of the mind depends upon the quality of the food taken, it is naturalto insist in the interest of the highest morality upon a kind of Sattvic regimen of dietfor those aspirants who lead a contemplative life and householders who are attempting tolead a spiritual life in the world. It was because Narada had his impurity destroyed thatthe venerable Sanatkumara pointed out to him the way beyond darkness. The way which leadsup beyond darkness, therefore, must be sought for in the purity of food, which involves inits train, the purity of mind.

Harmful Foods

Different foods produce different effects in different compartments of the brain.Spiced dishes, sour things, black gram, onions, garlic, tea, wine, fish, meat, mustardoil, etc., excite passions and emotions and should, therefore, be avoided. They should beparticularly avoided by a Sadhaka. A Jijnasu (spiritual aspirant) should strictly give upmeat, fish and alcoholic drinks as these make the mind coarse and produce excitement inthe mind. Heavy food brings Tandri (drowsiness) and Alasya (laziness). Tea should be givenup. It destroys Virya. Sugar must be taken in moderation. It is better if it is given up.

Food Items Helpful In Meditation

Milk, fruits, almonds, sugar-candy, butter, green oats, Bengal oats (Chenai) soaked inwater overnight, bread, etc., are all helpful in meditation. Thed, a kind of Kandamulafound in abundance in Brahmapuri, Vasishtha Guha and other parts of the Himalayas, is verySattvic. It helps meditation. My friend and spiritual brother Swami Purushottamanandajiused to live on that for some days when he was at Vasishtha Guha, fourteen miles from thereputed Rishikesh. Sunthi-Sevana (taking powder of dried ginger) is very good foraspirants. It can be taken along with milk. It refreshes the mind and helps digestion.Yogins take it very often. Triphala water also is taken by Yogins. It removesconstipation, cools the system and stops wet-dreams. Myrobalan or Haritaki (Harad of theyellow kind) can be chewed by Yogic practitioners very often. It preserves semen andchecks nocturnal discharges. Potatoes boiled without salt or roasted in fire are verygood.

A Note Of Caution

Evolution is better than revolution. Do not make sudden changes in anything,particularly in food. Let the change be gradual. The system should accommodate it withoutany hitch. Natura non facil saltum (nature never moves by leaps).

A Raja Yogin who wants to control the mind must be able to avoid the two extremes,viz., luxury and severe Tamasic Tapas. Too much fasting brings about extreme weakness. Youcannot do any Sadhana. You cannot think. You cannot ratiocinate. Take any food that suitsyou. Do not make much fuss about it. Any food that is readily available and that agreeswith your system is harmless.

When Food Can Be Dispensed With

Food is only a mass of energy. Water supplies energy to the body. Air also furnishesenergy. You can live without food for very many days, but you cannot live without air evenfor some minutes. Oxygen is even more important. What is wanted to support the body isenergy. If you can supply the energy from any other source, you can dispense with foodentirely. Yogins keep up the body without food by drinking nectar. This nectar flowsthrough a hole in the palate. It dribbles and nourishes the body. A Jnani can draw energydirectly from his pure, irresistible will and support the body without food. If you knowthe process of drawing the energy from the cosmic energy or solar energy, you can maintainthe body with this energy alone for any length of time and can dispense with food.

The Secret Of Madhukari Bhiksha

The mind is made out of the subtle essence of food. So it is attached to those personsfrom whom it receives the food. If you live with a friend for a couple of months and takefood with him, your mind gets attached to that friend who feeds you. That is the reasonwhy a Sannyasin lives on Madhukari Bhiksha from three to five houses, avoids attachmentand travels from village to village. He is not allowed to stay for more than a day in avillage during his Parivrajaka (wandering itinerant) life. The mind of a Paramahamsa whothus lives on alms is as clean as the Ganga water and is absolutely free from attachmentof any kind. ATTACHMENT BRINGS BONDAGE. Attachment is death. Attachment is the root of allevils.

Chapter 5

The Three Avasthas

Mind has got three Avasthas, viz., Jagrat (waking state), Svapna (dreaming state) andSushupti (deep sleep state).

Jagrat Avastha (waking State)

The individual soul (Jiva) is called awake as long as it is connected with the variousexternal objects by means of the modifications of the mind-which thus constitute limitingadjuncts of the soul-apprehends those external objects and identifies itself with thegross body which is one of those external objects. During waking state, the mind occupiesthe brain.

Svapna Avastha (dreaming State)

When the mind enters the Hita Nadi, which proceeds from the heart and surrounds thegreat membrane round the heart, which is as thin as a hair divided into thousand parts andis filled with the minute essence of various colours of white, black, yellow and red, theindividual soul or Jiva (ego) experiences the state of dream (Svapna Avastha).

In dream, the senses are thrown off just as you throw off your suit when going to bed.In dream state, the senses are quiet and absorbed in the mind. Mind alone plays duringdream. The mind alone operates in a free and unfettered manner. There is no land, no sea,no horse, no elephant in dream; but mind creates everything out of its own body, out ofthe materials supplied from waking consciousness. The mind itself assumes the variousforms of bee, flower, mountain, elephant, horse, river, etc. It is the subject. It is theobject as well. The seer and the seen are one.

The objects perceived in dreams are revivals of impressions received in waking stateand have an external reality only to the dreamer. When modified by the impressions whichthe external objects have left, the Jiva sees dreams. Perception takes place through theinternal organ called Manas; so it is called “inner perception.”

Every man has his own subjective mental world and his own dream-creatures. Thedream-creatures of a young lady are her husband and new-born babe. Her mind has two strongmental images, viz., those of her husband and baby. The mental images are strengthened byconstant thinking. The dream-creatures of a doctor are his patients, while those of abarrister are his clients.

There is temperamental difference. Some rarely get dreams. A Jnani who has Knowledge ofthe Self will not have any dream.

The Difference Between Jagrat And Svapna

The difference between the waking and the dreaming states consists in this, that in thewaking condition the mind depends on the outward impressions, while in the dreaming state,it creates its own impressions and enjoys them. It uses, of course, the materials of thewaking hours.

In Jagrat state, the objects exist independent of the mind. So, every day you see thesame objects as soon as you wake up from sleep. But in dreams, the objects of dream existonly so long as there is mind, so long as the dream lasts, because the dream-creatures aremanufactured out of mind only. In dream, mind itself creates the dream-creatures out ofthe materials supplied by waking experiences with some modifications. When mind drops downto waking state, all dream-objects vanish.

Waking State, A Long Dream

You dream that you are a king. You enjoy various kinds of royal pleasures. As soon asyou wake up, everything vanishes. But, you do not feel for the loss because you know thatthe dream-creatures are all false. Similarly, even in the waking consciousness if you arewell established in the idea that the world is a false illusion, you will not get anypain. When you know the real Tattva (Brahman), the waking consciousness also will becomequite false like a dream. Jagrat state is only a long dream (Dirgha Svapna). The state ofwaking consciousness does not exist either in dream or sleep. Therefore, it is illusory.Reality always exists in all conditions or states. Wake up and realise, my child!


Manorajya (building castles in the air), recollection of the events and things ofdream, recollection of things long past in the waking state are all Svapna-Jagrat(dreaming in the waking state).

Sushupti Avastha (deep Sleep State)

When the mind enters the Puritat Nadi, the state of deep sleep sets in. In DridhaSushupti (dreamless sleep), you have a cessation of empirical consciousness. There is noplay of the mind in this Avastha (state). There is neither Raga nor Dvesha (attraction orrepulsion, like or dislike). The mind gets Laya into its cause. Manolaya (involution ofthe mind) takes place. There is no play of the Indriyas (organs, senses) too.

This state of profound sleep is not a complete non-being or negative, for such ahypothesis conflicts with the later recollections of a happy repose of sleep. The selfcontinues to exist, though it is bereft of all experiences. The consciousness iscontinuous. You feel you have existed even during sleep as soon as you are awake. You feelthat you exist always. Vedantins build their philosophy around this Sushupti Avastha. Thisstage gives them the clue to the non-dual state (Advaitic state). A careful study of thethree states-Jagrat, Svapna and Sushupti (waking, dreaming and deep sleep)-is of immensepractical use for the clear understanding of the Vedanta.

Says Ajata Satru to Gargya in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (II-i-16): “Where was thespirit whose nature is like knowledge at the time when one profoundly sleeps? When thespirit whose nature is like knowledge thus profoundly slept, then the ether in the midstof the heart, drawing in, together with the knowledge of the senses, slept therein in theether. When the spirit draws in that (knowledge of the senses), then he sleeps indeed.Thus, life is drawn in, speech is drawn in, the eye is drawn in, the ear is drawn in andthe mind is drawn in.”

When, on the cessation of the two limiting adjuncts (i.e., the subtle and the grossbodies) and the consequent absence of the modifications due to the adjuncts, the Jiva isin the state of deep sleep, merged in the self as it were, then it is said to be asleep.”When a man sleeps here, then my dear, he becomes united with the Sat; he is gone tohis own self. Therefore, they say of him, ‘He sleeps (Svapiti), because he is gone to hisown (Svamapiti)’.” (Chhandogya Upanishad)

Sankara observes that the phenomena of duality caused by the action of the mind arepresent in the waking and dreaming states only, but absent in deep sleep state. In wakingand dreaming states, there is the play of the thoughts (and the simultaneous occurrence ofnames and forms) and hence the world as well. In dreamless sleep, there are no thoughts;and hence, there is no world too. We taste the nature of absolute bliss in dreamlesssleep, where a man is cut off from the distracting world. It is the mind (lower Manas)that creates differences, distinctions, duality and separateness. If this mind isdestroyed by increasing the Sattva and Ahangraha Upasana, then you will feel onenesseverywhere (Sarvatmabhava). This needs continuous and strenuous efforts on the part of theSadhakas.

Degree Of Consciousness In The Three States

In sleep, some action or other is always going on in your mental or vital being; thingshappen there and they govern waking consciousness. For instance, some are very anxious toperfect themselves and make a great effort in this direction during the day. They go tosleep and when they rise the next day, they find no trace of the gains of their previousday’s efforts; they have to traverse the same ground once again. This means that theeffort, and whatever achievement there was, belonged to the mere superficial or wakefulparts of the being, but there were deeper and dormant parts that were not touched. Insleep, you fell into the grip of these unconscious regions and they opened and swallowedall that you had laboriously built up in your conscious hours.

Be conscious. Be conscious of the night as well as of the day. First, you will have toget consciousness, afterwards control. Such of you as remember your dreams may have hadthis experience that sometimes, even while dreaming, you knew it was a dream; you knewthat it was an experience that did not belong to the material world. Once you know, youcan act there in the same way as in the material world. Even in the dreaming state, youcan exercise your conscious will and change the whole course of your dream experience.And, as you become more and more conscious, you will begin to have the same control overyour being at night as you have during the daytime, perhaps even more. For, at night, youare free from slavery to the mechanism of the body. The control over the processes of thebody-consciousness is more difficult, since they are more rigid, less amenable to changethan are the mental or the vital processes. At night, the mental and vital parts of yourbeing, especially the vital ones, are very active. During the day, they are under check;the physical consciousness automatically replaces their free play and expression. Insleep, this check is removed and they come out with their natural and free movements.

Sushupti And Advaita Nishtha Distinguished

In sleep, the mind is in a subtle state. The Vrittis have also assumed a subtle state.But, in Advaita (Vedantic) Nishtha, there is no mind. There is no universe. The worldsinks down in Brahman (Prapanchopasamam)-(Vide Mandukya Upanishad, II-1).

The Supreme Self In The Three Avasthas

The Supreme Self which has four forms, is inside the bodies of all living beings and isknown by the names Visva, Taijasa, Prajna and Turiya. The seat of the Visva is the righteye; within the Manas dwells Taijasa, (Manasyantastu Taijasah -Gaudapada’s Karikaon the Mandukya Upanishad), while Prajna resides in the ether of the heart. The objects ofenjoyment are of three kinds-gross, subtle and bliss itself. Satisfaction is alsothreefold.

Jagaritasthano Bahishprajnah Saptanga Ekonavimsatimukhah Sthulabhuk VaisvanarahPrathamah Padah-The first foot of Omkara is Vaisvanara, whose region is the wakingstate, who has objective consciousness, who has seven limbs1 and nineteen mouths2 and who enjoys grossobjects.” (Mandukya Upanishad, I-3). The objective mind or conscious mind plays inthe waking state.

Svapnasthano’ntahprajnah Saptanga Ekonavimsatimukhah Praviviktabhuk TaijasoDvitiyah Padah-The second foot of Omkara is the Taijasa, whose region is dream, whohas subjective consciousness, who has seven limbs and nineteen mouths and who enjoyssubtle objects.” (Mandukya Upanishad, I-4). Taijasa is the reflected Chaitanya orconsciousness associated with the dream state. Taijasa is the enjoyer of the subtle world.The subjective mind and false ego play in dreams.

“Yatra Supto Na Kanchana Kamam Kamayate Na Kanchana Svapnam Pasyati TatSushuptam Sushuptasthana Ekeebhutah Prajnanaghana Evanandamayo Hyanandabhuk ChetomukhahPrajnastritiyah Padah-The third foot of Omkara is the Prajna, whose region is deepsleep, in whom all melt into one, who is a mass of knowledge, who is full of bliss, whoenjoys bliss and who is the door (to the two states of consciousness-waking and dreaming).That is the state of deep sleep wherein the sleeper does not desire anything and does notsee any dream.” (Mandukya Upanishad, I-5). The mind with the Vasanas rests in deepsleep in Mukhya Prana (chief vital air) in the heart. Mukhya Prana means Brahman. All theVrittis assume a Sukshma state.

1. The seven limbs are: (i) Heaven (is His head), (ii) Sun (is His eye), (iii)Wind (is His breath), (iv) Akasa (is His waist), (v) Water (is His pelvis), (vi) Fire (isHis mouth) and (vii) Earth (is His feet).

2. The nineteen mouths are: FiveJnana-Indriyas, five karma-Indriyas, five Pranas and four Antahkaranas (Manas, Buddhi,Chitta and Ahankara).

Chapter 6

The Three Gunas

Gunas And Vrittis

The mind has three Gunas, viz., Sattva (light, bliss, goodness), Rajas (passion,motion) and Tamas (inertia, darkness). There are three Vrittis in the mind correspondingto the three Gunas. Santa Vritti (peace) comes out of Sattva Guna, Ghora Vritti from RajoGuna and Mudha Vritti from Tamo Guna. Equilibrium or balance is Santa Vritti; anger isGhora Vritti; laziness (Alasya), carelessness (Pramada) and drowsiness (Tandri) are MudhaVrittis.

Characteristics Of Sattva Guna

Sattva Guna is purity. It is Prakasa (illumination, light). Sattva Guna is a forcefavourable for the attainment of Moksha. Daivi Sampat-virtues such as fearlessness, purityof heart, etc.,-will confer liberation on you. The effect of Sattva Guna is Brahmavichara(enquiry or search for Truth; differentiation between Sat and Asat, what is real and whatis unreal.)

A Sattvic mind is always steady. It finds delight internally. It may stick to one placeindefinitely. It keeps friendship with persons for a long, long time. It can read the Gitaor the Yogavasishtha any number of days. It can live on Dal-roti for years togetherwithout any grumbling.

During Sattvic moments, when there is preponderance of pure Sattva in the mind, you arein touch with the Divine Source owing to the cleanness of the mind-mirror. You will getinspiration. You will compose beautiful poetry, etc. Preserve those inspired writings. Jotthem down in your notebook.

Sattvapatti is a state of mind wherein the mind is full of Sattva or purity. There ispurity of thought (Bhava-Samsuddhi) and purity of heart (Sattva-Samsuddhi). It is thefourth Jnana-Bhumika or fourth stage of Jnana.

Characteristics Of Rajo Guna

Rajo Guna is a hostile force to pull you down into Samsara. Asuri Sampat-vices likeDambha, Darpa, Krodha, etc.-will drag you down into hell. A mind endowed with Sattva Gunawill make a man still and inactive, while a mind with Rajo Guna will make him restless. Itwill not allow him to sit idle and will force him to work.

The Rajasic mind always wants new sensations and variety. It likes certain persons,objects and places now and, after some time, it becomes disgusted with them and wants newpersons for company, new vegetables to eat, new books to read and new places to see (findspleasure in sightseeing).

The mind of Rajasic type wants always company and talk. These are the two defects whichdistract the mind much. Avoid company. Live alone. Observe Mouna. You will get peace ofmind. Most of the pain comes from bad company. Be careful in the selection of yourcompanions. You will rarely find a good, sincere friend. Never take a friend into yourclose confidence without testing him for a long time. There is no company or talk inBrahman who is Asanga and Asabda.

The Rajasic mind has a tendency to look into the defects of others. It also remembersthe bad deeds or wrongs done by others and forgets easily their good acts. These twotendencies intensify hatred and cause frequent disturbance in the mind.

A mind which is devoid of Sattva Guna will not be good enough to consider others’happiness as its own and will, therefore, be ever reeling. Again, as this mind has not thecomplacency to rejoice at another’s virtues, there is no internal contentment. Then, as itdoes not consider others’ sufferings as its own, there arises in it no compassion forthem.

It is the Rajasic mind that splits, separates, divides and deceptively shows plurality(Nanatva). The sun is one. The moon is one. Akasa is one. The idea behind languages isone. The feeling of sincerity is one. There is no inside or outside. Husband and wifebecome one in heart. Intimate friends are one in heart. Matter is one. Energy is one.Sattvic mind is one. It unifies. Cosmic Mahat is one. Karma (law of cause and effect) isone. Dharma is one. Religion is one. Truth is one. Brahman is one. Ekameva AdvitiyamBrahma (Brahman is one without a second).

Intense Rajas takes Sattvic turn. Dacoit Ratnakar became the sage Valmiki. Jagai andMadhai, who were intensely Rajasic and who pelted stones at Lord Gouranga, became hisfirst disciples.

Importance Of Sattva Guna

The real peace of mind does not come from outside. It is produced in the same mind whenthe mind is controlled and its thoughts are checked. You must put forth great efforts tocheck the passions and desires. Then alone will your aptitude for activity be subdued andyou will be at rest and your thoughts will be stilled. Develop, therefore, Sattva Guna byJapa, Vichara, Satsanga, meditation, light Sattvic food, Tapas and Svadhyaya.

An ordinary worldly-minded man can hardly hear the inner voice of Atman. He cannot getpure thoughts or Vichara (enquiry into Self) also. Every Sattvic (pure) thought emanatesfrom Sattvic Buddhi (pure intellect). In the case of worldlings, all thoughts proceed fromthe mind only. He who does Nishkama Karma Yoga (selfless service) and has purity of themind, begins to entertain thoughts of God and meditation. Generally, the mind raisesvarious sorts of curious, fantastic thoughts. It deludes all. It may pretend to do Vicharaalso. But, when it comes to actual practice, it will do nothing. If there is a seriousdetermination in you to concentrate and, if you put it into actual practice for monthssteadily and, if the longing for Darshana of God or Self-realisation becomes keen andacute, then alone think that all these kinds of thoughts proceed from your Sattvic Buddhionly.

All Sadhanas aim at the development of Sattva Guna and the attainment of pure,irresistible Will. This will bring about Avidya Nivritti (removal of ignorance) andParamananda-Prapti (Sat-Chit-Ananda state). Increase of Sattva Guna and pure, strong,determined Will pave a long way in achieving God-realisation.

In the world also, there are persons with a few Sattvic virtues such as patience,generosity, forgiveness, etc. But, a spiritual aspirant tries to develop the mind as awhole, to acquire all Sattvic virtues.

Chapter 7

The Psychic States

Sit in silence in a solitary room and watch the various mental phenomena, mentalstates, moods, impulses, emotions, sentiments, whims, fancies that occur in the mind. Itwill be of absorbing interest to study the subtle states of the inner psychic world.


There are two powerful instincts in the human beings and animals too. They are theinstinct of self-preservation and the instinct of reproduction. Hunger is a manifestationof the self-preserving instinct. Lust is a manifestation of reproductive instinct. Aninstinct is an involuntary prompting to action.

The Jiva or the individual soul with egoism wants power, name and fame. This is forself-aggrandisement. Exploitation is greed. It is the act of using for selfish purposes.Domineering is to command haughtily. The Jiva wants to exercise power over others. This isJiva-Bhavana. The rootcause for industries, business, commerce, etc., is greed andself-preservation. If you want to have constant Brahma-Bhavana, you will have to give upexploitation and domineering.

There is another third instinct, viz., the herding instinct (the instinct for company).Woman take delight in the company of men. Men take delight in the company of women. Therootcause for this is reproductive instinct. Another reason is that a weak man gainsstrength in the company of a strong man. But, a man who wants to realise God should shunruthlessly company-particularly, the company of women and worldly-minded persons. Heshould live alone. Then he will become very powerful and strong. He will develop a strongindividuality. One will find difficulty in the beginning in the practice of living alone.Fear will come in. You will have to overcome all difficulties, one by one, if you want toattain immortality (Amritatva). The reward is very great: Brahmavit Paramapnoti (AKnower of Brahman gets the Highest); Amritamasnute (He drinks the nectar ofimmortality).


An impulse is a sudden propelling force. There are three kinds of impulses, viz.,impulses of thought, impulses of speech and impulses of action. Mouna (silence) checks theimpulse of speech. Meditation checks the impulse of wrong thinking and wrong action.

There are two important impulses. They are the sex-impulse and the impulse of speech.There is an intimate relation between impulse and imagination. Imagination induces theimpulse. Impulses must be controlled by reason and will and meditation on God.


An emotion is a combination of thought and desire. Every idea is charged with emotion.Emotions are desires which are penetrated by the thought element. In other words, emotionis desire mingled with thought. The vibrations of emotions will arouse correspondingexcitement in purely mental matter and all the man’s thoughts will be disturbed anddistorted.

There is emotion-desire. There is emotion-feeling also. If the desire element ispredominant, it is emotion-desire. If the pleasure element is predominant, it isemotion-feeling.

Raga and Dvesha (love and hatred) are the two important emotions of the mind and allthe different emotions can be classified under these two headings. Wonder is a compoundemotion. It is admiration and fear combined. Reverence is a compound emotion. It is aweand respect combined. Amarsha is a compound emotion. It is anger and jealousy combined. Assoon as the man is pulled down to a lower level, the anger of the inferior man who wasjealous vanishes.

Pleasure is a particular kind of emotion in the mind. The mind expands during pleasure.Coolness prevails in the mind. What takes place of the mind when pleasure feeling arisesis not exactly understood by the western psychologists. It is incapable of beingunderstood also by ordinary persons. Only a Yogi or a Jnani knows this psychic phenomenon.During pain, the mind contracts. Considerable heat is produced in the mind.

Many of the physical desires and emotions in man are akin to those of the loweranimals. Anger and sex-impulse in man are the brutal instincts. In the undeveloped man,these desires and emotions which belong to the lower nature (Aparaprakriti) predominateand overpower the higher nature (Paraprakriti).

It is a symptom of weakness to have emotions in the mind. They should be controlled bythe intellect and the will.

How To Control Emotions And Impulses

When emotions and impulses trouble you much, be indifferent (Udasina). Say to yourself:”Who am I? I am not the mind. I am Atman (all-pervading Spirit, SuddhaSat-Chit-Ananda. How can emotions affect me? I am Nirlipta (unattached). I am a Sakshi(witness) of these emotions. Nothing can disturb me.” When you repeat thesesuggestions of Vichara, the emotions will die by themselves. This Jnana method ofcontrolling emotions is easier than the Yogic method of driving the emotions andstruggling with the mind (Yogas-chittavritti-nirodhah).


Religious sentiment, moral sentiment, aesthetic sentiment (or sentiment for the sublimeand the beautiful) are the three important sentiments of the mind. Feeling and sentimentsare illusory. They are not in Atman. They are deceptions created by the mind.


Mood is a mental state. The Sanskrit term is Bhava. This term also does not express thetrue significance of the word ‘mood’. We say, “Mr. Naidu or Mr. Atkinson is a moodygentleman.” This means he becomes a slave of the mood quickly. We also say,”That gentleman is in ‘good mood’ or ‘happy mood.’ ” “I can approach himnow for a short interview or talk” or “He is in a very ‘angry mood.’ I shouldnot see him now.”

The English people, during the course of their conversation, use the term ‘mood’ in abroad sense. They say: “He is in a talking mood”; “He is in a silentmood”; “He is in a mood of hatred”; “He is in a mood of love”;”He is in a mood of selfishness”; “He is in a mood of jealousy”;”He is in a mood of separateness”; “He is in a mood of unity.” In thelight of Vedanta, these are all Vrittis (thoughts or emotions) only. Dr. Bhagavan Das, thereputed author of “Science of Emotions” classifies these under emotions only.

The Two Kinds Of Moods And Their Effects

In Vedanta, there are only two kinds of moods, viz., Harsha (joy, exultation orexhilaration) and Soka (grief or depression). In the mind, these two kinds of moodsprevail. Now there is joy. Five minutes later, there is depression. These currentsalternate. They belong to the Shad-Urmis (six waves). They are two waves that affect themind-ocean.

People of gloomy moods attract to them gloomy things and gloomy thoughts from othersand from the Akasic records in the physical ether. Persons with hope, confidence andcheerful spirits attract thoughts of similar nature from others. They are alwayssuccessful in their attempts.

People with negative moods of depression, anger, hatred do positive injury to others.They infect others and raise these destructive Vrittis in others. They are culpable. Theydo great damage in the thought-world. People with happy and cheerful moods are a blessingto society. They bring happiness to others.

Just as a young, beautiful lady covers her face and does not like to come out to mixwith others in society when she has a nasty festering sore on her cheeks or nose, so alsoyou should not come in public and mix with your friends and other people when you have amood of depression, a mood of hatred or jealousy. For, you will infect others with thesemoods. You are a menace to society.

How To Control Negative Moods

Sadhakas should try to eradicate depression by prayer, meditation, counter-thoughts ofjoy, chanting of Om, Vichara and singing divine songs. Never give room for gloomydepression. Repeat Om with Bhava. Repeat “I am Ananda-maya,” “My Svarupa isAnanda.” Depression will vanish. There are various causes for this depression. Cloudyday, association with evil persons, indigestion, influence by astral spirits, revival ofold Samskaras of depression-all these induce depression.

When you get a talking mood, practise at once ‘Mouna’ (silence). This is an antidote tothe talking mood. When you are in a mood of hatred, develop the opposite virtue of love.This mood will pass off quickly. When you are in the mood of selfishness, begin to doselfless work. When you are in the mood of separateness, try to mix with others throughservice, love, kindness and Kshama. When you are in the mood of laziness, do at once somekind of active work, drawing water, gardening, running, brisk walk or biking, etc.

A Jivanmukta is absolutely free from all moods. He has controlled all moods completely.He has become a master of all these moods. In Atman, there are no moods. It is pureconsciousness. Identify with Atman. You can destroy all moods very easily.

The Meditative Mood

But, there is one good mood in those who practise meditation. It is termed the”meditative mood.” Those who practise concentration and meditation feel thiskind of mood. When this mood manifests, you must immediately give up reading, writing,talking, etc. You must immediately sit on the usual Asana (posture) and begin to meditate.Meditation will come by itself without effort. This mood is very favourable forcontemplation. Watch for this kind of mood. If light disturbs you, close the windows orput on a curtain along the window. Dark room is favourable for the beginners inmeditation.

Whims And Fancies

A whim corresponds to the term ‘Taranga’ in Sanskrit. Taranga means a wave. When asudden change arises in the mind, it is a whim. Whims are Tarangas that arise in the mind.They rise up and break quickly. They drag you hither and thither. They upset you.

Everybody has his own whims. Very often you say, “He is a whimsical man,”when anyone is swayed by whims. Whim is also termed caprice. Eccentricity is anexaggerated form of whim. Whim tosses a man hither and thither, if he yields to it.Whimsical actions bring on misery. It is through whim that mind tempts and deceives men.Mind cheats through whims. Whims should be checked by reason.

Do not do actions through whims. Action must be done through Viveka and wisdom. Destroywhims as soon as they arise, through Vichara. Always enquire whether the proposed actionwill bring you pleasure and spiritual gain or not. Be on the alert.

The word ‘whim’ always goes with the term fancy. We say, “whims and fancies.”A fancy is a phase of the intellectual faculty of a lighter and less impressive cast thanthe imagination of the active play of this lighter faculty. Fancy is a new and pleasingthought or conception due to this faculty. Fancy is a form of imagination. It helps apoet, but not an aspirant. It is a hindrance in meditation. It builds castles in the air.Check it by Vichara and Viveka.

Just as waves and ripples rise on the surface of the ocean, whims, various caprices,fancies and wrong determinations also arise on the surface of the mind-ocean. The whimsrepresent the ripples. You need not be afraid of these. They come and pass off quickly.You must be careful about the strong waves, wrong determinations. The strong thoughts mustbe eradicated by strong Vichara and proper reasoning.


Prakriti never creates a vacuum in the mind. If one anxiety or worry is over, anotheranxiety immediately manifests. Mind can never become vacant. It has got infinitepreoccupations.

Carefully mark the ways of the mind. It tempts, exaggerates, magnifies, infatuates,unnecessarily alarms through vain imagination, vain fear, vain worries and vainforebodings. It tries its level best to divert you from concentration on your Lakshya.

It took me many years to understand thoroughly the subtle workings of the mind. Mindworks havoc through its power of imagination. Imaginary fears of various sorts,exaggeration, concoction, mental dramatisation, building castles in the air, are all dueto this power of imagination. Even a perfect, healthy man has some imaginary disease orother due to the power of imagination of the mind. Much energy is wasted on account ofimaginary fears.

When his mind is fully occupied with the affairs of the war, the soldier does not feelany serious injury as a gunshot wound in the leg. He is not aware of the loss of a largequantity of blood also. He is filled with enthusiasm. He is not conscious of his body-soto say-for the time being. When the excitement is over, when he sees some blood-spots onhis clothing or when some of his friends points out to him the wound in the leg, he getsthe consciousness. Then he is alarmed a bit. The power of imagination plays havoc now. Hegets a collapse now. The power of imagination always exaggerates.

A man may have a little weakness. When he becomes your enemy, you at once exaggerateand magnify his weakness and Dosha. You even superimpose on this or concoct many moreweaknesses and Doshas. This is due to evil imagination on your part.

Whenever the mind of two friends are strained by ill-feelings, these minds begin toexaggerate and concoct things. Fault-finding increases. It is very difficult to get at thetruth of the statements of these two broken friends with broken friendship. Theirutterances are always coloured by their inner feelings. The power of imagination doeshavoc now. Maya plays havoc through the mind and its power of imagination.

Mind tempts and deceives. Think of one as a good friend of yours and there the thing iscreated as a reality. Think of him as your foe and then also the mind perfects the thoughtinto an actuality. He who knows the working of the mind and has controlled it by practiceis really happy.

I shall explain to you the nature of “mental dramatisation.” Mark the ways ofthe mind. During conversation with your friends, the mind sometimes imagines in vain thatit has hurt the feelings of your friend. It spends much of its energy in unnecessaryfeeling. You think: “How can I see him tomorrow morning? He may be displeased withme.” Next morning when you meet him, nothing happens. Your friend starts a pleasantconversation and smiles. You are surprised. To your great astonishment, the subject oftalk takes quite a different turn altogether. A family-man imagines when a severe epidemicof plague ravages: “What shall I do if my wife develops plague and dies now? I havegot six children.” This is his vain imagination. Nothing happens. Sometimes, when thetrain moves slowly on the Pamban Bridge over the sea near Ramesvaram, the mind imagines,”If the bridge gives way now, what will become of me? I shall be smashed topieces.” A touch of fear creeps in. There are thousand and one ways of mentaldramatisation like these. The power of imagination plays a vital part in mentaldramatisation.

When your mind is deeply concentrated, period of two hours passes like five minutes. Ifthe mind is distracted and wandering, half an hour hangs on as two hours. This iseverybody’s experience. In dream also, many events that represent a period of fifty yearstake place within ten minutes. Through the play of the mind, a Kalpa is considered by itas a moment and vice versa. Time is but a mode of the mind. It is Kala Sakti. It isalso illusory like the objects.

Through the trick of the mind, one furlong at times appears to be a great distance andthree miles at other times appear to be a very short distance. You ought to have notedthis in your daily life.

Marichi Chaitanya, M.A., Ph.D., a Brahmachari of Rumania and myself sat for dinner inthe Kailasa Kutia, Svarga Ashram, on the bank of the Ganga. A dish of potato soup wasserved. Marichi, who has no idea of Indian preparations, took it for a soup of meat. Thecolour and appearance of the potato soup was exactly the same as that of meat-soup. Thisis a case of “mental projection.” Marichi projected the idea of meat from hisown Samskara within the mind into the potato-soup. Mental projections are all false.

Kalpana in the mind means mental creation or imagination. This is the real Yogamaya.You will have to destroy these various Kalpanas. This is the aim of all the spiritualSadhanas. Then you will be established in Nirvikalpa state of bliss. Pure Nivritti isneeded to attain this after you have got Chitta-Suddhi through Nishkama-Karma Yoga.

Temperament And How It Can Be Modified

There are secretions from endocrine glands which are ductless viz., Thyroid, Thymus,Parotid, Pineal, Suprarenal, etc. These secretions are directly absorbed into the blood.They play a vital part in constituting the temperament of every individual. Thetemperament of a man can be greatly modified by environments, education and experience. Itcan hardly be changed in toto. That is the reason why the Gita says: “SadrisamCheshtate Svasyah Prakriter-Jnanavanapi-Even the man of knowledge behaves inconformity with nature” (Gita, III-33).

Chapter 8

The Mental Faculties

The Power Of The Human Mind

If you closely study the action of mind upon mind, of mind over matter, of mind overthe human body, you will find that each man is a power in himself. You will have todevelop the potential faculties by self-restraint and mastery over the passions. When mindis so much powerful, what to speak anything of the glory of Atman, who is the storehouseof everything, who is the infinite, inexhaustible central magazine of power, knowledge andbliss from whom the little mind borrows its light and power!

Illustrations Of The Power Of Mind

Whenever any fire-accident or any other kind of accident occurs, how agile and nimbleyou are! Do you not exhibit wonderful powers? You jump over a huge wall, save manychildren, run amidst fire boldly and carry things. All psychic faculties, memory,imagination, will, etc., are at play. Chivalry, intrepidity, undaunted spirit, mercy andvarious other noble virtues are exhibited by you. Wherefrom did you draw these facultiesand powers? From this, you can conclude that you are, in reality, all-powerful. There is abig, magnanimous magazine of power inside. Go to the source by meditation and tap it. Youwill get everything. Rely on the Self within.

If you get a telegram at 12 a.m. on a hot day in summer, which informs you that yourfather is seriously ailing in your native village which is twenty miles distant, at onceyou leave even your food and begin to gallop. Though you yourself are not in good healthat that time, you do not mind anything as you are very anxious to see your loving father.You even run the whole distance and reach the place within a couple of hours. Then youbegin to wonder, “What! I was myself very sick. The day was very hot. I have covereda distance of twenty miles within two hours. What a marvel it is!” This clearly showsthat you are, in reality, all-powerful. The mind possesses various kinds of powers andfaculties. They lie dormant. You will have to awaken them.

The Six Important Powers Of Mind

There are three Saktis (powers, potencies) in the mind, viz., Ichha Sakti (Will), KriyaSakti (Action) and Jnana Sakti (Knowledge). A desire arises in the mind. This is IchhaSakti. The mind exerts to have this desire gratified. This is Kriya Sakti. It plans,schemes and finds out methods, etc., for the achievement of the desired object. This isJnana Sakti.

Vedana-Sakti (power of perception), Smarana-Sakti or Smriti-Sakti (power of memory),Bhavana-Sakti (Power of imagination), Manisha-Sakti (power of judgment), Ichha-Sakti orSankalpa-Sakti (will or volition) and Dharana-Sakti (power to hold) are the six importantpowers of the mind.


Vedana-Sakti is power of cognition or sensation or power of perception and knowingthrough Indriyas or senses (Indriya-Jnana or sense-knowledge).


The Smriti-Sakti does three things. It grasps. It holds. It brings to memory whenever athing is needed. Though the power of grasping is done by the Vedana-Sakti of the mind(power of perception or cognition), the Smriti-Sakti also participates in the act ofgrasping.

Suppose you hear the sound of a bell in the temple. The memory Sakti grasps it. Then itretains it through Dharana. When you hear again the sound of the temple bell, it at oncereminds you, “This is the temple bell. This is not the hostel bell.”

In Dhyana, the mind grasps and takes possession of its perceptions or judgments. Itmakes the content of the idea its own. It strengthens the Samskaras so that a voluntaryrecall is rendered easy.


You have never seen an elephant riding a cycle. When a man, who has actually seen it,gives you a description, your mind forms a mental picture at once. This is done by theBhavana-Sakti (power of imagination) of the mind.


Power of comparing and contrasting, drawing inferences, discussion, conclusion, allbelong to Manisha-Sakti of the mind. The Manisha-Sakti (power of judgment) has got twosubdivisions, viz., Nirnaya (ascertainment) and Tarka (logical reasoning).

A is mortal. B is mortal. C is mortal. Again, all men are mortal. Mr. Choudhary is aman. Therefore, Choudhary is mortal. These sorts of drawing conclusions through inductiveand deductive logic with major and minor premises and middle term or through the fiveparts of syllogistic reasoning of Gautama Rishi’s Indian Logic (Nyaya) are done byManisha-Sakti of the mind with the help of Nirnaya and Tarka.

Tarka has got two other subdivisions, viz., Anumana (inference) and Paramarsa(discussion). When you see a river in full flood in the morning, you infer that thereought to have been rain during previous night. When you see smoke on the hills, you inferthat there ought to be fire also on the hill. This is due to Anumana.


Will is Atma-Sakti. It is the dynamic aspect of Brahman. Will is Brahman in motion. InVedanta, will plays a very conspicuous part.

Much has been said about the power of imagination in the West-that it is the mosttremendous power in the human mind and that in a conflict between the will and theimagination, the imagination would invariably win the day.

Some people say that the will is greater than imagination. In the East, amongst theVedantins, will is regarded as a greater faculty than imagination. What would theimagination do without the impelling power of the will to execute with dynamic power thedesires, wishes and ideals?

There is correlation, co-ordination and co-operation between the different principlesin the mind. Therefore, who can say which is great or small, important or unimportant wheneach depends upon the other for its power? It cannot be truly said that the one is greaterthan the other, for their independence and power are derived from one another.


Dharana-Sakti (power to hold) is really a part of memory or Smarana-Sakti. In commonparlance, we say, “Mr. Ramakrishna is a man of good Dharana in Vedanta.” Here itmeans that Mr. Ramakrishna has got fixed and steady ideas in Vedanta. He cannot be changedby anybody. He is not of a wavering nature. He sticks to Vedanta alone. Nobody can shakehim.


Apperception is the mind’s perception of itself as a conscious agent. The principle ofapperception is just like a mail clerk of consciousness receiving, sorting out,correlating, arranging, pigeon-holing, associating and sending out messages.

How To Unfold The Latent Powers Of Mind

There are many higher mental faculties latent in man. Mind is a magazine of power. Theunfoldment of these latent, psychic powers is possible through proper Sadhana. The Sadhanashould be systematic, constant and intense. The student also must have reached the properstage of development. There must be genuine Sraddha also. Then only sanguine success ispossible.

Chapter 9

The Three Doshas

Milk is agreeable to some and disagreeable to others. There is nothing wrong with themilk itself. Surely, there is something wrong with the mind. Doubtless, there is a defectin the mind. The view of a child when it sees its mother is that she is its supporter,nourisher and giver of all comforts. The husband of the woman regards her as an object ofenjoyment. A tiger, when it sees the same woman, regards her as its prey. The object,woman, remains the same. The viewpoint differs in these three cases owing to the Dosha ofthe mind.

Dosha means fault or defect. Mala (impurity), Vikshepa (tossing), Avarana (veil ofignorance) are the threefold defects of the mind.

The mind is tossed about among objects of love and hatred like a light feather in astormy wind. It ever whirls far and wide in vain among sensual objects away from theassociation with the wise, like a strolling city dog; but, no results accrue therefrom.This baneful mind whirls at the sight of its much-coveted immense wealth. This ferociousdog of mind, following its mate of desire, ever preys upon poor, ignorant worldlings as oncarcasses. It will flit in a moment from Howrah to Paris and from Colombo to Berlin. Notresting on any object firmly, it is characterised by an excessive fluctuating power. Itwill fluctuate and be confused, will flit away from an object and then return to it, willrejoice in vain and be intoxicated with Ahankara. A mind becomes a prey to fear throughits fluctuation.

The mind should be rendered fit for salvation, fit to approach its Adhishthana(substratum), its father, Brahman. Remove the three Doshas.

Mala (such as Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada, Matsarya) is removed by doing NishkamaKarma. Mala means sin also.

Vikshepa is removed by Upasana, Trataka, Pranayama and Raja Yoga.

Avarana is removed by Jnana, study of Vedantic literature, Nididhyasana andAbheda-Chintana after duly understanding the right significance of the Mahavakya,”Tat Tvam Asi.”

Without hankering after paltry, terrestrial, things and causing your mind to fluctuatethereby, may you be immovable as a rock! Those who have no lower impulses drive awayrebirths to a great distance from them.

Study the nature of the mind. Analyse the mind carefully. Get rid of the three Doshasof the mind, viz., Mala, Vikshepa and Avarana. Purify the mind. Steady the mind. Fix themind on God or Brahman. Get the mind dissolved in God by constant and intense thinking.Practise the Sadhana of Manonasa. Rise above the deceptions and temptations of the mind.This is your duty. You are born for this only; all other duties are self-created andself-imposed owing to Avidya or ignorance.

Chapter 10

Suddha Manas And Asuddha Manas

Through the discriminating mind, the lower mind is powerfully mastered by the wise.

Uddharet-atmana-atmanam-Let him raise the self by the Self.” (Gita,VI-5)

The Two Kinds Of Mind

Suddha Manas or Sattvic mind (pure mind) and Asuddha (impure) Manas or the instinctivemind or desire-mind as it is called are the two kinds of mind according to Upanishadicteaching. There is the lower mind filled with passion. There is the higher mind filledwith Sattva (purity). There are two minds. You will have to make it into one-Sattvic mindonly-if you want to meditate. It is through the higher or Sattvic mind that you will haveto control the lower or instinctive mind of passions and emotions.

There are two kinds of Buddhi also-Vyavaharic Buddhi and pure Buddhi. There are twokinds of Aham or Ahankara, viz., Suddha Aham which identifies with Brahman(Sat-Chit-Ananda) and Asuddha Aham which identifies with the body. There are two kinds ofSankalpa (resolve, conation), viz., Suddha Sankalpa (thoughts of God) and Asuddha Sankalpa(thoughts of body and the world).

The Asuddha Manas which creates Asuddha Sankalpa, the Vyavaharic Buddhi and AsuddhaAhankara-all these three form a vicious circle. These three work in co-operation. The seedof the mind is Ahankara. Mind is merely a bundle of thoughts. Of all thoughts, the ‘I’thought is the root thought. It is the first thought also that emanated from the mind.Therefore, mind is only the thought ‘I’. Buddhi is the basis of Ahankara. It is Buddhithat forces you to identify yourself with the physical body. It is Buddhi that createsdifference (Bheda) and Nana Bhava (the idea of many in the world).

Characteristics Of The Sattvic Mind

A Sattvic mind like solitude, silence, simple living, high thinking, study of spiritualbooks, philosophical discussions, concentration of mind and company of Sadhus, Mahatmasand Sannyasins. A stainless mind can be judged through speech, face and eyes. Throughthese expressions, the opinion can be formed whether a person has stainless mind. Higherdesires, noble aspirations, lofty ideals, true religious feeling, mercy, sympathy, pureunselfish love, devotion, Vichara (Atmic enquiry), inspiration, genius-all come from thehigher, pure Sattvic mind. Suddha Manas (pure mind) is Brahman itself. It is an embodimentof purity itself.

Characteristics Of The Rajasic Mind

A Rajasic mind likes crowded cities, much talking, luxurious life, low thinking, thecompany of women, study of romantic novels, eating dainty dishes and selfish works.Instinctive mind is the lower, impure Kama Manas with desires, passions and appetities.The vast majority of persons have this instinctive mind only. Even the so-called civilisedand educated persons live on the plane of the instinctive mind. Their senses are verysharp and acute and they run after more refined things for their sense-gratification. Theyidentify themselves with the physical body and the senses. They have no idea of the subtleAtman which is entirely distinct from the body and the Indriyas. Their ‘I’ is thephysical, gross body only though they know that there is a mind.

Sensual enjoyment brings on diseases and destroys the power of discrimination (Viveka).It makes the mind Malina (impure). Therefore, shun Vishayabhoga (sensual enjoyment). Tryto realise the Self within wherein lies eternal bliss and immortality.

Sattvic Mind Needed For Atma-Vichara

A sharp, subtle, one-pointed, Sattvic (pure) mind is needed for Atma-Vichara (enquiryinto Atman or the Supreme Spirit) and study of Upanishads. A gross mind or practical(Vyavaharic) Buddhi with selfishness and lust is absolutely unfit for Vichara andphilosophical ratiocination. Selfishness clouds understanding. Selfishness is the bane oflife. The mind of a worldling is ever ready to absorb sexual thoughts. It cannot imbibesubtle, philosophical ideas. It is callous and cannot vibrate properly to take inphilosophical ideas. You can drive a nail in clay, but not in a stone. The mind has to bepurified by Nishkama Karma, Japa, Pranayama and other spiritual Sadhanas.

Mind is compared to a mirror. If the mirror is dirty, you cannot see your face clearly.Similarly, if the mind-mirror is dirty (full of Mala, impurities-Kama, Krodha, Lobha,etc.), you cannot see God clearly; you cannot see the Self clearly. The light of Brahmancannot shine efficiently. Clean it up with effort daily, through spiritual Sadhana,meditation, strenuous Nishkama Karma Yoga, devotion, etc. You will realise God.

“Manasaiva-anudrashtavyam” is the utterance of the Srutis. Brahman is to beseen by the mind. Here ‘mind’ means the Suddha Manas (pure mind). Brahman can be seen by amind which is equipped with the four means of salvation; which is rendered subtle and pureby the practice of Sama, Dama, Yama and Niyama; which is furnished with the sacredinstructions of a qualified Guru and which does Sravana (hearing), Manana (reflection) andNididhyasana (constant musing). Should the pure mind concentrate itself for some timethrough a study of Jnana Sastras, association with the wise and an uninterrupted practiceof meditation, then in such persons developing Jnana, a divine vision will dawn in whichthere will be a direct cognition of the one Reality.

Slay The Impure Mind

The enemy of Atman is the impure mind, which is replete with excessive delusion and ahost of thoughts. This mischievous and powerful imp of lower mind is the generator of allpains and all fears and the destroyer of all noble, spiritual wealth. Your real enemy isthis impure mind only which is full of delusion, Trishnas, Vasanas and host of otherimpurities. Lest this enemy of mind should spoil you in diverse ways through the”enjoyments” of the many “pleasures” in this world, slay it in thehope of getting eternal bliss and spiritual illumination. Destroy the lower Asuddha(impure) Manas through the higher Suddha Manas. Destroy your instinctive mind throughdiscrimination and help of your higher, Sattvic mind. Then and then alone will you geteternal, infinite peace and bliss of Atman. Then alone will you become a Jivanmukta.

Sattvic minds and Rajasic minds move in diametrically opposite directions. Sattvic mindunifies. Instinctive mind separates and divides. Voice from the instinctive mind willmislead you. Purify the mind and hear the voice of conscience (Sattvic mind). You willhave to develop the Sattvic part of the mind by annihilating the lower, impure,instinctive mind. If the lower mind is done away with through the higher mind alone, thenonly will you have eternal happiness and peace. Then alone will you attain Moksha, supremeknowledge and perennial bliss. Slay this mind through constant Vichara and meditation onOm and rest in your own Svarupa, Sat-Chit-Ananda state.

How To Purify The Mind

As one iron shapes another iron, the pure mind of a person which makes efforts in thevirtuous path should correct and mould his impure mind. Mind is unfailingly rendered purethrough true, virtuous and pure actions and constant Satsanga (association with the wise).Speaking the truth and practice of Daya (pure compassion) are very great purifiers ofmind. All lofty aspirations, all-embracing tendencies and pity-all go a long way inincreasing the Sattvic material of the mind. The higher Manas is developed.

Sacrifice, gift, compassion, study of the Vedas and speaking the truth: these five arepurifying. The sixth is penance well-practised. The last one is highly purifying.Pilgrimage to sacred places is also purifying. You come in contact with holy personsthere. You can have good Satsanga.

Charity, Japa, Nishkama Karma, Yajna, Agnihotra, Brahmacharya, Sandhya, Tirtha-Yatra,Dama, Sama, Yama, Niyama, Svadhyaya, Tapas, Vrata, service of saints-all tend to purifythe mind. There will be, doubtless, unalloyed bliss in the mind thus purified.

A Mantra purifies the mind. Mere repetition of a Mantra, parrot-like, has very littleeffect. It has some benefit. It must be repeated with Bhava (feeling). Then it produceswonderful effects. The Mantra, unless inspired with the powerful will-force of one’s ownmind, cannot produce much effect.

Study of philosophical works, right thinking, exercise of good and noble emotions,prayers and beneficent endeavours and, above all, regular and strenuous meditation are themeans to improve the mind. These will bring about the rapid evolution of the mind. Whenthe mind is purified, a hole is formed in the centre through which purity, light andknowledge flow from Brahman.

A goldsmith converts 10 carat gold into 15 carat gold by adding acids and burning itseveral times in the crucible. Even so, you will have to purify your sensuous mind throughconcentration and reflection on the words of your spiritual preceptor and the Upanishadicsentences, meditation, Japa or silent repetition of the Name of the Lord, etc.

It takes a long time to purify Harital (yellow oxide of arsenic orpiment). It has to besoaked in cow’s urine for seven days, in lime water for ten days and in milk for sevendays. Then it has to be burnt out hundred and eight times before a Bhasma or proper oxide(ash) is obtained. Even so, it takes a long time to effect Chitta-Suddhi, purity of mind.Severe Tapascharya (austerity) is needed.

As a result of purification of the mind, it becomes more sensitive, gets easilydisturbed by a sound or shock and feels any pressure acutely. An aspirant must besensitive and yet have the body and nerves completely under his control. The greater thesensitiveness becomes, the more difficult is the task; there are many noises which passunheeded by an ordinary person, but which are torture to one who is very sensitive. Youmust do your best to get over this oversensitiveness.

Initiation Of Pure Mind Leads To Quiescence

Purification is the first part of Yoga. When purification is over, the natural tendencyof the mind is to go towards liberation, Moksha. If only a disciple whose mind is cleansedof all its impurities, is initiated into the sacred mysteries by a Guru, then his mindwill get complete quiescence. He will enter into a Nirvikalpa state. The Nirvikalpa stateis termed Asamvedana.

Chapter 11


Vritti-its Nature And Function

Vritti means a whirl-pool. It is a wave of thought that arises in the Antahkarana.Vrittis are modifications of the mind. They are the effect of Avidya. When Avidya isdestroyed by Jnana, Vrittis get absorbed in Brahman (Laya), just as water thrown in aheated pan is absorbed in the pan.

Wherefrom does a Vritti arise? From the Chitta or mind. Why does a Vritti arise? It isSvabhava of Antahkarana. What is its function? It causes Avarana-Bhanga (removes the veilof Sthula Avidya that envelops the objects). It helps the evolution of a man till heattains perfection (Jivanmukti). It is Vritti that opens the Kundalini in a Jnani in theAjna Chakra and joins it in Sahasrara. This is one path.

The Chitta is the mind stuff. It is the mental substance. Vritti or thought-wave is amodification of that mental substance. It is a process. Just as waves and bubbles arisefrom the surface of the ocean, so also these Vrittis arise from the surface of themind-ocean. Just as rays emanate from the sun, so also these mental rays (modification ofVrittis) emanate from the mind-sun. Just as the sun merges itself in the horizon at sunsetby collecting all its rays, so also you will have to merge in that Sun of suns, AbsoluteConsciousness, Eternal Peace by collecting all the dissipated mental rays and dissolvingthe mind itself.

The function of a Vritti in the mind is to cause Avarana-Bhanga (removal of the veil ofignorance covering objects). Sthula Avidya or gross ignorance is enveloping all objects.When the veil is removed, perception of objects becomes possible. The Vritti removes theAvarana or layer of ignorance. When you pass through a big crowd or persons, you are ableto notice a few persons. You do not see some persons, though they happen to come in frontof you. Why? Because there was not complete Avarana-Bhanga. When this is done, the objectshines before you.

According to Raja Yoga of Maharshi Patanjali, Pramana (right notion or right proof),Viparyaya (misconception), Vikalpa (fancy or imagination), Nidra (sleep) and Smriti(memory) are the five mental Vrittis or mental functions. If these five mental functionsare suppressed, the suppression of desires and other functions will follow.

Vishayakara Vritti And Brahmakara Vritti

Through its own efforts, the mind assumes the shape of any object, it concentratesitself upon. If it thinks of a woman, it assumes the shape of a woman. This is termedVritti Tadakara. If it thinks of God or Brahman, Brahmakara Vritti develops. In the formercase, Rajas (passion) will be infused into the mind; while in the latter, Sattva (purity)will be infused.

When the mind thinks of objects and dwells on them, it assumes the shape of thoseobjects. It is termed as Vishayakara Vritti. When it thinks of Brahman or Infinity, theBrahmakara Vritti is formed. The Sadhaka should be very vigilant and circumspect inwatching the mind and its activities. He must convert Vishayakara Vritti into BrahmakaraVritti. As soon as the mind drops down from Brahmakara Vritti into Vishayakara Vritti, heshould again make the mind assume Brahmakara Vritti. There is very hard struggle, indeed.

You cannot have Vishayakara Vritti as Ghatapatadi Vritti (modification of pot, cloth,etc.) and Brahmakara Vritti (thought of Brahman) also at the same time. It is SrutiVirodha (i.e. against the utterances of the Srutis). It is against practical experiencealso.

It is not the object that binds you. It is Vritti and identification (TadatmyaSambandha) with the Vritti that causes attachment and bondage. It is through Avidya orignorance that you identify yourself with Vritti as, for instance, when you say: “Iam angry.”

Kinds Of Vritti

Vrittis have been classified into five kinds: (1) Mano-Vritti, (2) Buddhi Vritti, (3)Sakshi Vritti, (4) Akhandakara Vritti and (5) Akhanda Ekarasa Vritti. No. 1 belongs to theinstinctive mind. Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 belong to the Sattvic mind. Mano-Vritti is theVishayakara Vritti of worldlings. Buddhi Vritti belongs to Vivekins. When you identifyyourself with the Sakshi Vritti, you can witness the modifications of the mind. When youtry to feel that you are the Infinite Self, the Akhandakara Vritti is generated. It isalso known as Brahmakara Vritti. There is no Vritti in Brahman.

From Mano-Vritti, you must jump to Viveka Vritti. Mano-Vritti concerns Manomaya Kosha.Viveka Vritti belongs to Vijnanamaya Kosha. By developing the Vijnanamaya Kosha,Mano-Vrittis are conquered. From Viveka Vritti, you must jump to Sakshi Vritti. FromSakshi Vritti, you must jump to Akhandakara Vritti. From Akhandakara Vritti, you must jumpto Akhanda Ekarasa which is Brahma Svarupa. This is Kaivalya or final goal of life.

Antarmukha Vritti And Bahirmukha Vritti

When the outgoing tendencies of the mind are arrested, when the mind is retained withinthe heart, when all its attention is turned on itself alone, that condition is AntarmukhaVritti. The Antarmukha Vritti is the indrawing energy of the mind owing to increase inSattva. The Sadhaka can do a lot of Sadhana when he has this inward Vritti.

The Bahirmukha Vritti is the outgoing tendency of the mind due to Rajas. When thevision is turned outward, the rush of fleeting events engages the mind. The outgoingenergies of the mind begin to play. Further, on account of force of habit, the ears andeyes at once run towards sound and sight. Objects and desire are externalising forces. ARajasic man full of desires can never dream of an inner spiritual life with AntarmukhaVritti. He is absolutely unfit for the practice of introspection.

You will get Antarmukha Vritti (inward-moving mind) only after you have destroyed allthe externalising powers of the mind. Vairagya and introspection help a lot in theattainment of this mental state. You must starve the mind by Vairagya and Tyaga(renunciation of desires, objects and egoism). You must learn the art of making the mindintrospective or turned inward upon itself through the Yogic Kriya, Pratyahara(abstraction). Just as you have to take back with care your cloth that is fallen on athorny plant by removing the thorns one by one slowly, so also you will have to collectback with care and exertion the dissipated rays of the mind that are thrown over thesensual objects for very many years.

You will have to gather them patiently through Vairagya and Abhyasa, through Tyaga(renunciation) and Tapas and then march boldly with indefatigable energy towards God orBrahman. Those who know this practice can really be peaceful. They only can be reallyhappy. When the mental rays are concentrated, illumination begins. Mind cannot do anyhavoc now. The mind cannot externalise itself. It can be kept inside the Hridaya-Guha(cave of the heart).

Destruction Of Vrittis Leads To Mental Strength

Mind gains great strength when the Vrittis are destroyed. It is not easy to destroyVrittis (thought-waves) because they are innumerable. They should be taken up one by oneand dealt with separately. Some Vrittis are very strong. They demand strong efforts fortheir destruction. Most of the Vrittis are very weak. Weak Vrittis melt away like rentclouds. Strong thoughts remain and frequently recur daily in the morning as soon as yourise from your bed.

Be silent. Enter silence. Silence is Atman. Silence is Brahman. Silence is centre.Silence is the Hridaya-Guha (heart-cave). When the mind runs from one object to another,that state in the interval wherein you become mindless for a very short time isSvarupasthiti. That is Brahman. When the mind is controlled fully, Vrittis cease. When allthe modifications subside, you enter into the silence then and then alone. Realise this,this very moment. Feel the divine glory and Brahmic splendour now by closing the eyes, bydrawing the Indriyas, by stilling the mind, by silencing the thoughts, by sharpening theintellect, by purifying the Chitta, by meditating on Om, by chanting Om with Bhava(feeling). Keep up the continuity of Brahmic consciousness throughout the 24 hours. Havean unceasing flow of Atmic consciousness. This is very, very important. This is a sinequa non. This is a great desideratum.

When all the Vrittis die, Samskaras and the frame of the mind remain. Samskaras canonly be fried up by Nirbija-Samadhi.

Chapter 12

Theory Of Perception

“When one thinks, then he understands; without having thought, one does not know;it is only after having thought that one understands.” (Chhandogya Upanishad,VII-xxi-1)

“I was absent-minded; I did not hear. I was absent-minded; I did not see. It isthus evident that a person sees with the mind, hears with the mind. Desire, determination,uncertainty, belief, disbelief, steadiness, unsteadiness, shame, intellect, fear-all theseare in the mind alone. Therefore, when touched from behind, a person knows by the mind.

(Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, I-v-3)

There are two compartments in the mind, viz., the thinking portion and the perceivingportion. It is easy to stop the thinking portion, but it is extremely difficult to stopthe functioning of the perceiving portion.

It is only the individual mind that sees objects outside. If you see the same objectsthrough a telsecope, they appear different. If you can see with the mind directly, youwill have a different vision altogether. Hiranyagarbha or Karya Brahman has quite adifferent vision. He sees everything as a vibration or movement within himself as his ownSankalpa, just as you can imagine within your own mind that a big war is going on and manypeople are dying on either side. You withdraw your imagination at your will.

Theories Of Perception

There is the elastic theory of the mind. This school of thought says that the mindbecomes elastic when several objects come in contact with the various senses and thus putsitself simultaneously into touch with various sense-organs or Indriyas of knowledge(Jnana-Indriyas). When the mind comes in contact with one object and one Indriya, itcontracts to a point. This theory is exploded and refuted by the Vedantins as unsound.

There is another school of thought that says that there are different compartments orparts in the mind. One part of the mind connects itself with one sense (Indriya), anotherpart with a second sense and so on. This theory is similarly blown up and discarded by theVedantins as untenable and unsound.

According to the school of thought known by the name of Drishti-Srishti-Vada, theperceiver and the perceived are one. Just as the spider weaves out the web from its ownbody, even so the mind throws out this physical universe from its own body during wakingstate and withdraws the world into its womb during sleep. An object is a mental Vrittiexternalised or objectified.

The Drishya (what you see outside) is due to mental Avidya. There is only lightoutside. There is only vibration outside. It is the mind that gives colour and shape. Itis all mental deception. This is one view. This is one theory of perception.

The interaction between the mind inside and the Tanmatric vibrations outside is theobject or the world that you see outside. This is one theory of perception. Mind is formedout of the Sattvic portion of the five Tanmatras. There is light outside. The sun alsoemits light. The eye is made up of fire or Agni-Tattva. That portion of the mind whichperceives is also made up of Agni-Tattva. So fire sees fire. Only that portion of the mindwhich is made up of Sabda-Tanmatra can hear. Sound comes from Akasa outside. So Akasa ofthe mind hears Akasa from outside. But, Atman can see, hear, taste and feel everything.Atman only can be seen by Atman. Therefore, whatever you see outside is Atman only.“Sarvam Khalvidam Brahma-Everything is verily Brahman.”

The View Of Western Medical Science

According to western medical science, light-vibrations from outside strike the retinaand an inverted image is formed there. These vibrations are carred through optic tract andoptic thalamus to the centre of vision in the occipital lobe of the brain in the back partof the head. There, a positive image is formed. Then only, you see the object in front ofyou.

Perception According To Sankhya Philosophy

According to Sankhya philosophy, the real back-ground of perception is the Purusha ofwhom the western doctors and psychologists have no idea. Fleshy eyes are only externalinstruments (Karanas) for perception. Eye is not an organ of vision. The organ of visionis a centre situated in the brain; so is the case with all senses. Mind is connected withthe Indriyas, the Indriyas with the corresponding centres in brain and the centres, withthe physical organs, to the external object. The mind presents the sensation to Buddhi;Buddhi takes it to the Purusha (which is pure Spirit, which is Immaterial). Now, realperception takes place. Purusha gives order to Buddhi. Then, Buddhi, after proper decisionand judgment and after taking into consideration the pros and cons of the subject on hand,gives orders back to the mind, for execution through the motor centres (Karma-Indriyas ororgans of action). Buddhi is the Prime Minister and Judge who hears the statements of theAdvocate, viz., the mind. Mind plays two parts, viz., (i) that of an Advocate and (ii)that of a Commander-in-Chief. After receiving decisive orders from Buddhi, the mind actsthe part of a Commander-in-Chief and executes the orders of Buddhi through the fivesoldiers, the five Karma-Indriyas. This is the theory of perception according to theSankhya Philosophy. See how very clear matters are in Hindu Philosophy.

First of all, there is the instrument or Karana-for instance, the fleshy eye. It takesthe sense-impressions to the centre or Indriya. The mind is then connected with the centreand the external instruments, namely, the physical eye, ear, etc. The mind carries theimpressions still further and presents them to the Buddhi, the determinative faculty,which reacts. Then flashes out the idea of egoism or Ahankara, which self-arrogates andidentfies with Abhimana. Then the mixture of action and reaction is presented to thePurusha, the real Soul who perceives an object in the mixture.

Knowledge comes through contact with objects (Indriyartha-Sannikarsha). To knowa Prapancha Vishaya, Indriya, Antahkarana and Jiva are required. Indriya will see theVishaya. Mind will make it appear. Buddhi, with the help of Abhasa Chaitanya, willunderstand it. Mind, senses and the Karanas (external instruments) such as the physicaleye, ear, etc., should all be joined together. Then only perception of an object ispossible. The object comes in contact with the senses. The senses are linked to the mind.The mind is connected to the Atman. The Atman illumines. This is with reference to thephysical plane.

The Vedantic Theory

According to the Advaitic theory of perception, it is the Chaitanya within us thatmakes perception possible. The Chetana within us unites with the Chetana in the object andthe result is perception. It does not follow from this that the mind and the senses areuseless. The senses are necessary for the adaptation of perception to their approximatethings. From the soul’s essential nature being intelligence, it does not follow that thesenses are useless, for they serve the purpose of determining the special object of eachsense.

The Vedantic theory of perception is that the mind comes out through the eye andassumes the shape of the object outside. The Antahkarana-Vritti enters through the openingof the Indriya (eye), removes Vishaya Ajnana, assumes Vishayakara (the shape and form ofthe object it envelops), presents the objects to your view. The function of Vritti is tocause Avarana-Bhanga (removal of the veil or layer of Sthula Avidya that envelops allobjects).

A ray of the mind actually goes out, assumes the shape and form of the object andenvelops it. Then only perception takes place. The perception of a book is possible onlywhen the mind has assumed the actual shape of the book. Mental image plus externalsomething is the object. Whatever objects you see outside, have got their own images inthe mind.

When you pass through a mango garden, a ray of the mind comes out through the eye andenvelops a mango. It assumes the shape of the mango. The ray is termed Vritti. Theenveloping process is called Vritti-Vyapti. The function of a Vritti is to remove theAvarana (veil) that envelops the object and the Upahita Chaitanya. The veil that envelopsthe mango is removed by the Vritti or the mental ray. There is Chaitanya associated withthe Vritti (Vritti Sahita Chaitanya). This Chaitanya illuminates the object ‘mango’. Thisis termed Phala-Vyapti. Just as a torchlight illumines an object in a flash, thisVritti-Chaitanya illumines the object. Then only does perception of the mango take place.Mind makes Sankalpa-Vikalpa: Is this a mango or not? Buddhi comes to help the mind anddetermines (this is a mango) through previous experience. Chitta makes Anusandhana(enquiry): “How can I get the mango? May I ask the gardener or the proprietor?”Ahankara asserts: “I must get the mango anyhow. I want it.” Then the command isgiven by the mind to the Karma-Indriyas for execution.

When you see a mango tree, it is external to you. There is externality. The mango treeis a mental percept. It is a mental concept also. There is no mango tree apart from themind. You know the existence of the tree through the mind only. There is a mental image inthe mind. The image in the mind plus the external something is the mango tree. Even if youclose your eyes, you can get at the image through memory. The green colour of the leavesis due to a certain rate of light vibrations (say, 10 millions of vibrations). These lightvibrations strike at the retina and are taken to the vision centre at the back of thebrain. The mango-leaves have the power to split the white rays and absorb the green colouronly. So says science.

Your body also is as much external to you as that yonder mango tree. It is also amental percept or mental concept. The mango tree is external to you with reference to yourbody only. The mango tree itself is a mere appearance that floats in the Absolute or theOne Reality. As the mango tree is external to you from the standpoint of your body, and asthe body itself is external to you, the idea of externality of the mango tree or thisexternal universe is blown up now. The term internality also has a false existence only.There is internality only with reference to the externality. If the externality goes away,where is the internality? Both the terms internality and externality are mere illusions,creations of the mind. There is only the solid existence, the One Reality or Absolutebehind the so-called internality and externality. That is the Real, Infinite ‘I’. That isyour own Self.

Mind Alone Creates Differences

The eyes present before the mind some forms or images. It is the mind that creates goodand bad forms. It says, “This is good. This is ugly. This is beautiful.” Herecomes bondage and trouble. Good and bad, ugly and beautiful are pure mental creations. Ifmind can create, it can destroy also. Similarly, the ears bring some sound vibrationsbefore the mind. It is the mind that says: “This is praise. This is censure.”Eyes and ears are not to be blamed at all. They are innocent. Mind causes the mischief.

Mental Cognition Takes Place Serially

Mind can think of only limited things. Mind cannot think of greenness without thinkingof a green object.

Mind is Niravayava (without parts, divisions, compartments). It can have only one ideaat a time. This is the Siddhanta of Naiyayikas. Even those Vedantins who say that mind isSavayava (with compartments) on the analogy of Chora-Nari (the prostitute whose mind is onthe paramour even while she works in her house) admit that the mind can have ViseshaVritti of the lover only and Samanya Vritti of the work on hand at the time.

The human mind has the power of attending to only one object at a time, although it isable to pass from one object to another with a marvellous degree of speed, so rapidly infact, that some hace held that it could grasp several things at a time. Mind is agate-keeper or guard who can allow only one person, one kind of sense-vibration at a timeinto the mental factory. You cannot hear and see at the same time. The mind can have onlyone idea at a time. But it moves with such tremendous lightning speed that an ordinary manthinks that he can have several ideas at a time.

Perception through the finite mind or cognition or experience takes place serially andnot simultaneousely. Simultaneous knowledge can only be had in Nirvikalpa Samadhi wherepast and future merge in the present. Only a Yogin will have simultaneous knowledge. A manof the world with a finite mind can have only a knowledge in succession. Two thoughts,however closely related to each other, cannot exist at the same time. The nature of theinternal organism (Antahkarana or Manas) prevents our having more than one aspect of anobject at each instant presented to consciousness. Though several objects may come incontact simultaneously with the different sense-organs, yet the mind acts like agatekeeper who can admit only one person at a time through the gate. The mind can sendonly one kind of sensation at a time into the mental factory inside for the manufacture ofa decent percept and a nice concept.

When the mind gives attention and is attached to the sense of sight, it can only see.It cannot hear. It cannot hear and see at the same time. It is everybody’s dailyexperience. When your mind is wholly absorbed in deep study of some interesting book, youcannot hear even if a man shouts, because the mind was not there (with the sense ofhearing). “My mind was elsewhere, I did not see; my mind was elsewhere, I did nothear, for man sees with his mind and hears with his mind.” Brihadaranyaka Upanishad,I-v-3). When you seriously think of a problem, you can neither see nor hear nor feel. Allthe Indriyas are detached from the mind. There is only the process of Anusandhana (enquiryor investigation) by the Chitta (the mental substance).

The best philosophers and seers, Rishis and sages, the best authorities, Eastern andWestern, hold to the “Single Idea” theory as being correct. They are unanimouslyagreed that the mind cannot actually attend to more than one thing at a time, but when itappears to be doing so, it is only moving with prodigious rapidity backward and forward,from one end to the other. Illiterate people say that they can see and hear at the sametime. The mind moves with a tremendous velocity backward and forward and people imaginethat mind can do two things at a time. It is a sad mistake. A spark of light presents theappearance of a continuous circle of light if it is made to rotate rapidly. Even so,though the mind can attend to only one thing at a time-either hearing or seeing orsmelling-, though it can admit only one kind of sensation at a time, yet we are led tobelieve that it does several actions simultaneously, because it moves from one object toanother with tremendous velocity, so rapidly that its successive attention and perceptionappear as a simultaneous activity.

Compensatory Advantage In Sense Perception

In some persons, the sense of hearing is more developed than the sense of sight. Judgeshave acute hearing. Commanders-in-chief have acute sight. The profession itself forcesthem to develop the particular sense. Blind people have acute sense of hearing. If oneIndriya is defective, nature compensates by developing more another Indriya. One of myfriends knows of a blind man who can feel the nature of the colour by mere touch.

Speech is even the sight of the Purusha. Speech means here sound, the object of thesense of hearing. When this sense is enlightened, reflection is produced in the mind. Bythe mind effort to obtain external thing is made; for by the mind one sees, one hears.When one, at a time at night in the dark, cannot distinguish where sound arises (be it theneighing of horses or the braying of donkeys or the barking of dogs), he resorts therewhence speech proceeds.

Supersensory Perception

It is the mind that really sees, tastes, smells, hears and feels. When you begin tothink of the picture of Lord Krishna with closed eyes, it is through the mind’s eye thatyou see the picture.

An occultist can dispense with his physical, fleshy eyes and can see directly with hismind. A Bhakta (devotee), being one with Isvara (Lord), sees directly with the eye ofIsvara (with the eye of Karana-Sarira, seed-body). A Jnanin sees with the eye of Knowledgeof Atman (Divya Drishti or Jnana-Chakshus).

How Brahman Perceives

In the mind, will and sight are separate. In pure Chit, will and seeing are one; willand sight are combined and no longer, as in the case of mind, separated from each other.

Brahman does not need Antahkarana to sense, think and reason. Brahman does not needeyes to see. He is self-luminous. He gives light to everything. He imparts light toAntahkarana. He gives light and power to the Indriyas. He is Chit-Svarupa. He isChidghana. He is a mass of knowledge. He knows everything through Self-knowledge. He seeswithin Himself through Self-knowledge the whole universe as His own Sankalpa, as Vivarta.

How To Perceive Brahman

Brahman is not an object or Vishaya. It is to be felt by Sakshatkara (direct spiritualcognition). Knowledge of Brahman (Existence or Truth Absolute) comes through feeling andmeditation (spiritual Anubhava, direct perception or Atma-sakshatkara) wherein the seer,sight and seen merge into the one existence like the bubble in the ocean.

Chapter 13

Chitta And Memory

What Is Chitta?

Chitta is termed as the mind-stuff or mental substance. It is the groundfloor, as itwere. From it proceed the three Vrittis, viz., Manas, Buddhi and Ahankara. This wordbelongs to the Rajayogic terminology of Maharshi Patanjali. Also in the Gita, Lord Krishnauses the term Chitta in various places.

Chitta is a separate faculty or category in Vedanta. Sometimes it is Antargata, comesunder Mind. In Sankhya philosophy, it is included in Buddhi or Mahat-Tattva. The Chitta ofPatanjali Rishi’s philosophy of Raja Yoga (Yogas-chittavritti-nirodhah) correspondsto the Antahkarana of Vedanta.

Subconscious mind is termed ‘Chitta’ in Vedanta. Much of your subconsciousness consistsof submerged experiences, memories thrown into the background but recoverable. The Chittais like a calm lake and thoughts are like waves upon the surface of this lake and name andform are the normal ways in which these waves rise. No wave can rise without name andform.

The functions of the Chitta are Smriti or Smarana, Dharana, attention and Anusandhana(enquiry or investigation). When you repeat the Japa of a Mantra, it is the Chitta thatdoes the Smarana. It does a lot of work. It turns out better work than the mind or Buddhi.

The Field Of Subconscious Mentation

The mental processes are not limited to the field of consciousness alone. The field ofsubconscious mentation is of a much greater extent than that of conscious mentation. Themind is not conscious of the greater portion of its own activities. As man can hold inconsciousness but one fact at a time, only a fraction of our knowledge can be in the fieldof consciousness at any one moment. Only ten per cent of mental activities come into thefield of consciousness. Ninety per cent of the mental activities takes place in thesubconscious mind. Messages, when ready, come out like a flash from the subconscious mindto the surface of the conscious mind through the trapdoor in the subconscious mind.

We sit and try to solve a problem and fail. We walk around, try again and again fail.Suddenly an idea dawns on us that leads to the solution of the problem. The subconsciousprocesses were at work.

You repeatedly fail at night to get the solution for a problem in arithmetic orgeometry. In the morning, when you wake up, you get a clear answer. This answer comes likea flash from the subconscious mind. Even in sleep, it works incessantly without any rest.It arranges, classifies, compares, sorts all facts and works out a proper, satisfactorysolution.

Sometimes, you go to sleep at 10 p.m. with the thought, “I must get up at 2 a.m.in the morning to catch a train.” This message is taken up by the subconscious mindand it is this subconscious mind that wakes you up unfailingly at the exact hour.Subconscious mind is your constant, trustworthy companion and sincere friend.

With the help of the subconscious mind, you can change your vicious nature bycultivating healthy, virtuous qualities that remain dormant in every human heart. If youwant to overcome fear, mentally deny that you have fear and concentrate your attentionupon the opposite quality, the ideal of courage. When courage is developed, fear vanishesby itself. The positive always overpowers the negative. This is an infallible law ofnature. This is Pratipaksha Bhavana of Raja Yogins. You can acquire a liking fordistasteful tasks and duties by cultivating a desire and taste for them. You can establishnew habits, new ideals, new ideas anad new tastes and new character in the subconsciousmind by changing the old ones.


Smriti or memory is a function of Chitta (subconscious mind). Memory is used in twosenses. We say, “Mr. John has got a good memory.” Here it means that Mr. John’scapacity of the mind to store up its past experiences is very good. Sometimes we say,”I have no memory of that incident.” Here, you cannot bring up to the surface ofthe conscious mind, in its original form, the incident that took place some years ago. Itis an act of remembering. You do not get any new knowledge through memory. It is only areproduction.

If the experience is fresh, you can have a complete recall of your past experiencethrough memory. In ordinary recollection there is a temporal coefficient. In personalmemory there is a specific coefficient. That which acts together with another thing is acoefficient. In Mathematics, the numerical or literal factor prefixed to an unkownquantity in an algebraic term is a coefficient.

How Does Memory Arise

Suppose you have received a nice fan as a present from your amiable friend. When youuse the fan, it sometimes reminds you of your friend. You think of him for a Smriti-Hetu(cause of memory).

If your brother is a tall man, the sight of a similar tall man in another place willbring to your mind the memory of your brother. This is memory due to the similarity ofobjects (Sadrisyata).

Suppose you have seen a dwarf at Madras. When you see a very tall man or Patagonian,this will remind you of the dwarf whom you saw at Madras. The sight of a big palace willremind you of a peasant’s hut or a Sannyasin’s grass hut on the bank of Ganga. This memoryis due to dissimilarity in objects (Viparitata).

When you walk along the road on a stormy day, if you happen to see a fallen tree, youconclude that the tree has fallen owing to the storm. In this case, the memory is due tothe relation between cause and effect (Karya-karana-sambandha).

The new Samskaras wash away the old Samskaras. If the Samskaras are fresh and recent,it is easy to recall them back quickly. They come up again from the depths of thesubconscious mind to the surface of the conscious mind. Revival of old Samskaras takesplace. If you visit once the college wherefrom you received your education, ten yearsafter you became an officer in the Government, all the previous Samskaras of your collegedays will be revived now. You will remember now your old professors, old friends, oldbooks and various other things.

Characteristics Of A Good Memory

The following are the four good characteristics of a good memory: (1) If you read oncea passage and if you can reproduce the same nicely, it is a sign to indicate that you havea very good memory. This is termed Sugamata. (2) If you can reproduce the same thingwithout increase or decrease, addition or substraction, it is called Avaikalya. (3) If youcan preserve a fact or passage or anything for a very considerable period, it is calledDharana (retentive memory). (4) If you can reproduce a passage at once without anydifficulty when it is needed, it is called Upaharana.

The Process Of Recollection

When you desire to remember a thing, you will have to make a psychic exertion. You willhave to go up and down into the depths of the different levels of subconsciousness andthen pick up the right thing from a curious mixture of multifarious irrelevant matter.Just as the railway sorter in the Railway Mail Service takes up the right letter by movingthe hand up and down along the different pigeon-holes, so also the sorter subconsciousmind goes up and down along the pigeon-holes in the subconscious mind and brings the rightthing to the level of normal consciousness. The subconscious mind can pick up the rightthing from a heap of various matters.

In a big surgical clinic, the assistant surgeon allows only one patient to enter theconsultation room of the senior surgeon for examination. Even so, the mind allows one ideaonly to enter the mental factory at a time through the mind door (Manodvara). Thesubconscious mind brings to the threshold of the conscious mind, during an act of Smriti(memory), the right thing at the right moment, suppressing all others. It serves the partof a censor and allows only relevant memories to pass by. What a wonderful mechanism itis! Who is the driver for these dual minds? Who created these? What a magnanimous Being Hemust be! My hairs stand on their ends when I think of Him! My pen quivers when I write.Don’t you like to dwell with Him? What a great privilege and joy it is to be in communionwith Him!

When you try to remember something, sometimes you cannot remember. After some time, theforgotten something flashes out to the conscious mind. How do you explain this? It is aslip of memory. The Samkaras of the particular thing has sunk deep. The Chitta, which isthe storehouse of Samskaras (and whose function is memory), has to exert a bit, to analyseand sort and bring it to the surface of the conscious mind through the trapdoor. Aftersome exertion, revival of the old Samskaras takes place and the forgotten idea, or name ofa person, which you wished to recollect sometime back, suddenly flashes to the consciousor objective mind. There ought to have been some congestion in the brain, which might haveprevented the revival of a forgotten thing, idea or person. As soon as the congestion isrelieved, the forgotten idea floats on the surface of the mind. When the mind is calm,memory becomes keen.

Power Of Memory

Those who overwork mentally, who do not observe the rules of Brahmacharya and who aretormented by many cares, worries and anxieties, lose their power of memory soon. When youshow symptoms of losing your memory, as you grow old, the first symptom is that you findit difficult to remember the names of persons. The reason is not far to seek. All thenames are arbitrary. They are like labels. There are no associations with the names. Themind generally remembers through associations, as the impressions become deep thereby.

Even in old age, you can remember old events, as there are associations with events.You can remember well in old age some passages that you read in schools and colleges. But,you find it difficult to remember in the evening a new passage you read in the morning.The reason is that the mind has lost its Dharana Sakti (power of grasping ideas). Thebrain cells have degenerated.

In early boyhood, the power of grasping in the mind is very marked. But, there is nopower of understanding. In 16, 18, 20, the power of understanding becomes manifest. Thepower of retentive memory is also great in this age. The mind becomes settled only after30. Below 30, there is much Chanchalatva (wandering nature). A man below 30-in the vastmajority of cases-is not able to think and decide for himself. He has no power ofjudgment. After 45, power of grasping begins to decline. Memory also begins to decline. Hehas power of retention for what he has learnt before. He cannot learn new sciences.Brahmacharya helps a lot to develop the power of retention and various other psychicpowers.

Chapter 14


What Is Samskara?

Vritti (whirlpool, thought-wave) arises in the mind-ocean. It operates for sometime.Then it sinks below the threshold of normal consciousness. From the surface of theconscious mind wherein it was uppermost for some time, it sinks down deep into the regionof the subconscious mind (Chitta). There, it continues to be a subliminal action andbecomes a Samskara (impression). A conscious action-whether cognitive, affective orconative-assumes a potential and hidden (Sukshma and Avyakta) form just below thethreshold of consciousness. This is termed a Samskara.

Memory-a Revival Of Samskara

The Samskaras (impressions) are embedded in the subconscious mind or Chitta. Thesubconscious mind is otherwise known as the unconscious mind. Subjective mind,subconscious mind, unconscious mind and Chitta are synonymous terms. The seat of thissubconscious mind is the cerebellum or hindbrain. You can recall the past experiences fromthe storehouse of Samskaras in the subconscious mind. The past is preserved even to theminutest detail. Even a bit is never lost. When the fine Samskaras come up to the surfaceof the conscious mind back again as a big wave, when the past Vritti comes back to thesurface of the conscious mind again by recollection, it is called memory or Smriti. Nomemory is possible without the help of Samskara.

How The Samskara Is Formed

An experience in the sense-plane sinks down into the depths of the subconscious mind(Chitta) and becomes there a ‘Samskara’ (impression). A Samskara of an experience isformed or developed in the Chitta at the very moment that the mind is experiencingsomething. There is no gap between the present experience and the formation of a Samskarain the subconscious mind. A specific experience leaves a specific Samskara. The memory ofthis specific experience springs from that particular Samskara only, which was formed outof that particular experience.

When you perceive an orange and taste for the first time, you get knowledge of anorange. You know its taste. You know the object, orange. A Samskara is formed in thesubconscious mind at once. At any time, this Samskara can generate a memory of the object,orange and knowledge of an orange. Though the object and the act of knowledge aredistinguishable, yet they are inseparable.

Cyclic Causation Of Thought And Samskara

An object awakens or revives Samskaras in the mind through external stimuli. Hence, aSankalpa or thought arises subjectively from within, without a stimulus from outside. Whenyou think of a cow which you have seen before, you repeat the word ‘cow’ mentally. Thenonly, the mental image comes. Then, a thought is formed. Samskara causes Sankalpa, andSankalpa causes Samskara, just as seed is the cause of the tree, and tree is the cause ofthe seed, in turn. There is cyclic causation on the analogy of seed and tree(Bija-Vriksha-Nyaya). A Vritti in the mind produces a Samskara, and a Samskara, in turn,causes again a Vritti. Owing to the force of stimuli (Udbodhaka, Vyanjaka) either fromwithin or from without, the seed-like Samskaras again expand and give rise to furtheractivities. This cycle of Vritti and Samskara is Anadi (beginningless), but has an endwhen one attains Divine Knowledge and liberation. They get Laya (dissolution) intoPrakriti. They cease to produce any effect on the Jivanmukta. The Samskaras should befried up by continuous Samadhi. Then only you will be free from births and deaths.

Samyama Over Samskaras

Samskara is known as “residual potency” also. When all Vrittis or thoughtsdie away, the frame of the mind remains with the Samskaras. This is termed the PotentialMind. In Vedantic parlance, it is called Antahkarana Matra.

All Samskaras co-exist in the mind. The Vrittis slowly subside and leave traces in themind. These traces are the Samskaras. From these Samskaras springs memory. If you haveYogic vision, you can vividly notice the marvels that take place in the mental factory ofan individual, how the Vritti arises in the mind-lake, how it subsides and how a Samskarais formed. You will be struck with wonder. Samyama over these Samskaras brings out thedirect knowledge of the residual potencies. A Yogin brings into direct consciousness theprevious life-states by getting direct knowledge of their Samskaras. Such knowledge canhardly be acquired in Universities. A Yogin alone can impart this knowledge to deservingaspirants.

Virtuous And Vicious Samskaras

Like forces, Samskaras aid or inhibit one another. When you see a man in serioussickness and when the feeling of mercy arises in your heart, all the Samskaras of yourprevious merciful actions coalesce together and force you to serve and help that sick man.Similarly, all the Samskaras of charitable actions come forth to the surface of theconscious mind when you see a man in a serious distress and in straitened circumstancesand they force you to help this man. You begin to share with him your physicalpossessions.

When one Samskara or virtuous action comes into play, another Samskara of dissimilarnature may emerge out and come in the way of its fulfilment. This is fight between avirtuous and a vicious Samskara.

When you try to fix your mind on God and think of purity, just at that moment, all evilthoughts and Samskaras burst forth with violence and vengeance to fight against you. Thisis termed ‘crowding of Samskaras’. Good Samskaras also crowd together and help you todrive out evil Samskaras. The father of Sri Swami Advaitanandaji was a great Bhakta ofChandi. At the time of his death, he was semi-conscious. He began to repeat all the Slokasof Chandi-Stotra which he had got by heart while he was young. This is ‘crowding ofspiritual Samskaras’.

Past Samskaras Constitute Prarabdha

When you are born, the mind is not a mere Tabula Rasa (a smooth or blank tabletor a blank sheet of white paper). It is a storehouse of Samskaras, predispositions,predilections, etc. A child is born with his Samskaras. A child is born with his pastexperiences transmuted into mental and moral tendencies and powers. By experiences,pleasant and painful, man gathers materials and builds them into mental and moralfaculties. The earthly experiences are worked up into intellectual faculty. The mindevolves through the impressions received from the universe through the senses. It willtake many bodies till it gathers the complete experience of the world. Every man is bornwith his inborn or inherent Samskaras and these Samskaras are embedded, lodged orimprinted in the Chitta which is the seat for Prarabdha. In earthly life, he gains manymore Samskaras or experiences through actions and these are added to the original storeand become the future Sanchita Karmas (accumulated actions).

All Samskaras lie dormant in the Chitta as latent activities, not only of this life butof all previous innumerable lives from Anadi Kala (beginningless time). The Samskaras ofanimal life (those of dog’s births, etc.), the Samskaras of a Deva life, the Samskaras ofkingly life, the Samskaras of the life of a peasant, are all hidden there in the Chitta.In human life, only those Samskaras which are appropriate to that particular type of birthwill operate and come to play. The other kinds of Samskaras will remain concealed anddormant.

“As a merchant closing the year’s ledger and opening a new one, does not enter inthe new all the items of the old but only its balances, so does the spirit hand over tothe new brain his judgments on the experiences of a life that is closed, the conclusionsto which he has come, the decisions to which he has arrived. This is the stock handed onto the new life, the mental furniture for the new dwelling-a real memory.”


The gross body and the mind have, on account of your past Karmas, a tendency to act ina certain way and you act just in accordance with that tendency like a machine. Youwrongly impute to yourself the authorship (agency) of these actions and thus make thematters worse. Most of your actions are done more or less automatically.

If you find it difficult to do your actions in a Nishkama spirit, have one desire forliberation in doing all things.

In Svarga or heaven, all earthly experiences of the mind are sorted and analysed. Theessence is taken. The Jiva is born again in the physical universe with a new frame andbent of mind according to the nature of the essence extracted in the mental plane.

When you are writing a drama, if sleep comes in, you stop writing and retire to bed. Assoon as you get up, you continue to write from where you have left the previous night.Even so, when you take up a new incarnation, you begin to continue the work which you hadleft unfinished in your previous life in accordance with the current of Vasanas of yourpast life.

Your next life will depend very largely upon the Karma you perform in this birth. Thereare probably many things which the man of the world does constantly and may do withoutmuch harm resulting in any way; if these things were done by those sincere aspirants whoare treading the path of Realisation, they would be decidedly harmful.

Habitual study of abstract problems will result-in another earthly life-in awell-developed power for abstract thinking, while flippant, hasty thinking, flying fromone object to another, will bequeath a restless ill-regulated mind to the following birthinto this world.

The Enslaving Chains Of Samskaras

Mind exercises its suzerainty through Samskaras. From Samskaras emanate Vasanas likeswarms of locusts. From Vasana flows the stream of desire and from enjoyment of objects ofdesires arises Trishna or internal craving (intense longing). Trishna is very powerful.The Samskaras are imbedded in the mind, in the Karana Sarira. There arises a memory ofpleasure in the mind. Then the mind thinks of objects. Maya has her powerful seat in theimagination. There comes attachment. The mind plans and schemes. You are swayed by thepassions. You exert yourself physically to possess those objects and enjoy them. In yourefforts, you favour some and disfavour others through Raga and Dvesha. You will have toenjoy the fruits of your virtuous and vicious actions. Through this six-spoked wheel ofRaga and Dvesha, virtue and vice, pleasure and pain, this Samsaric wheel of birth anddeath moves on without stopping from Anadi Kala (beginningless time).

Thoughts And Desires Depend Upon Samskaras

The nature of desires and thoughts depends upon the nature of your Samskaras. If youhave good Samskaras, you will have good desires and good thoughts and vice versa. Even ifyou have indulged in vicious actions up to the age of forty, begin practising virtuousactions such as charity, Japa, Dama, Svadhyaya, meditation, service of the poor and thesick, service of saints, etc., from this moment and these Samskaras will prompt you to domore virtuous deeds. They will stimulate good desires and noble thoughts. The Lord says inthe Bhagavad-Gita:-

Api chet suduracharo bhajate mam-ananyabhak
Sadhureva sa mantavyah samyag-vyavasito hi sah

“Even if the most sinful worships Me with undivided heart, he too must be deemedrighteous, for he has rightly resolved.”

Evil Samskaras-the Real Enemy

Who is your real enemy? It is your own evil Samskaras. Substitute Subha Vasanas inplace of Asubha ones. Then you can approach God. The mind will be changed. Old Samskaraswill be obliterated. Wrong suggestions of various kinds and crude fantastic superstitionsare rooted deeply in your mind. They are harmful. You will have to knock them down byVichara, sublime suggestions, right thinking. “I am body,” “I am Mr.John,” “I am a Brahmin,” “I am rich”-these are wrong suggestionsand wrong Samskaras. Suggest to yourself boldly that you are Brahman. The previous wrongsuggestion and Samskara “I am body” will slowly melt away by strenuous efforts.

If you forget your real Brahmic nature even for a minute, the old Samskaras of Ajnanawill try to come up and overwhelm you. See how Narada’s determination began to fluctuateeven though he was absorbed in meditation, when he saw some Deva-girls. He at onceexperienced the sexual desire in himself. The seed came out, he put it in a pot andChudala in the form of Kumbha Muni emerged from out of the pot. (Yogavasishtha, story ofSikhidhvaja). Therefore, you will have to be very, very careful. Keep yourself away fromall kinds of temptations-money, woman, name, fame, etc.

How To Acquire Good Samskaras

Try to acquire some good spiritual Samskaras in this birth at least, if you are notable to devote all your time in spiritual pursuit. Do some kind of meditation for a shorttime at least daily, say for half an hour in the morning and evening. Have a meditationroom. Make some kind of Japa of any Mantra. Study the Gita regularly. Have Satsanga. VisitRishikesh, Nasik, Varanasi, Haridwar, Prayag once a year for a week’s stay. Have theDarshana of Mahatmas. By doing so, you will acquire some spiritual Samskaras which will bea valuable spiritual asset for a new, good life. You will have a very good birth. You willbe placed in suitable environments in the next birth for unfolding the Divinity that islurking in your heart, for practice of Yoga. All opportunities and facilities will begiven to you by God, through His grace (Isvara-Kripa) for your spiritual Sadhana. Even bya little systematic spiritual practice (Yogabhyasa and Vedantic Sadhana), you can changeyour mentality, your old vicious Samskaras. You can cut short several future births. Bypractice for three years, you can free yourself from the clutches of births and deaths.You are bound to become a Sannyasin. Why not now in this very birth? Why don’t you cutshort the cycle of unnecessary births and consequent miseries? How long do you want to bea slave of the world, a slave of passions and Indriyas? Wake up now. Do Sadhana and getimmortality. Udharet-Atmana-Atmanam-Rouse the self by the Self.

New, healthy Samskaras can be implanted by new, healthy suggestions. Suppose your brainis a plank in which are driven nails which represent the ideas, habits and instincts whichdetermine your actions. If you find that there exists in you a bad idea, a bad habit, abad instinct,-a bad nail, as it were, in the plank of your mind-you should take another,viz., a good idea, habit or instinct, place it on the top of the bad one and give ahard tap with a hammer. In other words, you should make a healthy, useful suggestion. Thenew nail will be driven in perhaps a fraction of an inch while the old one will come outto the same extent. At each fresh blow with the hammer, that is to say, at each freshsuggestion, the one will be driven in a little further and the other will be driven outjust that much until, after a certain number of blows, the old habits will be completelyreplaced by the new habits, new ideas. It demands, doubtless, strenuous efforts. It needsconstant repetition of the new, healthy suggestions. Habit is second nature. But, pure,irresistible, determined will is bound to succeed eventually.

When you repeat “OM” or the Mahavakya of the Upanishads “Aham BrahmaAsmi” once, one Samskara of the idea that “I am Brahman or the Absolute” isformed in the subconscious mind. The object in doing Japa or silent repetition of”OM” 21,600 times daily is to strengthen this Samskara.

Death Of Samskaras Leads To Moksha

The physical body may die. But, the thoughts and Samskaras of actions, enjoyments andthinking follow you after death till you attain Moksha. These are variable Upadhis thataccompany you after death. They are variable because you carry different kinds ofSamskaras each time when you die. In defferent incarnations, you create different kinds ofSamskaras. The permanent Upadhis that accompany you after death are the fiveJnana-Indriyas, five Karma-Indriyas, five Pranas, fourfold mind and the Karana Sarirawhich is the support or Adhara for the Linga Sarira or astral body. It is the death of theSamskaras, it is the death of the Karana Sarira that leads to the final Moksha. It leadsto the attainment of Brahma-Jnana. You will be getting fresh births so long as there areSamskaras. You will have to take birth again and again till all the Samskaras areobliterated or fried up by the acquisition of Brahma Jnana. When the Samskaras are wipedout, Brahmic Knowledge shines by itself in its own glory.

Sadhana Consists In Destroying The Samskaras

The aim of a Sadhaka is to fry out or burn or obliterate all these Samskaras throughNirbija Samadhi. Sadhana consists in wiping out the Samskaras. Breathing, hearing, seeing,feeling, tasting, smelling-all cause Samskaras or latent Smriti in the mind. The worldenters the mind through the eyes, ears, tongue (speech) and old Samskaras. If you remainin seclusion, you can shut out the first three doors. Through Vichara (right enquiry ofSupreme Self), you can destroy the fourth route. Then, Jnana (Knowledge of Self) willdawn. A Jnani is without Samskaras. They are fried out by Jnana. No doubt, the force ofthe Samskaras remains in the Antahkarana. But they are harmless. They will not bind theJnani.

Chapter 15


The Operation Of Thought

There is the spiritual life in God. This is what relates us to the Infinite. You geteverything in Brahman, as He is self-contained and Paripurna (all-full). All your wantsand desires are satisfied there. There is then the physical life. This it is that connectsus with the universe around us. The thought-life connects the one with the other. It isthis that plays between the two.

We have the power within us to open or close ourselves to the divine inflow exactly aswe choose. This we have through the power of mind, through the operation of thought. Ifyou are Rajasic, you are far from God. You have shut yourself up from God. If you areSattvic, you open yourself to the divine inflow.

The sacred Ganga takes its origin in Gangotri (Himalayas) and runs perennially towardsGanga Sagar. Similarly, thought-currents take their origin from the bed of Samskaras(impressions) in the mind, wherein are imbedded the Vasanas (latent subtle desires), andflow incessantly towards the objects both in waking state and dream. Even a railway engineis sent to the engine-shed for rest when the wheels become overhot. But, this mysteriousengine of mind goes on thinking without a moment’s rest. The expansion of this mind aloneis Sankalpa; and, Sankalpa, through its power of differentiation, generates this universe.

Ajnanins have fickle minds with a great deal of fluctuation and myriads of Sankalpas.Their minds ever vacillate through Sankalpas. But, Jnanins will be free from Sankalpas.They will be ever resting in their Atmic Jnana (Jnana-Svarupa) which gives the highestsatisfaction (Tripti) and Supreme Peace (Parama Santi).

Sankalpa Only Is Samsara

When Sankalpa increases prodigiously, it is in no way beneficial. It is for evil only.The cause of bondage is Sankalpa. It is all the Sankalpas and Vasanas which you generatethat enmesh you as in a nest. You become subject to bondage through your own Sankalpas andVasanas like a silk-worm in its cocoon. Sankalpa of the mind itself is pain. Its absenceis Brahmic bliss. Sankalpa only is Samsara; its destruction is Moksha.

It is the Sankalpa of the mind that brings about this world with all its moving andfixed creatures. The poisonous tree of the great Maya’s illusion flourishes more and moreout of the seed of the mind’s modifications, full of Sankalpa, in the soil of thevariegated enjoyments of the world.

Maya is a big poisonous tree. Trishnas and Vasanas water the tree of Mayaic illusion.Karmas are the fruits. Lust, anger, greed, etc., are the sprouts. Sattva, Rajas and Tamasare the buds. Indriyas are the twigs. Ahankara is the trunk. Raga and Dvesha are the twomain branches. Various sensual objects are the leaves.

The individualised mind, which is full of Avidya and is all-pervading, though existingin name, has no form, either external or internal, like the Akasa permeating all space.The mere manifestation in all objects of (seeming) reality is the mind. Wherever there isSankalpa, there does the mind exist.

The origin and the dissolution of this universe, which is nothing but a mode ofconsciousness, take place with the complete origination and destruction of the Sankalpasof the mind. Realisation of Brahman can be effected through the mind alone afterabandoning its Sankalpas and Vikalpas. You should root out Sankalpa as completely aspossible. This destruction of Sankalpa should be intelligently practised.

Annihilation Of Sankalpas Constitutes Moksha

You may perform Tapas for myriads of years; you may be able to travel at once throughthe three worlds; but, never will you be able to reach the stainless MOKSHA, exceptthrough the firm path of annihilation of Sankalpas. Therefore, endeavour to destroy thisSankalpa and, thereby, attain Brahmic bliss which is devoid of pains and heterogeneity.

It is only Sankalpa of the mind destroyed beyond resurrection that constitutes theimmaculate Brahmic seat. Why can you not contemplate silently and secretly in your heartupon the destruction of this Sankalpa? Then it will so betide that even the throne of anemperor, who sways his sceptre over the whole earth, will be regarded by you as but apaltry bauble.

Remain without Sankalpa-Vikalpa and Dvaita-Bhavana (idea and feeling of duality).Divest yourself of all Sankalpas and be a Nirvikalpa. This is Brahma-Nishtha orAdvaita-Nishtha. Strive hard to get this state. You will be then in perfect peace and joy.

The Svabhava Of Manas

The mind can very easily think of worldly objects. It is its Svabhava. Thoughtsgenerally flow with ease towards objects. Mental energy will readily flow in thatdirection. The mental force can easily flow in the old grooves and avenues of mundanethoughts. It finds it extremely difficult to think of God. It is an uphill work for aSamsaric mind of Vyavahara. The difficulty in weaning the mind from objects and fixing iton God is the same as in making the Ganga flow towards Badri Narayan instead of itsnatural flow towards Ganga Sagar. It is like rowing against the current of the Yamuna.Still, through strenuous efforts and Tyaga it must be trained to flow towards God, muchagainst its will, if you want to free yourself from birth and death. There is no other goif you want to escape from worldly miseries and tribulations.

How To Destroy Sankalpa

Destroy the stains of Sankalpa or the cloud of Sankalpa through the power ofdiscrimination and constant efforts and be drowned in the ocean of Brahmic bliss withspiritual illumination. When you try to bury your shadow in the earth, it always comesout. Similarly, when you try to destroy the Sankalpas through Viveka-Vritti, they willcome out again and again. Withdraw the mind from the objects and act according to yourGuru’s instructions. Purify the mind and fix it on the Akasa of the heart (InfiniteBrahman). The mind will be destroyed in course of time. Be sure of this.

Do not for a moment contemplate upon the things of the universe. You need not exertyourself too much to rid yourself of this Sankalpa. With the checking of all thoughts,one’s mind will perish. To crush a full-blown flower in one’s hand requires a littleeffort, but even that little effort is not needed to do away with Sanklpa. Sankalpa isdestroyed with the control of thoughts. Having firmly annihilated the external Sankalpathrough the internal one and having destroyed the impure mind through the pure one, restfirmly in your Atma-Jnana.

When you are firmly established in the idea that the world is unreal, Vikshepa (throughnames and forms) and Sphurana of Sankalpa (thoughts) will slowly vanish. Repeat constantlythe formula, “Brahma Satyam Jaganmithya Jivo Brahmaiva Naaparah” (Brahmanalone is real. World is unreal. Jiva is identical with Brahman). You will gain immensestrength and peace of mind through the repetition.

Having freed yourself from all desires for the visible objects before you and havingmade your impure mind firm and steady through your pure mind, eradicate all the Sanklpasthat arise in the mind. Now, this mind, which arises through Sankalpas, perishes throughit alone like a flame of fire which, though fanned by the wind, is yet extinguishable bythe same.

The State Of Nissankalpa

With the extinction of the base Sankalpas, there is the extinction of Avidya and itseffect, mind. Sankalpa is pain. Nissankalpa is all bliss. Sit alone in a solitary room.Close the eyes. Watch the mind and destroy the Vrittis one by one by continuous, energeticefforts. Asamprajnata Samadhi will ensue.

If, with the extinction of the pain-producing Sankalpas, the mind also is destroyed,then will the thick frost of Moha (delusion) affecting you from remote periods dissipateitself. Then, like an unobscured sky in the autumnal season, Brahman alone will shineresplendent, blissful, imperishable, non-dual, formless and without birth and death.

When your thoughts, which are now dispersed, shall be collected together and you willremain in a state of repose, then the eternally happy Atman will shine forth as thereflection of the sun is seen in a clear surface of water. Peace is not in money, woman oreating. When the mind becomes desireless and thoughtless, Atman shines and sheds fortheternal bliss and peace. Why do you search in vain for happiness in objects outside?Search within for bliss in the subjective, Sat-Chit-Ananda Amrita Atman.

Chapter 16

Thought Creates The World

Thought, The Origin Of Everything

Everything in the material universe about us had its origin first in thought. Fromthis, it took its form. Every castle, every statue, every painting, every piece ofmechanism-in short, everything-had its birth, its origin, first in the mind of the one whoformed it before it received its material expression or embodiment.

Mind has got various preoccupations. When an artist begins to draw a picture on thecanvas, he draws the picture out of the material preconceived by the mind.

After all, the world is merely an idea or thought. Just as a seed begins to germinateat its proper time and place, so also the seer (knower) appears as the visible through theSankalpa of the mind (the visible being no other than the seer itself). When the mindceases to think, the world vanishes and there is bliss indescribable. When the mind beginsto think, immediately the world reappears and there is suffering.

“Cogito, ergo sum-I think, therefore I am.” This is Descartes’sfundamental basis of philosophy. This is in accordance with Sri Sankara’s statement thatthe Atman cannot be illusive; for he who would deny it, even in denying it, witnesses itsreality.

The universe is rendered visible by mind. But, it is a pity that nobody has seen themind save a seer. When you seriously and unceasingly think over the nature of the mind, itis nothing. When you begin to analyse mind, it is nothing. It dwindles to airy nothing. Itis a bundle of thoughts and the thought ‘I’ is the root of all thoughts. This ‘I’ is afalse idea, a non-entity. When the root of all thoughts vanishes into nothing, where isthe boasted mind?

The first thought that arose in your mind was ‘Aham’, ‘I’. The last thought or Vrittithat will arise in the mind before it is absorbed in Brahman will be Brahmakara Vrittiwhich is produced by your feeling that you are Infinity.

Universe, A Creation Of The Cosmic Mind

The universe is not mental creation of Jiva. One single, organised thought of theCosmic Mind (Hiranyagarbha) has materialised as the seeming universe. This phenomenaluniverse is but an outcome of the Divine Will, seeming to be real through the workings ofthe mind.

Before you write out a drama, you have a vivid mental picture of the whole drama inyour mind. Then you write it out in succession in four acts. When it is staged, it isacted in succession, part by part. Similarly, the universe with its movements is a vividmental picture in the Cosmic Mind-in the mind of Isvara. There is neither past nor futurefor Him. Everything is ‘Present’ for Him. There is neither ‘near’ nor ‘far’ for Him. Everyplace is ‘here’. Every time is ‘now’. The events come out in succession on the stage ofthe long world-drama as Time rolls on. Atoms rotate continuously. Old becomes new and newbecomes old. In reality there is no such thing as old; there is no such thing as single.The Jivas with individual minds are witnessing the events in succession. But Isvara knowsall events at one sweep. He is Sarvajna (all-knowing). He is Sarvavit (all-understanding)also. He knows every detail of His creation. The Cosmic Mind creates the Maya. Individualminds receive things under delusion.

This universe is nothing but a mode of the mind, self-evolved from Brahman, the causeof the universe. All the universes which appear only through Manas are no other than itsmodes. The mind is subjectively consciousness and objectively it is this universe. Hence,this all-pervading world is nothing but consciousness itself.1

1. The Jiva and the universe are Brahman intheir innate condition only.

Isvara And Maya

All the Samskaras float in Maya. Suppose there is a very big mirror. You can see in themirror the reflection of all persons who move in the street, all carts, cars, allcarriages which pass along the road. You can be simply watching these movements from adistance in the mirror without being affected in the least. Even so, the movements of thiswhole universe take place in the biggest mirror of Maya. Isvara or the Lord of theuniverse is simply witnessing everything. He is the silent Sakshi. When the Adrishta (thehidden power in Karmas) of the Jivas ripens, Isvara simply wills and the universe isprojected.

Reality Of The Universe Lies In Sankalpa Of Manas

This ever-agitated Manas (mind), having come into existence out of the ineffableBrahman, creates the world according to its own Sankalpa (thoughts). This legerdemain ofthe universe springs out of the Sankalpa of your Manas. It is through the Sankalpa of yourManas that the universe appears to be and it is this Sankalpa that is asked to be given upby you if you wish to soar to the One Reality beyond the universe. “SarvasankalpasannyasiYogarudhastadochyate-He is said to be established in Yoga who has renounced all hisSankalpas.” (Gita, VI-4)

With the growth of a paltry Sankalpa, there will arise the universe; with theextinction of the former, the latter also will disappear. With the annihilation ofSankalpa, all conception of differences between the seer and the seen will vanish and thenthe Reality of Brahman will begin to shine uninterrupted. Then the shadow of all theuniverse-movable and fixed-will be found absorbed in It in a non-dual state.

With the contemplation of ‘I’, all the train of ideas of the universe will set in;otherwise, all the universe will vanish as instantaneously as darkness before the sun.Mind and ‘I’ are one. Destroy the ‘I’, then the mind is destroyed.

Manah-kalpitam Jagat-(Creation of) world is an imagination of themind” (Yogavasishtha). This legerdemain of the world is enacted by the mind and themind alone- “Manomatram Jagat. What you call world is the mind only.”Mind is world. The mind manifests itself as the external world. This universe is no otherthan the mind itself. Like a dream generating another dream in it, the mind, having novisible form, will generate non-existent visibles. This perishable universe exists onlywhen the mind exists, but disappears with the absence of the latter. If the mind, which isthe insturument of knowledge, perception and activity, vanishes, with it disappears thissubjective world also.

There is a corresponding notion and object for every Sabda (sound). There is a notionand an object for the Sabda “Cow.” Maya is deceiving you through Sabda-jala. Thewhole world is a mere notion, mere idea. It is Sankalpamatra. It is Bhrantimatra. It isKalpanamatra. It is Akasamatra. It exists in name only. “Vacharambhanam VikaroNamadheyam Mrittiketyeva Satyam-all modifications being only names based uponwords, the truth being that all is clay.” The whole world is a combination of fiveelements. Analyse, realise the illusory nature of all objects and abandon all falseobjects. When you begin to analyse, the whole world vanishes and with it the notion,sound, and objects also.

The happiness and misery experienced in this world are caused by the working of themind. All the hosts of pains and pleasures arise from the mind only. They will perish ifthe mind perishes through stainless discrimination and spiritual Sadhana. The three worldsare created for the pleasures and pains of the mind. Suspension of the mental activitywill cause the three worlds to disappear with their misery. With the destruction of themind, all the three periods of time vanish into nothing. By controlling the mind, alloccult powers are acquired. If the mind is not controlled, all else become useless andpainful. Therefore, the mind should be annihilated.

Mind Functions Within The Three Categories

Mind always functions within the categories of time, space and causation. These threecategories are mental creations only. A coconut tree is not really twenty feet high. Theheight is only a mental interpretation. There are vibrations only outside. It is the mindthat creates length, breadth, height, thickness, dimensions, void, square, etc. A distanceof two miles comes out of feeling only. You actually feel that you have walked so muchdistance. When you transcend the mind, all these categories vanish entirely. Annihilatethe mind, therefore, through Brahmavichara. You will enter a realm of Peace and Anandawhich is eternal, infinite and causeless (Parama Karana).

The Why And How Of The Universe-a Transcendental Question

Mr. Narain, my friend who is standing before me, is my own mental creation. Even thisworld is my own mental creation.

Abhava or non-existence is said to be an object of perception, since non-existence of athing means its existence somewhere else.

According to the idealistic theory, there is no world at all in reality. It is all meremental imagination. This is Vijnanavada of the Buddhists.

According to the realistic theory, the world is a solid reality. Even the dualist shoolof Madhva and Visishtadvaita school of Ramanuja and Raja Yogic school of MaharshiPatanjali hold that the world is real (Jagat Satyam).

Kant has demonstrated that space, time and causation are not objective realities, butonly subjective forms of our intellect, and the unavoidable conclusion is that the world,so far as it is extended in space, is running on in time and ruled throughout bycausality, is merely a representation of our mind and nothing beyond it.

A finite mind that is gross and conditioned by time, space and causation cannotcomprehend the why and how of the universe, a question that is transcendental. Thequestion has never been answered by anybody, by any Sastra, by any sage or Acharya. Do notrack your mind on this point. You can never get a solution for this problem. It is Maujaof Brahman to create this universe. It is His Lila-Vilasa. It is His Maya. It is HisSvabhava.

Non-Existence Of The World-what It Means

The Abhava of Jagat (non-existence of the world) or its Nasa (destruction) does notmean the annihilation of mountains, lakes, trees and rivers. When your Nischaya(determination) that this world is Mithya (unreal, illusory) gets stronger and strongerand when you are well-established on this idea that this world is illusory likeMrigatrishna (mirage), this alone is destruction of the world.

You cannot destroy a mountain, but you can destroy the idea of a mountain.

The universe is like a Svapna in Jagrat. Just as there is the image in the mirror, thisworld is a big image in the mind-mirror. The mind is like a big Chaddar (thickcloth) painted with various pictures. There is neither painter nor canvas nor any materialfor painting such as brush, dish, oil, powder, etc. The picture of the universe appearsdepicted on the spotless Jnana-Akasa (knowledge-space).

The play of the mind arising out of Chaitanya (pure consciousness) constitutes thisuniverse. Mind is Maya. Maya is mind. The workings of the mind are nothing but theworkings of Maya itself. Attraction or attachment in the mind towards forms is Maya.Identification of one’s own self with the mind is Maya.

How The Mind Manifests As The World

The motion or vibration of Prana moves the mind. The movement of the mind generates theuniverse. The mind manifests itself as the external world. Nama-Rupa (names and forms)arise owing to Vikshepa Sakti, one of the powers of Maya. The Vikshepa force operates bothin the Jagrat and the Svapna states. The whole world is projected on account of this poweronly. In sleep, it disappears.

The world enters the mind through the eyes, ears, tongue (speech) and old Samskaras. Ifyou remain in the seclusion, you can shut out these first three doors. Through Vichara(right enquiry of Supreme Self), you can destroy the Samskaras, the fourth route. ThenJnana (Knowledge of Self) will dawn.

All the universes with their heterogeneity, though really Atma-Jnana, shine as worldsonly through our illusory mind, like the blueness of the sky which is really non-existent.The Self-light of Para Brahman alone is appearing as the mind or this motley universe.Mind is Prajna-Sakti. Matter is Bhuta-Sakti. Prana is Kriya-Sakti of Brahman. Everythingbelongs to Brahman. In reality, there is no Jiva. There is Brahman only.

The mind which ever rises and falls with the ebb of desires, fancies this illusoryuniverse to be through its ignorance; but it should be informed of the real nature of thisworld, then it will cognise it to be Brahman itself.

Chapter 17

Avidya And Ahankara


The mind itself is a creation of Avidya (ignorance). It is a Karya (effect) of Avidya.It is filled with delusion. That is the reason why it deceives and tempts you. It makesyou go astray. If you can destroy the cause of the mind, Ajnana, by getting Jnana(knowledge of the Supreme Self), mind is nowhere. It dwindles into an airy nothing.Manonasa (annihilation of mind) takes place when Jnana dawns.

Avidya works through Upadhis (attributes, limiting adjuncts). All the special apparatusrequired by Avidya constitute the Upadhis of the soul. Mind is an Upadhi; Buddhi is anUpadhi and Ahankara also is an Upadhi.

The sea of Avidya (ignorance) is in the mind of man. The explanation of the empiricalconcept must be sought in the nature of our cognitive faculty. Sri Sankara explains Avidyain this way. It is Naisargika; it is innate in our mental faculty. It isMithyajnananimitta, based on wrong knowledge; and, knowledge is a function of the mind. Itis Nityapratyayarupa; it consists in the form of a wrong conception. “All Jivas-humanentities-which are really non-existent, are (with all concomitant appearance of birth,death, etc.) mere results of the objectivising tendency of the mind and nothingelse.”

The whole experience of duality, made up of perceiver and perceived, is pureimagination. There is no Avidya apart from the mind. On destruction of the mind, all isdestroyed. The activity of the mind is the cause of all appearance. On account of Avidyaor Bhranti (illusion) in the mind, you see the objects, trees, etc., outside and feel asif they are separate from you and real.

So long as there is mind, there are all these distinctions of big and small, high andlow, superior and inferior, good and bad, etc. The highest Truth is that in which there isno relativity. If you can transcend the mind by constant and profound meditation on Atman,you will be able to attain the Nirdvandva state (a state beyond the pairs of opposites)wherein lies the supreme peace and highest knowledge.

There is no Avidya outside the mind. The mind itself is Avidya. Imaginations andSankalpas are products of Avidya. Ignorance is imbedded in the mind. The mind needsthorough cleansing with Japa, Pranayama, Satsanga, Vichara and Nididhyasana, just as arusty copper plate needs cleansing with earth, ash, tamarind, powder, etc.

Ahankara-how It Develops

Atman in conjunction with the Buddhi is Ahankara. The basis of Ahankara is Buddhi. Asthe Buddhi (Bheda Buddhi) is the cause for this differentiation (this little”I”), Buddhi is the cause or seed for Ahankara. Ahamta and Mamata (‘I’-ness and’mine’-ness) are Jivasrishti. It is Jivasrishti that binds a man to the world.Isvarasrishti (God’s creation) helps man in his God-realisation.

The seed of mind is Ahankara. Ahankara is development through the thoughts of the mind.As the first thought is the ‘I’ thought and as this ‘I’ thought is at the base of allother thoughts, Ahankara is the seed for the mind. This idea of ‘I’ will bring in itstrain, the idea of time, space and other potencies. With these environments, the name Jivaaccrues to it. Contemporaneously with it, there arise Buddhi, memory, Manas which is theseed of the tree of Sankalpa.

When you are a boy, the Ahankara is not very potent. It is like a shadow in a glass. Itgets developed and firm-rooted during your adolescence after you marry and entangleyourself in the achievement of various worldly desires. You are fearless in your boyhood.The moment this little ‘I’ becomes stronger in your, side by side, various sorts of fears,various sorts of desires, a host of delusions take firm hold of you. The world appears toyou more real, too.

The Curse Of Egoism

Ahankara is, after all, nothing. But, tremendous is its influence! Maya means Ahankara.Mind is another name for Ahankara. World means Ahankara. The sprout of Ahankara ramifieshere and there with its long branches of ‘mine’ and ‘thine’. It is inveterate. Ahankarawants to live in flesh (Abhinivesa or clinging to life), to eat flesh and to embraceflesh. This is pure Ajnana (ignorance) only. Look at Maya’s deception and wholesaleswindling! Beware! Awake! Get Jnana.

Just as the cloud screens the sun, so also this cloud of Ahankara screens the ‘JnanaSurya’, the Infinite Sun of Knowledge, Brahman. You cannot realise God, if you have theleast tinge of egoism, if you have the slightest attachment to name and form, if you havethe least tinge of Vasana or if you have the least trace of worldly desire in the mind.

How To Eradicate Ahankara

The deep roots of Ahankara should be burnt by the fire of knowledge (Jnanagni). Thenyou will quite easily get the wealth of Moksha. All tribulations, sorrows, miseries andafflictions will terminate now. Control of the Indriyas and Pranayama help to develop theBuddhi (Vikasa of Buddhi).

You cannot, all at once, eradicate Ahankara altogether. You can easily give up wife,children, money, anger. But it is extremely difficult to give up Ahankara. Try to minimiseit little by little. Remove one anna of Ahankara within three months. Within four years,you will be able to root it out completely. You will have to remove it either byself-sacrifice through Karma Yoga-or self-surrender through Bhakti-or self-denial throughVedantic Atma-Vichara.

Through the Sankalpas of Manas, Ahankara is generated. If the modification of the mindwhich leans to sensual pleasures is destroyed, the Atman, divested of its Ahankara,becomes the unnameable Brahmic Reality.

Ahankara is like a thread. It connects or links all the Indriyas on itself. When thethread is broken, all the pearls fall down. Even so, when the thread of Ahankara is brokenby ‘Aham Brahma Asmi‘ Bhavana or Sakshi Bhava or self-surrender method by takingthe Nimitta Bhava (instrument-in-the-hands-of-the-Lord attitude), all the Indriyas will bebroken down or destroyed. The connection with Indriyas will be severed.

Even if you identify yourself with a subtle body inside, it will help you in yourSelf-realisation. It is only the identification with the fleshy physical body that bringsall sorts of troubles through gross Ahankara and ‘mineness’. The physical ‘I’ is a verygreat menace.

Whenever Ahankara asserts itself, raise a question within thyself, “What is thesource of this little ‘I’?” Again and again, moot this question and enquire. When youremove layer after layer, the onion dwindles to nothing. When you analyse the little ‘I’,it becomes a non-entity; it will gradually vanish. It will dwindle into an airy nothing.Body is not ‘I’. ‘I’ remains even after the leg is amputated. Give up Jivasrishti.

Within the time taken to pluck a flower, within the twinkling of an eye, this Ahankaracan be easily eradicated by right Sadhana or Brahma-Bhava.

Sattvic Ahankara

When you assert ‘Aham Brahma Asmi’ (I am Brahman), it is Sattvic Ahankara. It is MokshaAhankara. It will not bind you in any way. It will help you realise Brahman. The fire in apicture will not burn anything. A light in the presence of midday sun will not shine andshed its light. Even so, the Ahankara of a Sattvic person cannot do any harm to anyperson.

Chapter 18

The Power Of Thought

Thought Is A Living Force

Thought is a vital, living force, the most vital, subtle and irresistible force thatexists in the universe. The thought-world is more real relatively than this physicaluniverse. Thoughts are living things. Every change in thought is accompanied by vibrationof its matter (mental). Thought as force needs a special kind of subtle matter in itsworking.

Mind assumes the form of anything it contemplates. When you think of an object, yourmind shapes itself into the form of that object. When you change your thought, your mindalso changes its shape. Many modifications continually arise in the mind. Your thoughtsrapidly change. Your mind also changes its shape rapidly. Every moment, mind iscontinually creating hundreds of these thought-forms and continually dispersing themagain. It never holds on steadily to one thought-form for some time.

Every thought has a certain name and a certain form. Form is the grosser and name thefiner state of a single manifesting power called thought. But, these three are one. It isthe unity in trinity, the three degrees of existence of the same thing. Wherever the oneis, the others also are there. Suppose your mind is now perfectly calm, entirely withoutthought. Nevertheless, as soon as thought begins to rise, it will immediately take nameand form. Thus you find that every idea that man has, or can have, must be connected witha certain word as its counterpart.

Language is different, but thought is one. Mental image is the same in all. Sound hasgot four forms, viz., Para, Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari. Vaikhari is theordinary speech. It differs in different countries. But Para, Pasyanti and Madhyama areone and the same. Para is undifferentiated sound that lies dormant in Brahman. Thelanguage of the Devatas, the language in the mental plane is one. It is Madhyama. Therotatory vibration of the causal body (Karana-Sarira) is Pasyanti. That is your real name.When you operate through your Karana-Sarira, (lower Prakamya or lower Divya Drishti), youwill hear the Pasyanti sound, your real name.

Thought Is Subtle Matter

Thought is subtle matter. A thought is as much solid as a piece of stone. You may die,but your thoughts can never die. They have form, size, shape, colour, quality, substance,power and weight. A spiritual thought has yellow colour; a thought charged with anger andhatred is of a dark red colour; a selfish thought has a brown colour; and so on. A Yogincan see directly with his inner Yogic eye all these thoughts.

The stronger the thoughts, the earlier the fructification. Thought is focussed andgiven a particular direction and, in the degree that thought is thus focussed and givendirection, it is effective in the work it is sent out to accomplish.

Thought Is A Creative Force

Thought is a great force. Thought is a dynamic force. Thought moves. Thought isinfectious. Thought creates. You can work wonders with the power of thought. Through theinstrumentality of thought, you acquire creative power. There are nowadays numerous bookson thought-power, thought-dynamics and thought-culture. Study them. You will then have acomprehensive understanding of thought, its power, workings and usefulness.

The power of thought is very great. Every thought of yours has a literal value to youin every possible way. The strength of your body, the strength of your mind, your successin life and the pleasures you give to others by your company- all depend on the nature andquality of your thoughts. You must know thought-culture.

Thought Gives Health

If you entertain healthy thoughts, you can keep good health. If you hold on to sicklythoughts in the mind, thoughts of diseased tissues, thoughts of weak-nerves, thoughts ofimproper functioning of organs or viscera, you can never expect good health, beauty andharmony. The body is the product of the mind. If you hold on vigorous thoughts in themind, then the physical body also will be vigorous.

Evil thoughts of all kinds befoul and infure the mind and, if persisted in, will becomeveritable diseases and maimings of the mind, incurable during the period of life.

Thought Builds Character

“As a man thinketh, so he is.” “Man is created by thought; what a manthinks upon, that he becomes.” Think you are strong; strong you become. Think you areweak; weak you become. Think you are a fool; fool you become. Think you are God; God youbecome. A man forms his own character, becoming that which he thinks. If you meditate oncourage, you shall work courage into your character. So with purity, patience,unselfishness and self-control. If you think nobly, you shall gradually make for yourselfa noble character, but if you think basely, a base character will be formed. Steadypersevering thought sets up a definite habit of the mind and that habit manifests itselfas a quality in the character. The thread of thought is woven into mental and moralqualities and these qualities in their totality form what we call character. You can buildyour character as surely as a mason can build a wall, working with and through the law.

The first step towards a deliberate creation of character lies then in the deliberatechoosing of what we will think and then of thinking persistently on the quality chosen.Ere long, there will be a tendency to evince that quality; a little longer, its exercisewill become habitual. Thought makes character. You spin the thread of thought into yourdestiny.

Thought Weaves Destiny

That which man thinks upon in one life, he becomes in another. If the mind dwellscontinually upon one train of thought, a groove is formed into which the thought-forceruns automatically and such a habit of thought survives death and since it belongs to theego, is carried over to the subsequent earth life as a thought tendency and capacity.

Every thought has got its own mental image. Every man has a mental world of his own,his own views, his own sentiments, his own feelings, his own habitual thoughts, his ownexperience and his own mode of thinking. The essence of the various mental images formedin one particular physical life is being worked out in the mental plane. It constitutesthe basis for the next physical life. Just as a new physical body is formed in everybirth, so also a new mind and a new Buddhi are formed in every birth.

It is difficult to explain the detailed workings of thought and Karma. Every Karmaproduces twofold effects, one on the individual mind and the other on the world. Man makesthe circumstances of his future life by the effect of his actions upon others.

Every action has a past which leads up to it; every action has a future which proceedsfrom it. An action implies a desire which prompted it and a thought which shaped it. Eachact is a link in an endless chain of causes and effects, each effect becoming a cause andeach cause having been an effect; and each link in the endless chain is welded out ofthree components-desire, thought and activity. A desire stimulates a thought; a thoughtembodies itself in an act.

Selfish coveting of the possessions of others, though never carried out into activecheating in the present, makes one a thief in a later earth-life, while hatred and revengesecretly cherished are the seeds from which the murderer springs. So again, unselfishloving yields as harvest the philanthropist and the saint; and every thought of compassionhelps to build the tender and pitiful nature which belongs to one who is a friend to allcreatures.

Like Attracts Like

The great law, “Like attracts like,” is ever operating. This is a greatcosmic law. This is a law in nature. This law operates in the thought world also. Peopleof similar thoughts are attracted towards each other. That is the reason why the maximsrun as follows: “Birds of the same feather flock together… A man is known by thecompany he keeps.” A doctor is drawn towards a doctor. A poet has attraction foranother poet. A songster loves another songster. A philosopher likes another philosopher.A vagabond likes a vagabond. The mind has got a ‘drawing power’. You are continuallyattracting towards you, from both the seen and the unseen sides of life-forces, thoughts,influences and conditions most akin to those of your own thoughts and lives.

In the realm of thought, people of similar thoughts are attracted to one another. Thisuniversal law is continually operating whether we are conscious of it or not. We are allliving, so to speak, in a vast ocean of thought; and the very atmosphere around us iscontinually filled with the thought-forces that are being continually sent or that arecontinually going out in the form of thought-waves. We are all affected more or less bythese thought-forces either consciously or unconsciously and in the degree that we aremore or less sensitively organised or in the degree we are negative and so are open tooutside influences, rather than positive, which thus determine what influences shall enterinto the domain of our thoughts and hence into our lives.

Carry any kind of thought you please about with you and so long as you retain it, nomatter how you roam over land or sea, you will unceasingly attract to yourself, knowinglyor inadvertently, exactly and only what corresponds to your own dominant quality ofthought. Thoughts are your private property and you can regulate them to suit your tasteentirely by steadily recognising your ability to do so. You have entirely in your ownhands to determine the order of thought you entertain and consequently the order ofinfluences you attract and are not mere willowy creatures of circumstances, unless indeedyou choose to be.

Good Thoughts And Evil Thoughts

A good thought is thrice blessed. First, it benefits the thinker by improving hismental body (Manomaya Kosha). Secondly, it benefits the person about whom it isentertained. Lastly, it benefits all mankind by improving the general mental atmosphere.

An evil thought, on the contrary, is thrice cursed. First, it harms the thinker bydoing injury to his mental body. Secondly, it harms the person who is its object. Lastly,it harms all mankind by vitiating the whole mental atmosphere.

Every evil thought is as a sword drawn on the person to whom it is directed. If youentertain thoughts of hatred, you are really a murderer of that man against whom youfoster thoughts of hatred. You are your own suicide, because these thoughts rebound uponyou only.

A mind tenanted by evil thoughts acts as a magnet to attract like thoughts from othersand thus intensifies the original evil.

Evil thoughts thrown into the mental atmosphere poison receptive minds. To dwell on anevil thought gradually deprives it of its repulsiveness and impels the thinker to performan action which embodies it.

The Progeny Of Thoughts

It is not sufficient that your thoughts are not bad. You must transmute bad thoughtsinto good thoughts. This is the first part of your Sadhana. You must make them helpfulthoughts. When they are sent out, they must be capable of doing immense good and benefitto the suffering humanity and your neighbours.

Thoughts are your own real children. Be careful of your progeny of thoughts. A good sonbrings happiness, name and fame to the father. An evil son brings infamy, discredit to hisfather. Even so, a noble thought will bring happiness and joy to you. An evil thought willbring misery and trouble to you. Just as you rear up your children with great care, soalso you will have to rear up good, sublime thoughts with great care.

Thought Is Contagious

Thought is very contagious, nay, more contagious than the Spanish Flu. Thought moves.It actually leaves the brain and hovers about. It enters the brains of others also. Asympathetic thought in you raises a sympathetic thought in others with whom you come incontact. A thought of anger produces a similar vibration in those who surround an angryman. It leaves the brain of one man and enters the brains of others who live at a longdistance and excites them. A cheerful thought produces cheerful thought in others. Athought of joy creates sympathetically a thought of joy in others. You are filled with joyand intense delight when you see a batch of hilarious children playing mirthfully anddancing in joy.

In broadcasting, a singer sings beautiful songs at Calcutta. You can hear them nicelythrough the radio-set in your own house at Delhi. All messages are received through thewireless. Even so, your mind is like a wireless machine. A saint with peace, poise,harmony and spiritual waves sends out into the world thoughts of harmony and peace. Theytravel with tremendous lightning speed in all directions and enter the minds of thousandsand produce in them also similar thoughts of harmony and peace. Whereas a worldly manwhose mind is filled with jealousy, revenge and hatred sends out discordant thoughts whichenter the minds of thousands and stir in them similar thoughts of hatred and discord.

Thought is very contagious. Keep a good and honest man in the company of a thief. Hewill begin to steal. Keep a sober man in the company of a drunkard. He will begin todrink.

Thought-Tranference Or Telepathy

What is the possible medium through which thoughts can travel from one mind to another?The best possible explanation is that Manas or mind-substance fills all space like etherand it serves as the vehicle for thoughts as Prana is the vehicle for feelings, ether isthe vehicle for heat, light and electricity, and air is the vehicle for sound. Mind isVibhu (all-pervading) like Akasa. Hence, thought-transference is possible.Thought-transference is telepathy.

If we throw a piece of stone in a tank or a pool of water, it will produce a successionof concentric waves travelling all around from the affected place. The light of a candlewill similarly give rise to waves of ethereal vibrations travelling in all directions fromthe candle. In the same manner, when a thought, whether good or evil, crosses the mind ofa person, it gives rise to vibrations in the Manas or mental atmosphere, which travel farand wide in all directions.

While electricity travels at the rate of 1,86,000 miles per second, thoughts virtuallytravel in no time, their speed being as much faster than electricity as their vehicleManas is finer than ether, the medium of electricity.

Thoughts are like things. Just as you hand over an orange to your friend and take itback, so also you can give a useful, powerful thought to your friend and take it backalso. You must know the right technique to handle and manipulate a thought. The science isvery interesting and subtle. You can aid a friend in trouble by sending him thoughts ofcomfort, a friend in search of Truth by thoughts clear and definite of the truths youknow. You can send into the mental atmosphere thoughts which will raise, purify andinspire all who are sensible to them.

If you send out a loving, helpful thought to another man, it leaves your brain, goesdirectly to that man, raises a similar thought of love in his mind and returns back to youwith redoubled force. If you send out a thought of hatred to another man, it hurts thatman and hurts you also by returning back to you with redoubled force. Therefore,understand the laws of thought, raise only thoughts of mercy, love and kindness from yourmind and be happy always.

When you send out a useful thought to help others, it must have a definite, positivepurpose and aim. Then only it will bring out the desired effect. Then only that thoughtwill accomplish a definite work.

The Duty Of An Aspirant

You should learn the method of sending out helping, loving thoughts to others and thewhole world at large. You should know how to remove distraction and collect all thoughtsand send them out as a battalion of helpful forces to do good to the suffering humanity.Thought-transference is a beautiful science. It is an exact science.

Just as the flowing Ganga brings joy and coolness to those who live on its banks, soalso your strong thoughts of love and peace must flow out as a healing stream to bringsolace, peace and glee to those persons whose minds are filled with care, worry, anxiety,tribulation, affliction, etc.

Even some good natured householders entertain some occasional good thoughts and sendout into the world some helpful thoughts. This is not sufficient for an aspirant in thepath of Truth. A continuous stream of helpful thoughts must gush out from his mind. Itmust be a perennial, healing stream of loving, helpful thoughts. He must be able to chargegroups of twenty persons, masses of hundreds and thousands with love, joy andcheerfulness. He must stir them with a mere glance and a few sweet, powerful words intoenthusiasm, high spirits and exalted moods and exhilaration. That is spiritual strength,will-force (Atma-Bala).

How Sannyasins Serve The World Through Their Thought-Vibrations

Indians have now imbibed the missionary spirit of the West and cry out that Sannyasinsshould come out and take part in social and political activities. It is a sad mistake. ASannyasin or a Yogin need not become the President of an Association or the leader of asocial or political movement. It is a foolish and puerile idea. A true Sannyasin can doeverything through his thought-vibrations.

It is not necessary that a Sannyasin, a saint should appear on the platform to help theworld, to preach and elevate the minds of people. Some saints preach by example. Theirvery lives are an embodiment of teaching. Their very sight elevates the minds ofthousands. A saint is a living assurance for others for God-realisation. Many drawinspiration from the sight of holy saints. No one can check the thought-vibrations fromthe saints. Their pure, strong thought-vibrations travel a very long distance, purify theworld and enter the minds of many thousands of persons. There is no doubt in this.

A sage living in a Himalayan cave can transmit a powerful thought to a corner ofAmerica. He who practises Nishkama Karma Yoga in the world purifies himself throughdisinterested works and he who meditates in a cave in the Himalayas and tries to purifyhimself really purifies the world, helps the world at large through his spiritualvibrations. Nobody can prevent his pure thoughts coming out and passing to others whoreally want them. Worldly-minded social workers cannot understand this point.

Clear Thinking-how It Is Accomplished

The common man does not know what deep thinking is. His thoughts run riot. There is agreat deal of confusion in the mind sometimes. His mental images are very distorted. It isonly thinkers, philosophers and Yogins who have well-defined, clear-cut mental images.They can be seen through clairvoyance very vividly. Those who practise concentration andmeditation develop strong, well-formed mental images.

Most of your thoughts are not well-grounded. They come and slip away. They are,therefore, vague and indefinite. The images are not clear, strong and well-defined. Youwill have to reinforce them by clear, continuous and deep thinking. Through Vichara(ratiocination), Manana (deep reflection) and meditation, you will have to make thethoughts settle down and crystalise into a definite shape. Then the philosophical ideawill become firm. Through right-thinking, reasoning, introspection and meditation, youwill have to clarify your ideas. Then confusion will vanish. The thoughts will get settledand well-grounded.

Think clearly. Clarify your ideas again and again. Introspect in solitude. Purify yourthoughts to a considerable degree. Silence the thoughts. Do not allow the mind to bubble.Let one thought-wave rise and settle down calmly. Then allow another thought to enter.Drive off all extraneous thoughts that have no connection with the subject-matter you arehandling at the present moment.

Independent And Original Thinking

Thinkers are very few in this world. Most of us do not know what right thinking is.Thinking is shallow in the vast majority of persons. Deep thinking needs intense Sadhana(practice). It takes innumerable births for the proper evolution of the mind. Then only itcan think deeply and properly. A man who speaks the truth and has moral purity has alwayspowerful thoughts. One who has controlled anger by long practice has tremendous thoughtpower. If a Yogin whose thought is very powerful speaks one word, it will producetremendous impression on the minds of others.

Independent and original thinking is resorted to by the Vedantins. Vedantic Sadhana(Manana, reflection) demands a sharp intellect. Hard thinking, persistent thinking, clearthinking, thinking to the roots of all problems, to the very fundamentals of thesituations, to the very presuppositions of all thoughts and being is the very essence ofVedantic Sadhana. You will have to abandon an old idea, however strong and ingrained itmay be, when you get a new, elevating idea in its stead. If you have no courage to facethe results of your thinking, to swallow the conclusions of your thinking, whatever theymay mean to you personally, you should never take the trouble to philosophise. Take up todevotion.

Applied Thinking And Sustained Thinking

Applied thinking applies the mind to the object and sustained thinking keeps itcontinually engaged; rapture brings about the expanding and bliss of the developing mindwhose motives for non-distraction have been accomplished by those two kinds of thinking.Meditation can arise when applied and sustained thinking, rapture, bliss and collectednessof mind arise.

Thought is a great force. It has got tremendous power. It becomes a matter of greatmoment to know how to use this power in the highest possible way and to the greatestpossible effect. This can best be done by the practice of meditation.

Chapter 19


If a pebble in our boot torments us we expel it. We take off the boot and shake it out.Once the matter is fairly understood, it is just as easy to expel an intruding andobnoxious thought from the mind. About this there ought to be no doubt, no two opinions.The thing is obvious, clear and unmistakable. It should be as easy to expel an obnoxiousthought from your mind as it is to take a stone out of your shoe; and till a man can dothat, it is just nonsense to talk about his ascendency and conquest over nature. He is amere slave and prey to the bat-winged phantoms that flit through the corridor of hisbrain. Pitiable, indeed, is the lot of these creatures!

Benefits Of Thought-Control

Thoughts lead to action. Thoughts are the sources of all actions. Thought is the realKarma. Thinking is the real action. If you can root out all evil thoughts in thebeginning, you will not do any evil action. If you can nip them in the bud, you will befree from the miseries and tribulations of this world. Watch your thoughts with vigilanceand introspection.

Thought is the real action. Activities of the mind are the real Karmas. Once theVikshepa of the mind vanishes, you will get good Nishtha (meditation). The mind will bevery, very calm. Get rid of the impurities of the mind. Have mastery over the mind. Thenall the miseries of the Samsara with births and deaths will come to an end. If you freeyourself from the clutches of the mind, Moksha (liberation) will come by itself. There isno doubt about this.

A wise man watches his thoughts and eradicates all evil thoughts as they arise from thesurface of the mind. So he is happy. He has always pure thoughts. By meditation on God,pure thoughts emanate from the mind, because God is purity (Nitya Suddha).

If you have control over your thoughts, you can turn out immense work with intenseconcentration. Mental torments of all sorts, cares, worries and anxieties will disappear.The peace that you will enjoy cannot be adequately described.

Those who have even a little control over their thoughts and speech will have a calm,serene, beautiful, charming face, sweet voice and brilliant, lustrous white eyes. Just assweet perfume continuously emanates from an incense stick, so also divine perfume anddivine effulgence (magnetic, Brahmic aura) radiate from a Yogin who has controlled histhoughts and who is constantly dwelling on Brahman or the infinite. The effulgence andperfume of his face is Brahma-Varchas. When you hold in your hand a bouquet made ofjasmine, rose and Champaka flowers, the sweet perfume pervades the whole hall and ticklesall alike. Even so, the perfume of fame and reputation (Yasas and Kirti) of a Yogin whohas controlled his thoughts spreads far and wide. He becomes a cosmic force.

Radium is a rare commodity. There are only 16 grains in the world. Yogins who havecontrolled their thoughts are also very rare in the world, like radium.

Conservation And Proper Utilisation Of Thought-Energy

Just as energy is wasted in idle talk and gossiping, so also energy is wasted inentertaining useless thought. Therefore, you should not waste even a single thought. Donot waste even an iota of energy in useless thinking. Conserve all mental energy. Utiliseit for higher spiritual purposes in divine contemplation, Brahma-Chintana andBrahma-Vichara. Conserve all thought-energy and utilise it for meditation and helpfulservice to humanity.

Do not store in your brain useless information. Learn to unmind the mind. Unlearnwhatever you have learnt. They are now useless for you. Then only you can fill your mindwith divine thoughts. You will gain new mental strength as all the dissipated mental raysare collected now.

In physics you have the term ‘power of orientation’. Though the mass of energy isthere, the current will not flow. It must be connected to the magnet and then the electriccurrent will flow through the power of orientation. Even so, the mental energy which isdissipated and misdirected in various worthless worldly concerns should be well-directedin proper spiritual channels.

Negative Thoughts

Drive away from your mind all unnecessary, useless and obnoxious thoughts. Uselessthoughts impede your spiritual growth; obnoxious thoughts are stumbling blocks tospiritual advancement. You are away from God when you entertain useless thoughts.Substitute thoughts of God. Entertain only thoughts that are helpful and useful. Usefulthoughts are the stepping-stones to spiritual growth and progress. Do not allow the mindto run into the old grooves and to have its own ways and habits. Be on the careful watch.

You must eradicate through introspection all sorts of mean thoughts, useless thoughts,unworthy thoughts, impure thoughts, all sexual thoughts, thoughts of jealousy, hatred andselfishness. You must annihilate all destructive thoughts of disharmony and discord. Youmust develop thought-culture of good, loving, sublime thoughts, divine thoughts. Everythought must be of a constructive nature. It must be strong, positive and definite. Themental image must be of a clear-cut and well-defined nature. You must develop rightthinking. Every thought must bring peace and solace to others. It should not bring eventhe least pain and unhappiness to anyone. Then you are a blessed soul on the earth. Youare a mighty power on the earth. You can help many, heal thousands, spiritualise andelevate a large number of persons as did Jesus and Buddha.

Just as you grow jasmine, rose, lily, honolulu flowers in a garden, so also you shouldcultivate the flowers of peaceful thoughts of love, mercy, kindness, purity in the vastgarden of Antahkarana. Through introspection, you have to water this garden of mind withmeditation and sublime thinking and remove the weeds of vain, useless discordant thoughts.

Inconsistent Thoughts

Generally, in untrained persons, four or five kinds of thoughts occupy the mind at atime. Household thoughts, business thoughts, thoughts of office, thoughts of body,thoughts of food and drink, hope and anticipation, some kind of planning to get money,some kinds of thoughts of revenge, some habitual thoughts of answering calls of nature,bathing, etc., occupy the mind at a time. When you are studying a book with interest at3.30 p.m., the idea of pleasure of witnessing a cricket match at 4 p.m. disturbs yourstudy every now and then. It is only a Yogin with Ekagra mind, who can have only onethought at a time and can keep it as long as he likes.

If you watch the mind carefully, you will find that many thoughts are inconsistent. Themind wanders at random aimlessly. There will be some thoughts of the body and its wants,some thoughts of friends, some thoughts of acquiring money, some thoughts of eating anddrinking, some thoughts of your boyhood, etc. If you can study the mind and if you haveconsistent thoughts of one subject or one kind only to the exclusion of all otherthoughts, this itself is a very great achievement, is a great step in advancement inthought-control. Do not be discouraged.

Haunting Thoughts Of Sin

Thoughts of sin haunt the minds of some persons. One man always thinks, “I havecommitted a very heinous sin. I do not know what to do.” Again and again, this oneidea haunts his mind. This is a bad habit. These people do not know how to divert theirminds. They become prey to these ‘haunting thoughts’. Virtue and sin are relative terms.They are creations of the mind. Sin is nothing but a mistake. Japa of God’s Name, charityand fasting will destroy at once any amount of sin. Why are you afraid? Even the worstsinner can attain salvation, can become holy of holies. What was the state of Valmiki,Jagai and Madhai and Ajamila in the beginning? Were they not rogues of the first water?Repeat OM, Rama and assert boldly, ‘I am pure now’ ‘I am holy now’. Where is the room fordespair? Nil desperandum. Do virtuous actions. Remember Him always. Be true to theAntaryamin (Indweller of your heart).

Techniques Of Thought-Control

The following are some of the auto-suggestions for controlling your thoughts: (1) Ishall not think of anything. (2) I shall get peace, if I do not think of anything. (3) Mywill is growing strong. I can control my thoughts. (4) I will get perfect peace when I amthoughtless. I eagerly long for that thoughtless state.

Each thought, by itself, is extremely weak, because the mind is distracted intocountless and ever-varying thoughts. The more the thoughts are restrained, the more is themind concentrated and, consequently, the more does it gain in strength and power. Destroythe evil thoughts one by one. It doubtless needs patient work.

As soon as you slowly wake up in the morning, the first thought that comes is ‘I’. Thencomes the memory of the events of the previous evening. The strong thoughts that float inthe mind this evening slowly emerge out the moment you rise from your bed in the followingmorning and materialise. Then come the thoughts that are to fructify in the course of theday. Watch this carefully.

When a thought hovers in the mind, fulfil it. Do not allow it to linger on for a longtime. It will frequently recur again and again. It will be a source of great trouble.Whenever a thought flashes out to write a letter to your friend, then and there finishthat piece of work. Do not procrastinate it.

There are four ways of destroying evil thoughts. A Jnana Yogin (student of the path ofKnowledge) does it by living in OM or Truth. He destroys the evil thoughts by Vichara andattitude of indifference. He says, “This has nothing to do with me. I amSatchidananda-Svarupa, Sivoham, Sivoham. These impulses belong to the mind. I am distinctfrom the mind.” A Bhakta destroys the same by prayer and self-surrender. He says,”O God! I have surrendered myself, the fruits of all actions and the actionsthemselves to Thee. Give me strength to drive away and destroy these evil thoughts.”He gets help from God through self-surrender. God sublimates the sex-impulse into Sattvaor Ojas (spiritual energy). The Raja Yogin destroys evil thoughts either by destroying theVrittis as they arise or by substituting opposite, positive thoughts of Sattvic nature, bysupplanting sublime thoughts in their stead (Pratipaksha-Bhavana).

Brahma Vichara

The first and foremost of all thoughts-the primeval thought-is ‘I’. It is only afterthe birth of this thought that any other thought can rise at all. It is only after thefirst personal pronoun ‘I’ has arisen in the mind that the second personal pronoun ‘You’and the third personal pronoun ‘He’, etc., can make their appearance. If ‘I’ vanishes,’You’ and ‘He’ will disappear by themselves. Eradicate this false little ‘I’ of anillusory nature through proper Brahma Vichara. There is no other way.

Thinker is different from thought. Remember this. This gives the clue to the fact thatyou are the silent witness of the modifications that arise in the mind. You are KutasthaBrahman. You are Pratyagatman.

Destruction of Sankalpas

Raja Yoga teaches Yogas-chittavrittinirodhah:-“Yoga is the restraint of themental modifications.” It gives you the power of expelling the thoughts or, if needbe, of killing them dead on the spot. Naturally, the art requires practice, but like otherarts, when once acquired, there is no mystery or difficulty about it. It is worthpractising.

Mark how one Sankalpa expands into many Sankalpas (imaginations) in a short time.Suppose you get a Sankalpa to have a tea-party for your friends. One thought of teainvites instantaneously the thoughts of sugar, milk, tea-cups, tables, chairs,table-cloth, napkins, spoons, sweetmeats, salted things, etc. So this world is nothing butthe expansion of Sankalpas. There is no such thing as the world, independent of and apartfrom, thoughts. The expansion of thoughts of the mind towards objects is bondage (Bandha).Renunciation of Sankalpas is liberation (Moksha). In the string of Sankalpa, countlessthoughts are strung like so many beads. If the string be cut into pieces, then you mayinfer what will become of the illusory thoughts which are strung on it. You must be verywatchful and nip the Sankalpas in the bud. Then only will you be really happy. Mind playstricks. You must understand its nature, ways and habits. Then only you can control it veryeasily.


Prana (energy) is the outer overcoat for the mind. The vibration of the subtle, psychicPrana gives rise to the formation of thought. By Pranayama (control of Prana or restraintof breath), you can also increase the mental energy and develop thought-control andthought-culture. This will help concentration and meditation. This will make the mindsteady. This will remove Rajas and Tamas (passion and inertia). This will burn the drossin the mind.

Pratipaksha Bhavana

If you think again and again on impure things, an evil thought gains new strength byrepetition. It gets the force of momentum. You must drive them immediately. If you find itdifficult to do so, entertain counter-thoughts of God. Cultivate sublime and elevatingthoughts. Evil thoughts will die by themselves. A noble thought is a potent antidote tocounteract an evil thought. This is easier than the former method. By repetition of God’sName thousands of times daily, good thoughts gain new strength by each repetition. Byrepeating ‘Aham Brahma Asmi’ thousand times daily, the idea that you are the spirit(Atman) becomes stronger. The idea that you are the body becomes weaker and weaker.

Control of Body and Speech

If you are not able to control any evil thought, control the body and speech first.Slowly you will gain mental strength and will-force and will be able to control thethoughts gradually. If, for a moment you think you will not succeed in vanquishing an evilthought, at once get up and set about some work involving physical labour. One effortafter another will make gradually the task easy and, in a few weeks, you will obtain acomplete control over your thoughts.

Control the physical body and the speech first. Then slowly proceed to controlthoughts. Do not speak ill of others. Control the Indriya of speech first. Gradually themind will not think ill of others. The mind will say unto itself: “Why should I thinkill of others when the organ of speech is not prepared to express what I think?” Youcan control your actions only when you have become moral. When you speak ill of a man, youpoison the mind of several people. It is extremely ignoble to speak ill of others. Butjust comment without hatred or malice is permissible occasionally.

Do not allow useless or evil thoughts to develop themselves into words. Curb thespeech. Divert the mind at once to some good thoughts. Try to remember some Slokas fromthe Gita or repeat some prayers. Keep some ‘word-image’ as “Om Hari,” “OmSiva,” “Om Narayana.” Observance of Mouna (vow of silence) for a couple ofhours daily will check the impulses of speech and thinking, will conserve energy and helpmeditation and thought-control and thought-culture.


Fully realise for yourself the grave and ruinous consequences of evil thoughts. Thiswill set you on your guard when the evil thoughts would come. The moment they come, exertyourself or divert the mind to some other object of divine thoughts, prayer or Japa. Areal earnestness to drive away the evil thoughts will keep you on the alert so much sothat even if they appear in dream, you will at once wake up. Should the enemy appear whenyou are awake, it will not be very difficult for you to cope with him, if only you aresufficiently watchful.

Keep the Mind Fully Occupied

When the mind is vacant, evil thoughts try to enter. Evil thinking is the beginning orstarting point of adultery. Through a lustful look only, you have already committedadultery in the heart. Mental actions are the real actions. Remember this. God judges aman by his motives; worldly people judge a man by his external physical actions. You willhave to look to the motive of the man. Then you will not be mistaken. Keep the mind fullyoccupied. Then evil thoughts will not enter. An idle brain is the devil’s workshop. Watchthe mind every minute. Always engage yourself in some work-stitching, cleaning vessels,sweeping, drawing water, reading, meditating, counting the beads, singing divine songs,praying, serving the elders or nursing the sick. Avoid loose talk and gossip. Fill themind with sublime thoughts, such as those contained in the Gita, the Upanishads, theYogavasishtha, etc.

Sattvic Background of Thought

The vast majority of people will always want something concrete to hold on to,something around which, as it were, to place their ideas, something which will be thecentre of all thought-forms in their minds. That is mind’s very nature. A background ofthought is needed for fixing the mind.

Have a Sattvic background of thought or mental image. The mind assumes the shape of anyobject it intently thinks upon. If it thinks of an orange, it assumes the shape of anorange. If it thinks of Lord Krishna with flute in hand, it assumes the shape of LordKrishna. You must train the mind properly and give it proper, Sattvic food forassimilation.

You must have Sattvic background of thought to take you to the goal (salvation). If youare a devotee of Lord Krishna, have a background of thought of His picture and therepetition of His famous Mantra “Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya” and His qualities(Form-formula-qualities). A Nirguna Upasaka (Vedantin) should have a background of thoughtof ‘OM’ and its meaning (Infinite Ocean of Light, Satchidananda, Vyapaka, ParipurnaAtman). Work in the world, and the moment the mind is free, begin to think of thebackground of thought- either Saguna or Nirguna background according to taste, temperamentand capacity for Sadhana. By constant thinking, a habit in the mind will be formed and,without effort, the mind will run towards the background of thought.

It is a pity that the vast majority of persons have no ideal, no programme of life atall and no Sattvic background of thought. They are doomed to destruction. The backgroundof thought of a young married lady is usually lustful. The background of thought of an oldmother is the affection towards her sons and grandsons. The background of thought of thevast majority of persons is hatred and jealousy. Even the so-called educated persons withmany university qualifications, which is only husk when compared with spiritual knowledge,have no ideal, no programme of life and no background of thought. A deputy collector,after getting pension, marries a third wife and goes on as a minister of a State.

A worldly-minded person is a prey to sexual thoughts and thoughts of hatred, anger andrevenge. These two types of thoughts actually take possession of his mind. He is a slaveto these two sets of thoughts. He does not know how to divert his mind and fix it on someother good, noble thought. He does not know the laws of thought. He is quite unaware ofthe nature and subtle workings of the mind. His position is extremely deplorable despitehis earthly possessions and bookish knowledge obtained in universities. Viveka has notawakened in him. He has no Sraddha in saints, Sastras and God. He is unable to resist anevil desire, craving or temptation on account of his weak will. The only potent remedy toremove his world-intoxication, world-charm, world-delusion is constant Satsanga orassociation with Sadhus, Sannyasins and Mahatmas.

After retirement, everybody should have a background of thought and should spend histime in philosophical studies and divine contemplation. Old habits of loose thinking mustbe replaced by cultivating fresh habits of good thoughts. At first, a tendency to think ofgood thoughts will be formed. By continued practice, a positive definite habit of thinkingof virtuous, helping thoughts will be developed. You will have to struggle very hard. Theold habits will try to recur again and again. Till you are firmly established in the habitof thinking of good thoughts only, you will have to fill the mind again and again withSattvic thoughts, divine thoughts, thoughts of the Gita, Lord Krishna, Lord Rama, theUpanishads, etc. New grooves and avenues will be formed now. Just as a gramophone-needlecuts a small groove in the plate, Sattvic thinking will cut new, healthy grooves in themind and brain. New Samskaras will be formed.

Glory Of The Waveless Jnanin

Through constant and intense practice, you can become waveless (thought-free). Thewaveless Yogin helps the world more than the man on the platform. Ordinary people canhardly grasp this point. When you are waveless, you actually permeate and pervade everyatom of the universe, purify and elevate the whole world. The names of waveless Jnaninssuch as Jada Bharata and Vamadeva are even now remembered. They never built Ashrams. Theynever lectured. They never published books. They never made disciples. Yet, what atremendous influence these waveless Jnanins had produced on the minds of the people. Gloryto such waveless Jnanins!

Chapter 20


Vasanas-how They Manifest

Vasana (desire in subtle form) is a wave in the mind-lake. Its seat is the KaranaSarira. It exists there in the form of a seed and manifests in the mind-lake. Just asflowers are latent in seeds, Vasanas are latent in the Antahkarana and the Karana Sarira(seed-body). Daily new flowers blossom out. They fade out in a day or two. Similarly,Vasanas blossom out like flowers one by one, come out to the surface of the mind, generateSankalpas in the mind of Jivas and goad them to strive to possess and enjoy the particularobjects of enjoyment. Vasanas cause actions, and actions strengthen the Vasanas. This is aChakra, vicious circle. On the advent of knowledge of Brahman, all Vasanas are fried out.The real enemies are the Vasanas within. Annihilate them. Eradicate them. They areinveterate.

The whole mango tree with branches, leaves and fruits is contained in a subtle form inthe seed. It takes time for manifestation. Even so, the Vasana of lust lurks in the mindwhen you are a boy, manifests at 18, fills the whole body at 25, works havoc from 25 to 45and then it gradually declines. Various forms of wrong-doing and mischief are done byhuman beings between 25 and 45. This is the most critical period of life. There is noparticular difference between a boy and a girl in their characteristics when they areyoung. After attaining puberty they exhibit their characteristic qualities.


Chapalata is Vasana of a mild type. It lasts for a short time only. There are two kindsof important Chapalatas. There is the Jihva-Chapalata of the tongue where the tongue wantsto eat the various things every now and then. It is a form of morbid appetite. Rich peoplewho lead a luxurious life have this form of Chapalata. The other variety is theUpastha-Chapalata wherein the sex Indriyas wants to taste again and again the sexualenjoyment (Sparsa).

Vasana Causes Restlessness And Bondage

Vasana is the cause of restlessness of mind. As soon as a Vasana manifests, there is anintimate connection between the mind and the object through overflowingVishaya-Vritti-Pravaha. The mind will not retrace its steps till it gets the object andenjoys it. The restlessness will continue till the object is enjoyed. The Vritti will flowtowards the object till it is obtained and enjoyed. The common run of men cannot resist orsuppress any Vasana owing to weak will.

It is the Vasana in the mind that causes attraction towards objects and brings aboutbondage; with the disappearance of Vasanas, bondage naturally vanishes. There will not beany attraction, admiration or excitement for any object outside, if there is no Vasanainside your mind. It is the Vasana that is at the bottom of all your miseries andtroubles. There is no pain from Isvara-Srishti (objects created by the Lord). Waterquenches your thirst. Breeze gives you comfort. Sunshine enlivens you. Fire gives warmth.It is Jiva-Srishti that brings about bondage. Ahankara, anger, Abhimana, attachment areall Jiva-Srishtis. Have Suddha Sankalpa, but no Vasanas.

By mere ethical training, jealousy, Raga, Dvesha, Krodha, Kama, etc., can be suppressedthough not eradicated completely. These impure, Asubha Vasanas can be considerablyattenuated (Tanu-Avastha) by moral culture. They attain a subtle condition. They cannotharm the individual. They remain under perfect control.

Eradication, Not Suppression, The Proper Remedy

A Vasana may be suppressed for the time being by an aspirant. But it again manifestswith redoubled force when a suitable opportunity arises. Like a minister obeying the king,the five organs of the body act in accordance with the dictates of the mind. Therefore,you should through your own pure mind and proper efforts eradicate the Vasanas forobjects. You should rend asunder, the long rope of Vasanas tied to the vessels of man,whirled on the ocean of Samsara, through enormous efforts on your part. Vasanas should bethoroughly eradicated. If these Vasanas are destroyed by Vichara (enquiry of Atman) anddiscrimination, the mind which is ever restless will get quiescence like a gheeless lamp.

How To Destroy Vasanas


Vijnanamaya Kosa serves as a great fortress for the aspirant. From there he can attackthe Vasanas when they try to emerge from the seed-body (Karana Sarira) into the mind.Through the practice of Sama, the aspirant should destroy the Vasanas one by one with thehelp of Vijnanamaya Kosa (Buddhi). He should crush them as soon as they try to raise theirheads on the surface of the mind-lake. He must not allow them to sprout forth. This isVasana-Tyaga. This attack or fight is from inside.

When a Vasana or Sankalpa arises in the mind, the mind gives a push to theAntar-Indriya. From the Antar-Indriyas, this push is communicated to the Bahyakaranas(external instruments) such as hands, legs, eyes, ears, etc. The practice of Sama stopsthis very push which is the root cause of motion of all the Indriyas and Karanas.

Sama is peace of mind produced by the eradication of the Vasanas (Vasana-Tyaga). TheAntahkarana of a man who possesses this virtue is cooler than ice. Even the coolness ofthe moon cannot compete with coolness of the Antahkarana of a man of Sama. Generally, theAntahkarana of a worldling is a blazing furnace. A man of Sama is neither exalted when hegets a desired object (Ishta) nor depressed when he gets an undesired thing (Anishta). Hekeeps a balanced mind always. He has no enemies. The happiness of an emperor is nothing,nothing when compared with the supreme spiritual bliss of a man of Sama. Sama is one ofthe four sentinels of Moksha. If you have Sama, you will get the company of the otherthree friends, viz., Santosha (contentment), Vichara (enquiry into Atman) andSatsanga (association with the wise and saintly).


The attack should commence from outside also. Bahyavritti-Nigraha should be donethrough Dama (restraint of the Indriyas). You must not allow sense-vibrations to enterfrom outside into the mind through the avenues of Indriyas. This is also necessary. Samaalone is not sufficient. The senses must be rendered blunt by Dama. The Vasana for sweets,for instance, should be destroyed by Sama through Vasana-Tyaga, by crushing the Vasanaswithin as soon as a desire arises; and the Bahyavritti, which arises by the sight ofsweetmeat should be destroyed by withdrawing the eyes from the same when you move aboutthe bazaar and by giving up taking sugar. Dama supplements Sama in the control of mind.Dama is an auxiliary for the complete eradication of Vasanas.

If you give up an old habit of taking tea, you have controlled to a certain extent thesense of taste. You have destroyed one Vasana. This will give you some peace, because thecraving for tea has gone and you are freed from your efforts and thinking in getting tea,sugar, milk, etc. Thinking is pain, seeing is pain, hearing is pain for a philosopher anda Sadhaka. It is all pleasure for a worldling. The energy that was agitating you to runafter tea is now transmuted into will. You gain peace and will-power by giving up onething. If you give up fifteen things, your peace of mind will be still greater and thewill still more powerful. This is the fruit of Tyaga. So, you are not a loser in Tyaga.You gain more knowledge, more bliss and more power. You give up something in favour ofsomething higher. Is there anyone who will not give up black sugar in favour of whitesugar? If you once control one Vasana, it will be easy for you to control other Vasanastoo, because you gain strength and power.

Svadhyaya and Meditation

Increase your Sastra-Vasana in the beginning. Occupy your mind with the study ofstandard philosophical books. Thereby you can decrease your Deha-Vasana (thought of thebody) and Loka-Vasana (desire for name and fame, Kirti, Pratishtha, etc). Later on, youwill have to give up Sastra-Vasana also. You must entirely devote all your time and energyin meditation and meditation alone. Vasana-Kshaya (destruction of Vasanas) is causedthrough well-conducted deliberation (Vichara), Brahma-Dhyana, Vairagya and Tyaga.

Vichara and Brahma-Bhavana

The wise know that the mind associated with Vasana tends to bondage while the mindabsolutely free from Vasana is said to be an emancipated one. Just as a lion that is shutup in a cage emerges out by breaking the bars of the cage, so also a Jnani comes out ofthis cage of physical body victoriously by breaking or by destroying the Vasanas of themind through constant Vichara (Atmic enquiry), constant Nididhyasana (profound andconstant meditation on ‘OM’ and its meaning) and Brahma-Bhavana. The more you attenuateyour Vasanas by Svarupa-Bhavana or the Brahma-Bhavana, the happier you will become. Inproportion to the thinning of the Vasanas, the mind also is proportionately thinned out.Mind is nothing but a bundle of Vasanas. Mind is no other than the Vasanas which generatean endless series of rebirths. The true nature of the mind is the Vasanas. The two aresynonymous.

Conquest of Ahankara

If you destroy egoism (Ahankara, this false little ‘I’) and control the Indriyas (thesenses), the Vasanas will die by themselves. The root cause for all troubles is Ahankara.Just as the dependants of a family hang upon the chief of the house- the father-similarly,all Vasanas, Trishnas, Kamanas, etc., hang upon Ahankara, the chief of this house-body.

Constantly generate from the Sattvic mind-battery the Akhanda electric current ‘AhamBrahmasmi’-Vritti (Brahmakara Vritti). That is the potent antidote. Keep it safe in thepocket; smell it when an apoplectic attack of the Ahankaric false ‘I’ idea overcomes you.It is only when you eradicate the painful Ahankara of the mind and conquer the foes oforgans (Indriyas) that the ever-waking Vasanas will subside.

The Meaning Of Moksha

The illusory Samsaric Vasanas that have arisen through the practice of many hundreds oflives never perish except through the practice of Yoga for a long time. Therefore, OAspirants! After having put away at a distance the desire of enjoyment by discriminativeefforts, practise the state of mind absolutely devoid of Vasana.

Moksha does not mean physical separation from all worldly affairs, but only a state ofmind bereft of all impure Vasanas or clinging to worldly things, but yet working as usualamidst them. You must realise God in and through the world. This is the central teachingof the Gita. “But the disciplined (lower) self, moving among sense-objects withsenses free from attraction and repulsion and mastered by the higher Self, goeth toPeace” (Gita. II-64). This is the central teaching of Yoga Vasishtha also.

There is no Vasana in Brahman. Complete annihilation of the Vasanas takes place only inNirvikalpa Samadhi. Only Nirvikalpa Samadhi can completely fry up the seeds of impureVasanas. Through the knowledge of Brahman, there will be an extinction of all Vasanas,which form the medium of enjoyments. With the extinction of all Vasanas, the undauntedmind will get quiescence like a gheeless lamp.

Chapter 21


“Sweep out the sphere of your mind:
Make a place for Loved One to sit.
Dust out all thoughts of this world
So that His throne may be fit.
A million desires engulf you,
A million ambitions and aims:
How can you make room for His Presence
Unless they vacate His domain?”

What Is Desire?

Desire is a mode of the emotive mind. It has got a power of externalising the mind.Desire is the fuel; thought is the fire. The thought-fire is kept up by the desire-fuel.If you withdraw the supply of fuel, the fire will be withdrawn into its womb. If you stopthinking by cutting off desires, the mind will be withdrawn into Brahman.

It is only when the mind, being divested of all its desires, is indifferent topleasures and pains and is not attracted by any object that it will be rendered pure, freefrom the grip of the great delusion like a bird freed from its cage and roaming freely inthe Akasa.

Desire, thought and Ahankara form one vicious circle. If you can destroy any one ofthem, the other two will die by themselves. These are the three pillars or corner-stonesof the edifice of mind. They are the three links of the mind-chain. Destroy any one of thelinks; the whole chain will be broken.

Why Do Desires Arise?

Why do desires arise in the mind? On account of Ananda-Abhava (absence of Ananda orspiritual bliss). The cause for desire is the existence of objects outside. Curiositybecomes a desire in the mind. Interest and feeling precede a desire. Hope and expectationfatten the desire.

Vikshepa-the Very Nature Of Mind

Just as heat is inseparable from fire, Vikshepa or the tossing of the mind isinseparable from the mind. It troubles the Sadhakas a lot. It destroys all of a sudden thedeterminations of strong-willed persons also. The mind ceases to exist if it is destituteof this oscillation. This fluctuating mind alone creates the universe. Even Mala(impurity) can be removed easily. It demands strenuous efforts for a protracted time onthe part of the Sadhaka to remove this Vikshepa. The undaunted Uddalaka suffered a lotfrom this distracting Vikshepa when he tried to enter into Nirvikalpa state. RajaBhartrihari underwent the same difficulty when he tried to overcome this troublesomefluctuating Sakti of the mind. Vikshepa is Maya. Vikshepa is impure Vasana (AsuddhaVasana). You will have to destroy this Vikshepasakti by constant Upasana or Yoga orceaseless Atmic enquiry (Brahmavichara). Then, peace (Santi) will come by itself.

Types Of Desire

Desire in the mind is the real impurity. Sexual desire, vulgar attraction for theopposite sex, is the greatest impurity. This causes the real bondage. You can even give upwife, children and wealth. But, it is extremely difficult to give up ambition, name andfame. Ambition is a serious obstacle in the path of Yoga. This is the most powerful weaponof Maya with which she slaughters worldly-minded persons. Even if there is a tinge ofdesire for name and fame, Truth will not manifest. Truth will shine by Itself. It does notneed any pompous advertisement. It is the very Self of all beings and objects.

Anirbuddha Or Subtle, Hidden Desires

Even after you have renounced all the desires, there may remain in the mind somesubtle, hidden desires (Sukshma, Anirbuddha) that cannot be comprehended. These are verydangerous ones. Therefore, you will have to be very, very careful. The lurkingunder-currents of desires will throw you down at any moment if you are not very vigilantand cautious, will destroy your Vairagya (dispassion) and will bring about your downfalleventually. I have witnessed many Yogabhrashtas who had fallen from Yoga owing to theoverpowering influence of these subtle, hidden desires. So long as you have these subtle,hidden, Anirbuddha (unnoticeable) desires in your mind, you can never dream of enteringinto the Nirvikalpa state without any modification of the mind. You can never develop realParavairagya (supreme non-attachment and dispassion) also.

Craving Or Trishna

You may become old, your hairs may turn grey, but your mind is ever young. The capacitymay vanish, but the craving remains even when you have reached advanced senility. Cravings(Trishna) are the real seeds of birth. These craving-seeds give rise to Sankalpa andaction. The wheel of Samsara is kept revolving by these cravings. Nip them in the bud.Then only will you be safe. You will get Moksha. Brahma-Bhavana, Brahma-Chintana,meditation on OM and devotion will root out these craving-seeds which are laid deep. Youwill have to dig them out properly in various corners and burn them beyond resurrection.Then only will your efforts bear the fruit of Nirvikalpa Samadhi.

“Love and kill,” “Marry and observe Brahmacharya,” “Enjoymentwithout desire,” “Action without fruits” are paradoxical terms. A man withgross Vyavaharic Buddhi can hardly understand these terms. A subtle, pure intellect isneeded. Suppose you were a terrible smoker for the last fifteen years. Then you gave upsmoking for five years. The craving for smoking also died. Suppose one of your friendsoffers you a cigar in the sixth year. You have no craving for smoking now. If you take itnow and enjoy it just to please your friend, it will be called a Suddha Bhoga only. Youhave enjoyed it without a craving or a desire. Isvara enjoys Suddha Bhoga.

Satisfaction Of Desire Yields Illusory Happiness Only

Desire excites the mind and senses. When desire is gratified by enjoyment of theobjects of desire, satisfaction (Tripti) comes in temporarily. Rapture is delight in theattainment of the desired object. Bliss is the enjoyment of the taste of what is attained.Where rapture is there is bliss; but where bliss is there is not, quite of necessity,rapture. Rapture is like a weary traveller who hears or sees water or a shady wood. Blissis the enjoying of the water or entering the forest shade.

When there is desire, then alone is there pleasure. The cause for pleasure is desire.When there is no desire, there cannot be any pleasure. When there is no hunger, deliciousfood can give you no pleasure. When there is no thirst, any refreshing beverage will haveno effect. So, hunger is the best sauce. The first cup of hot milk gives pleasure. Thesecond cup induces disgust. After the enjoyment is over, Tripti comes. Hence, disgustarises when the second cup is taken. There is no real pleasure in milk. The happiness isin Atman only. It is reflected in the object (milk) owing to ignorance, owing to Bhranti(illusion). It is Bhranti-Sukha. If there were real happiness in milk, it should inducepleasure always and in every person. It is not the case.

A desire arises in the mind. There is a Vritti now. This Vritti agitates your mind tillyou get satisfaction through enjoyment of the desired object. There is Santi or peace orhappiness after the enjoyment is over. Another desire arises in the mind. Now, in theinterval between the gratification of one desire and the manifestation of another, thereis pure bliss, because there is no mind then. It is at rest. You are in union withBrahman. That state of pure bliss between two desires is Brahman. If you can prolong thatperiod of bliss through Sadhana by keeping up the idea of Brahman and by not allowinganother Vritti or desire to crop up, you will be in Samadhi. The period between one Vrittiand another Vritti is the real Sandhi (juncture).

Desires Are Insatiable

Mind plays havoc through desires. As soon as a desire arises, you think you will getall happiness by its realisation. You exert yourself to achieve the desired object. Assoon as you get it, a little satisfaction (false Tushti or gratification) is experiencedfor a short time. Again, mind becomes restless. It wants new sensations. Disgust anddissatisfaction come in. Again, it wants some new objects for its enjoyment. That is thereason why this world is termed as mere Kalpana (imagination) by Vedantins.

Desires are innumerable, insatiable and unconquerable. Enjoyment cannot bring insatisfaction. It is a mistake to think so. Enjoyment fans the desire. It is like pouringghee in fire. Enjoyment strengthens, increases and aggravates a desire. See the case ofRaja Yayati of yore. He borrowed the youthful state from his son to have sexual enjoymentfor thousands of years. At last, he cries out in his old age with bitterness, “Alas!What a fool I am! Still my sexual desires are waxing. There is no end of desires. I havewasted my life. O God! Have mercy on me. Lift me up from this mire of Samsara.” Thiscomes in Mahabharata. In the Gita, Chapter III-39, you will find “KamarupenaKaunteya Dushpurena-analena cha-desire which is insatiable as a flame.”

Freedom From Desires Necessary For Jnana

You can attain Jnana only if you are free from sensuous desires and immortal mentalstates. Aloofness of body from sensuous objects and aloofness of mind from immoral statesof mind are needed for the attainment of Jnana. Then only will Divine Light descend. Justas a bungalow is cleaned of cobwebs and all kinds of dirts and the garden of all its weedsfor the reception of the Viceroy, the mental palace should be cleansed of all vices,desires and immoral states for the reception of the Holy Brahman, the Viceroy of viceroys.

When a desire arises in the mind, a worldling welcomes it and tries to fulfil it; but,an aspirant renounces it immediately through Viveka. Wise people consider even a spark ofdesire as a very great evil. Therefore, they will not entertain any kind of desire. Theywill be ever delightful in Atman only.

How To Control Desires

In this ocean of Samsara, desires are the crocodiles. Kill them as soon as they ariseon the surface of the mind. Do not yield to them. Do not become despondent under yourtrials. Make friendship with the pure, Sattvic mind and destroy the impure mind with thehelp of the pure mind. Make your mind rest in the blissful Atman. Desires should becrushed the very moment they arise in the mind, by discrimination and dauntless,indefatigable efforts.

Whenever a desire arises in the mind, consult always your Viveka (power ofdiscrimination). Viveka will at once tell you that the desire is attended with pain, thatit is only a vain temptation set up by the mind and that Vairagya and Tyaga alone canbring about satisfaction and peace of mind. It will advise you to renounce the desireimmediately and take to the study of Upanishads, repetition of OM and to haveSamadhi-Nishtha in a solitary place on the bank of the sacred Ganga. Think deeply againand again whether the new desire will give you more happiness or more spiritual gain.Viveka will guide you to take up the help of will and drive the desire immediately. Vivekaand will are two potent weapons for an aspirant on the Jnana Yogic path to destroy evilMara (temptation) and remove all major and minor impediments.

Never accept gifts from anybody, even from your closest friends. It will produceslavish mentality, weak will and attachment. Asking is begging. Recommending is begging. Abeggar is absolutely unfit for freedom and spiritual pursuits.

Just as you starve a plant by depriving it of water, so you may starve out obnoxiousdesires by allowing the mind not to dwell upon such desires. You have no desire for athing till you know what it is like. It is only after you have seen it or heard of it ortouched it that you get a longing for it. Therefore, the best principle for a man is notto take, touch or see anything that is likely to taint the imagination. You will have toturn aside the attention resolutely and particularly the imagination from the subject. Incourse of time, all objectionable desires will die out.

It is desire in the mind that has created this body. The nature of the desire dependsupon the quality of Samskaras. If these are good, virtuous Samskaras, good desires willcrop up and, if they are bad, they will give rise to evil desires. Buddhi also isKarmanusarini (according to the nature of Karmas). It has to be specially trained byrepeated efforts to think and act according to the holy injunctions of sacred scriptures.Desire becomes the thought and thought becomes the action. An evil desire sets up an evilthought which leads to evil action. Do always virtuous action-charity, Tapas, Japa, Dama,Dhyana and study of scriptures. Give up Nishiddha Karma (actions prohibited by Sastras).Have constant Satsanga. This is very important. It is the only means of changing the evilSamskaras of the mind.

The mind with half-developed Jnana feels severe pain when it relinquishes all desires.It demands aid, through prayer, from higher souls.

A counter-desire, a desire for God, one strong desire to attain Brahman will destroyall other worldly desires. Put down vicious desires through virtuous desires. Then give upvirtuous desires through one strong desire-Mumukshutva (desire for liberation). Abandonthis desire for God also in the long run. Give up Asubha Vasana through Subha Vasana. Giveup Subha Vasana through Svarupa Vasana. Give up Svarupa Vasana by Nididhyasana. Desireswill become extinct with the rise of discrimination. When desires cease, Jivahood becomesextinct.

Brahma-Chintana will destroy all desires. There are no desires in Brahman. Brahman isAll-Purity. Repeat OM. Repeat the Mantra, “All purity I am.” All the desireswill vanish.

Kill the thoughts. Practise thoughtlessness. You can destroy desires. Mind associatedwith thoughts of gratifying the passionate desires, blindly goads a man to seek forsensual pleasures. Uncontrolled thoughts are the roots of all evils. Sublime thoughts willeasily destroy lower, base thoughts. Do not entertain any base thought.

Destruction Of Desires Leads To Atmic Bliss

Vasanasahita mind (mind associated with desires) is Bandha (bondage). Mind free fromdesires is Mukta (free). Desires are themselves pain. Non-desire is itself pure AtmicBliss. Mere annihilation of Maya is Moksha. With the extinction of the base Sankalpas,there is also the extinction of Avidya. Should all longings for the visibles cease, thensuch an abnegation of mind is itself the destruction of Ajnana or the mind. Such a blissis generated through one’s efforts only. There is nothing like Purushartha (rightexertion). Purushartha changed the destiny of Markandeya. He became a Chiranjivi.

Desire is the enemy of peace. You have become the beggar of beggars through desires. Adesireless man is the richest man in the world. It is the mind that makes a man rich.

Free yourself from the firm grip of crocodiles of desires. Do not get disheartenedunder trials. Cheer yourself up. Stand up like a lion. Destroy the impure mind with thehelp of the pure mind. Make friendship with the Sattvic mind and rest yourself peacefullyin Atman.

Chapter 22


Raga-dvesha-viyuktaistu vishayanindriyais-charan
Atmavasyair-vidheyatma prasadam-adhigacchati

“But the disciplined (lower) Self, moving among sense-objects with senses freefrom attraction and repulsion and mastered by the Higher Self, goeth to Peace.”(Gita, II-64)

Raga-Dvesha, The Cause Of Bondage

Raga (attraction), Dvesha (repulsion) and Tatastha Vritti (indifference) are the threeimportant Vrittis of the mind. Raga and Dvesha (like and dislike or love and hatred orattraction and repulsion) are the two currents in the mind which bind a man to theSamsaric wheel of birth and death. Raga and Dvesha are the two Doshas or faults in themind that have brought you to this world. The Svarupa of Bandha (bondage) is Raga andDvesha. The Svarupa of Ajnana is Raga and Dvesha. All the emotions come under the categoryof Raga-Dvesha. These two currents are the Dharma (characteristics) of the mind and not ofthe spirit. Pleasure and pain, Harsha and Soka, exhilaration and depression are due toRaga-Dvesha. If Raga and Dvesha vanish from the mind, Harsha-Soka also will disappear.

Selfish Love And Divine Love

When two forces of equal quality or power meet, a third force is formed. When twopeople of equal force and quality are attracted towards each other, a third force isformed between them. That is termed love. This is the scientific way of explaining whatlove is. Attraction is Akarshana-Sakti. Repulsion is Vikarshana-Sakti. When I see myselfin another man, when I see him as my own self, I begin to love him as my own self. When Ifind something in you that I myself possess, I am naturally drawn towards you and begin tolove you. This is Vedantic way of explaining love. Love is pouring forth one’s affection(Prema) on another. Love is God. Love is of two kinds, viz., selfish or physical love andreal Love or divine Love which is unselfish and lasting. The first kind is love withattachment. The second one is love without attachment. He who is a real aspirant ofVedantic path, who feels his own self everywhere and a real Bhakta who sees Narayanaeverywhere in everything can really love others. When an inferior person hangs on anotherperson for his happiness or existence, physical attachment crops up. Attachment causesslave mentality and weak will. Attachment is death. Physical love is death. “Asangasastrenadridhena chhitva-Cut all sorts of attachment by the sword of non-attachment.”(Gita, XV-3)

Raga As Painful As Dvesha

Raga (attraction) in the mind is as much dangerous as Dvesha (hatred or repulsion).Whenever there is Raga, there is Dvesha also. Not only the Dvesha-Vritti (the modificationof dislike), but also the Vritti of Raga gives pain to man. If an object gives pleasure,you get Raga for the object. But when there is Viyoga (separation) from the object, as inthe case of death of your dear wife or son, you get immense pain which is indescribable.Suppose you are in the habit of taking fruits after food. Fruits give you pleasure. Youget Raga (liking) for fruits. But if you cannot get fruits in a place, you get pain.

Whenever there is pleasure and Raga, there exist side by side fear and anger. Anger isonly a modification of desire. Fear and anger are two old associates of pleasure and Raga.Fear and anger are hidden in Raga. They constantly torment the mind.

Fear is hidden in Raga. When you have got Raga for body, fear of death comes in. Whenyou have Raga for money, there is fear of losing money, as money is the means of gettingobjects of enjoyment. When you have Raga for a woman, you always take care in protectingher. Fear is a very old, intimate friend of Raga.

The Different States Of Raga-Dvesha

Raga-Dvesha has four Avasthas, viz., Dagdha (burnt up), Tanu (attenuated or thinnedout), Vicchinna (concealed) and Udara (fully expanded). The first two states pertain to aYogin; the last two to worldlings. In a fully developed Yogin, the Vrittis of Raga-Dveshaare burnt up by Nirvikalpa Samadhi. They are Dagdha (like burnt-up seeds). In a Yogin whois practising, the impressions of Raga-Dvesha are tenuous. They are in a fine state. Hehas control over these two Vrittis. In those who are given to enjoyments (ordinarymortals), they are concealed and fully expanded. In the Vichhinna state, they areconcealed. When the wife shows affection to her husband, when the Raga-Vritti is inoperation, her anger and hatred remain concealed for the time being. The moment she getsdispleased with him for some reason or other, the Dvesha-Vritti manifests itself. In thelast (expanded) state, the Samskaras of Raga-Dvesha, having favourable surroundings,attain to great activity. A worldly-minded man is a mere slave of Raga-Dvesha currents. Heis tossed about hither and thither by these two currents of attraction and repulsion.

In sleep, these two emotions exist in a man in a Bija state (seed form). They are notdestroyed. As soon as the man gets up from sleep, they begin to operate again.

In children, these twin currents manifest for a short time and disappear soon. Theyfight in this second and join together with joy the very next second. They do not keep upany ill feelings in their minds. They do not brood also over the wrongs done by others.They do not exhibit any grudge. The wave comes and passes away. As the child grows, thesecurrents assume a grave phase by constant repetition and become inveterate.

Dvaita slowly develops when the child reaches the second year. Place a baby within oneyear of age in any place. It will remain there like a block of stone. It will laugh andsee alike all people without any Raga-Dvesha. Ask a child of two years of age to sit. Itwill stand. Ask the child to come near. It will recede back to a distance. Tell the child,”Do not go to the street”; it will immediately march to the street. It will docontrary actions, because Dvaita is developing now in the child.

The Causes Of Raga-Dvesha

Raga-Dvesha is due to the Anukula-Pratikula Jnana. You have Raga for things favourable(Anukula) and Dvesha for things unfavourable (Pratikula). When this Anukula-PratikulaJnana which depends upon Bheda Jnana disappears, Raga-Dvesha will vanish.

Raga-Dvesha is also due to Abhimana-Ahankara. As soon as Abhimana manifests, therecomes Raga-Dvesha. When you conceive yourself as husband, there comes the attachment(Raga) for your wife. As soon as you conceive yourself to be a Brahmin, there comes thelove of the Brahmins. Give up Abhimana, if you want to eradicate Raga-Dvesha. If thisAbhimana, the result of Avidya (ignorance) vanishes, Raga-Dvesha will vanish.

Some minds hang on you through Raga, while some others hang on you through Dvesha.Ravana’s mind was hanging on Sri Rama through hatred and fear. He was seeing Ramaeverywhere and in everything through constant, intense thinking of Rama. Similarly,Kamsa’s mind was hanging on Sri Krishna. This is also a form of Bhakti (Vaira-Bhakti).Anyhow their minds were on God.

Raga-Dvesha Constitutes Real Karma

Raga-Dvesha in the mind is the real Karma. It is the original action. When the mind isset in motion or vibration through the currents of Raga-Dvesha, real Karmas begin. RealKarma originates from Sankalpas of the mind. It is the actions of the mind that are trulytermed Karmas. External actions manifest later on. It is desire that sets the mind inmotion. When there is a desire, Raga and Dvesha exist side by side in the mind. Desire isa motive force. Emotions and impulses co-exist with desire.

From Avidya emanates Aviveka (non-discrimination). From Aviveka originates Ahankara andAbhimana. From Abhimana emanates Raga-Dvesha. From Raga-Dvesha comes Karma. From Karmacomes the body. From body comes misery. This is the chain of bondage with seven links.This is the chain of misery.

If you do not want misery, do not take up the body. If you do not want body, do not doKarma. If you do not want to do Karma, give up Raga-Dvesha. If you want to give upRaga-Dvesha, give up Abhimana. If you want to give up Abhimana, give up Aviveka. If youwant to give up Aviveka, give up ignorance. O Rama! If you do not want ignorance, getBrahma-Jnana.

This Samsara or world process is kept up by the six-spoked wheel, viz., Raga, Dvesha,merit, demerit, pleasure and pain. If the root cause, the original Avidya, is destroyed byattainment of Brahma-Jnana, the whole chain of Abhimana, Raga, Dvesha, Karma body, meritand demerit, pleasure and pain will vanish. One link hangs upon another. All the linkswill be broken totally on the advent of Jnana. Sruti says: “Rite Jnananna muktih-Liberationcomes from knowledge of Brahman.”

Absence Of Raga-Dvesha Makes For Freedom

That Yogin or Jnanin who has destroyed these two Vrittis of Raga and Dvesha is thehighest man in the three worlds. He is the real King of kings, Emperor of emperors. Thechief Linga or distinguishing mark of a Jivanmukta or a liberated soul is freedom fromRaga-Dvesha. Even if a Jnanin or Yogin sometimes exhibits traces of anger, it isAbhasamatra (mere appearance). Just as the impression made in water with a stick passesaway soon, as also the anger will disappear in the twinkling of an eye, even though itmanifests in a Jnanin. This can hardly be understood by worldly people.

He who has no Raga but possesses Titiksha (power of endurance) can do anything. He canmove about wherever he likes. He is as free as the atmospheric air. His happiness, freedomand peace are unbounded. Their extent can hardly be imagined. The freedom and joy of suchSannyasins cannot be imagined by the poor, petty-minded worldlings. It is Raga and luxurythat have enfeebled the householders.

Destruction Of Raga-Dvesha Constitutes
The Essence Of Spiritual Sadhana

I shall tell you the gist or essence of spiritual Sadhana. Destroy the truemodifications of the mind, Raga-Dvesha, by Vichara and Brahma-Chintana (right thinking andmeditation). Go beyond the Dvandvas (pairs of opposites). You will get eternal, infinitebliss and peace. You will shine in Brahmic glory. You will become Brahman. YOU AREBRAHMAN.

Just as heat in fire can be removed by Mantra and Oushadha (recitation of God’s Nameand medicine), so also the Raga-Dvesha currents, the characteristics of the mind, can beremoved by Yogic Kriya (practices of Yoga). These can be completely fried up by NirvikalpaSamadhi or Asamprajnata Samadhi.

Amongst the several Vrittis in the mind, Raga-Dvesha and Moha are very deep-rooted.They demand strenuous and persistent efforts for their eradication. In your mental lives,you can either keep hold of the rudder and so determine exactly what course you take, whatpoints you touch or you can fail to do this and, failing, you drift and are blown hitherand thither by every passing breeze, by every emotion, by petty Raga-Dvesha currents.

Chapter 23

Pleasure And Pain

Pleasure And Pain Pertain To Mind

Pleasure and pain are the effects of virtue and vice. They are two kinds of emotionsthat pertain to the mind alone. It is the mind alone which brings pleasures and pains onitself and enjoys them through its excessive inclination towards objects. Mind contractsduring pain and expands during pleasure.

Ahankara creates the body. Prana does all sorts of Cheshtas (efforts). Mind experiencespleasure and pain. If you perform actions through a stainless mind (with Akartri Bhava andNishkama Bhava), your body will not share their fruits.

There are only facts, vibrations or phenomena outside. Prakriti is blind. Prakriti isquite indifferent. There is neither pleasure nor pain in objects. It is all mentalcreation, mental perception, mental jugglery. It is only the mental attitude or certainkind of mental behaviour towards objects that brings joy or grief, pleasure and pain. Mayahas her powerful seat in the imagination of the mind.

All pains are not equally felt. There is no pain when you are asleep. It is only whenthe mind is connected with the body that pains arise. It is the identification with themind and body, Abhimana owing to Avidya, that causes pain.

When the mind is intensely fond of anything, there will be no perception of pain evenif destruction awaits the body. When the mind is completely drowned in any object, whoelse is there to observe and flee from the actions of the body?

When you put one drop of oil on the surface of water, it spreads throughout the surfaceof water and makes it oily. Even so, a little pain for a luxurious man spoils all hispleasures and makes all objects appear very painful. When you are in acute agony, a cup ofcoffee, milk or tea does not give you any pleasure. When you are in acute agony, the wholeworld which appeared to you to be full of bliss while in good health, appears quitedreary. The world loses all its charms while you are seriously ailing.

If the pessimist changes his mental attitude, the world will appear to him to be fullof Ananda.

Mind always runs after pleasure, because it is born of Ananda Brahman. You love amango, because it affords you pleasure. Of all things, you love your own self most. Thislove of the self gives the clue to the fact that Ananda or bliss must be the nature of theSelf.

Atman Has No Pleasure And Pain

Freedom from the body and mind is the real nature of the Self or Atman and,consequently, there being no possibility of virtue and vice, very much less is the chancefor any effects of these on the Atman, hence, pleasure and pain do not touch Atman. Atmanis Asanga, Anaasakta, Nirlipta (unattached). It is Sakshi of the two modifications,pleasure and pain that arise in the mind. Mind enjoys. Mind suffers. Atman is a silentwitness. It has nothing to do with pleasure and pain.

Sense-Pleasure Is Only A Mental Deception

Pleasure and pain, beauty and ugliness are all false imaginations of the mind. Mind isa false illusory product. Conceptions of the mind also must, therefore, be false. They areall Mrigatrishna (like a mirage in the desert). What is beautiful for you is ugly foranother. Beauty and ugliness are relative terms. Beauty is only a mental concept. It isonly a mental projection. It is only a civilised man that takes much of symmetry of form,good features, graceful gaits, elegance of manners, graceful form, etc. An African negrohas no idea of all these things. Real beauty is in the Self only. Pleasure and beautyreside in the mind and not in the objects. Mango is not sweet; the idea of mango is sweet.It is all Vritti. It is all mental deception, mental conception, mental creation, mentalSrishti. Destroy the Vritti; beauty vanishes. The husband stretches his own idea of beautyin his ugly wife and finds his wife very beautiful through passion. Shakespeare hasrightly expressed this in his “Mid-summer Night’s Dream”: “Cupid is paintedblind. It finds Helen’s beauty in the brow of Egypt.”

Pleasure arising from external objects is evanescent, transitory and fleeting. It ismere nerve-titillation and mental deception. Jiva joins with mind and Vritti and enjoysthe Vishayas (sense-objects). The thing that gives you pleasure gives you pain also. “Yehi samsparsaja bhoga duhkhayonaya eva te-The delights that are contact-born, areverily wombs of pain.” The body is an abode of misery and disease. Wealth brings alot of trouble in acquiring and keeping safe. Sorrow springs from every connection. Womenare a perpetual source of vexation. Alas! People prefer this path of misery to that ofspiritual enjoyment.

No true, lasting satisfaction comes from the enjoyment of worldly objects. Yet, peoplerush headlong towards objects even when they know that the objects are unreal and theworld is full of miseries. That is Maya. When the mind rests on Atman, then onlyNitya-Tripti (eternal satisfaction) will come; because, Atman is Paripurna (all-full), youget everything there. It is self-contained. All desires are gratified by realisation ofAtman.

Some say that children are very happy. It is wrong. They only become exuberant. Theyget serious reaction also. They have no balanced mind. They weep for hours together fornothing at all. It is only a man of balanced mind that can really be happy.

Pleasure Arises From Vritti-Laya:
Not From Sense-Objects

Really, there is no pleasure in objects. Atman gives a push to the mind and sets it inmotion. A Vritti or thought-wave arises in the mind on account of the force of a Vasana.The mind is agitated and runs towards the particular object. The agitation will notsubside till the mind gets the desired object. It will constantly think of the object. Itwill scheme and plan various methods to achieve the desired object. It will be everrestless. It will be ever assuming the shape of the object. As soon as the object isobtained and enjoyed, the particular Vritti that was causing agitation in the mind getsdissolved. Vritti-Laya takes place. When Vritti-Laya takes place, you get peace and Anandafrom the Svarupa or Atman within only and not from the object outside. Ignorant personsattribute their pleasures to external objects. That is a serious blunder, indeed.

There is no happiness at all in any of the objects of the world. It is sheer ignoranceto think that we derive any pleasure from the sense-objects or from the mind. Whenever wefeel our desires are satisfied, we observe that the mind moves towards the heart, towardsAtman. In pleasure also, there is exercise of the mind. It expands. It turns inward andmoves to its original home, the place of its origin, Atman and enjoys Atma-Sukha (Bliss ofthe Self).

Real Happiness Lies Within

Why do you search, in vain, for your happiness, O worldly fools, outside, in objects,money, women, titles, honours, name and fame, which are false, worthless and likecow-dung? You cannot get your happiness there. You are entirely deluded. Search within theheart, subjectively in the Atman, the source and fountain of all happiness.

Real happiness is within you. It is in the Atman. It is subjective. It is in the SattvaGuna and beyond Sattva. It manifests when the mind is concentrated. When the Indriyas arewithdrawn from the objects outside, when the mind is one-pointed (Ekagra), when there isVasana-Kshaya (annihilation of the Vasanas) and Manonasa (annihilation of the mind), whenyou become desireless and thoughtless, Atmic bliss begins to dawn; spiritual Ananda beginsto thrill.

Attachment And Pleasure

The mind is the cause of attachment to delusive objects. It is the mind which is thegerm of all Karmas. It daily agitates this body of ours to work and secure for itsenjoyment various pleasurable objects.

The mind always wants to be doing something and, when it attaches itself with theobjects it cherishes, feels amused and happy. A play at cards has nothing in it; but, theattachment and attention produce pleasure.

There can be attraction without attachment. You can be attracted by a beautiful cabbagerose or a young lady. But it is not necessary that you must be attached either to the roseor to the lady. Attachment comes after possession and enjoyment.

Attachment, love and Ananda (bliss)-all go together. You are attached to your wife andchildren; you love them also, because they give you Ananda. As this world is illusory andas through Bhranti (illusion) pain appears as pleasure, you must cut asunder all worldlyattachments ruthlessly and direct your love and attachment towards the Reality, Brahman,the Adhishthana (substratum or basis) that lies at the back of mind and all objects and isthe Sakshi (witness) for all the activities that take place in Buddhi.

It is difficult to divert the mind which, from infancy, has fallen into the pernicioushabit of seeking external pleasure and it shall ever persist in doing so, unless you giveit something superior to be amused with, a greater form of pleasure to delight in.

Kinds And Degrees Of Pleasures

Intellectual pleasure is far superior to sensual pleasure. Ananda from meditation isfar superior to intellectual pleasure. Spiritual bliss or Atmic bliss fromSelf-realisation is infinite, immeasurable and unbounded. It is Anandaghana (solid mass ofbliss).

The Golden Mean

Keep the mind in a state of moderation or happy, golden mean. Never let it run toexcesses. People die of shock from extreme depression as well as from extreme joy. Do notallow Uddharsha to crop up in the mind. It is excessive merriment. Mind always runs toextremes-either to extreme depression or extreme joy. Extremes meet. Extremes bring aboutreaction. Mind can never be calm in excessive joy. Let the mind be cheerful but calm.

Be always cheerful. Laugh and smile. How can a mind that is gloomy and dull think ofGod? Try to be happy always. Happiness is your very nature. This is termed Anavasada(cheerfulness). This spirit of cheerfulness must be cultivated by all aspirants.

Study spiritual books. Have constant Satsanga. Repeat OM 21,600 times daily with Bhava.It will take you three hours. Meditate on Atman or Krishna. Realise Brahman. Only thiswill free you from all mundane miseries and afford you eternal peace, knowledge and bliss.

With the growth of mind, pains increase; with its extinction, there will be greatbliss. Having lorded over your mind, free yourself from the world of perceptions, in orderthat you may be of the nature of Jnana. Though surrounded by pleasurable or painfulobjects to disturb your equilibrium of mind, remain immovable as a rock, receiving allthings with equanimity. The final cool joy and laugh consequent upon it is the blissarising from the mind merging into the stainless Brahman.

Chapter 24


What Is Viveka?

When you are fully aware of the magnitude of human sufferings in this miserable,relative world, you will naturally begin to discriminate between what is real and what isunreal. Brahman is real and Jagat is unreal. This is Viveka. Then sincerity or Sraddhawill develop. Then aspiration or keen longing to realise God will be felt. Then you willhave to remember the Truth constantly. Then you will have to assert constantly: “AhamBrahmasmi-I am Brahman.” By incessant practice, Nama, Rupa and Sankalpa will vanishand you will realise Brahman. This is Vedantic Sadhana. Discrimination, sincerity,aspiration, remembering Truth always, assertion and then Realisation are the variousstages or means for realisation of Brahman.

Aids To Viveka

Viveka or power of discrimination is only awakened by constant Satsanga and Sravana(hearing of Srutis). Those who have done countless virtuous Karmas in their previousbirths will have the fortune through the grace of God to have Satsanga of Mahatmas,Sadhus, Bhaktas, Yogins, Jnanins and Sannyasins.

Benefits Of Viveka

Mind wants repetition of a pleasure once enjoyed. Memory of pleasure arises in themind. Memory induces imagination and thinking. In this way, attachment arises. Throughrepetition, a habit is formed. Habit causes strong Trishna. Mind then exercises its ruleover poor, helpless, weak-willed worldlings. As soon as discrimination arises, the powerof the mind becomes weakened. The mind tries to recede, to retrace its steps to itsoriginal home-the heart. Its poisonous fangs are extracted by discrimination. It cannot doanything in the presence of discrimination. It gets dethroned. The will becomes strongerand stronger when discrimination is awakened. Thanks to Viveka which enables us to get outof this miserable Samsara.

Chapter 25

Vairagya And Tyaga

What Is Vairagya?

If the mind is constantly thinking of tea and if it gets pain when you do not get it,it is said that you have got ‘Aasakti’ (attachment) for tea. This ‘Aasakti’ leads tobondage. The practice of ‘Vairagya’ (dispassion) demands you to renounce this ‘Aasakti’for tea. Mere giving up of taking tea does not constitute the essence of ‘Vairagya’.

Study Vairagya-Prakarana in Yoga Vasishtha. You will have a comprehensive understandingof the real Svarupa of Vairagya. A clean description of the actual dispassionate mentalstate of Sri Rama is given. Palatable dishes, refreshing beverages, affectionate fatherand mother, brother, dear friends, diamonds, pearls, flowers, sandal, ornaments, softbeds, gardens had no attraction for him. On the contrary, their very sight gave himintense pain.

In Vairagya, Brahmacharya is Antargata (hidden). Vairagya includes celibacy in thought,word and deed.

Two Kinds Of Vairagya

Vairagya (dispassion, indifference, non-attachment) is of two kinds, viz., (i) KaranaVairagya (Vairagya on account of some miseries) and (ii) Viveka-Purvaka Vairagya (Vairagyaon account of discrimination between real and unreal). The mind of a man who has got theformer type of Vairagya is simply waiting for a chance to get back the things that weregiven up. As soon as the first opportunity offers itself, the man gets the downfall andgoes back to his former state. Vishaya does havoc in him with a vengeance and redoubledforce from reaction. But the other man who has given up the objects on account of Viveka,on account of illusory nature of objects, will have spiritual advancement. He will nothave a downfall.

How Vairagya Dawns

Note how Vairagya arises in the mind. The transitory and perishable nature of allthings creates a sort of disgust in all minds and, in proportion to the depth and subtletyof nature, this reaction from the world works more or less powerfully in the mind of everyindividual. An irresistible feeling arises in our mind, viz., that the finite can neversatisfy the Infinite within us, that the changing and perishable cannot satisfy thechangeless and deathless nature of ours.

When you are not impressed with the idea of rich living, rich style of living cannotattract you. When you are impressed with the idea that meat and wine are not at allpleasurable, they cannot tempt you. In that case, if you do not get meat and wine or richliving, you will not be agonised at all in your mind. Why are you attracted towards ayoung, beautiful lady? Because, owing to your ignorance, you vainly think you will getpleasure through her. If you have got Viveka, it will at once tell you that you will getimmense pain through her. Then the mind will recede or withdraw from the object, woman.

Sadhana Without Vairagya Goes To Waste

When Vairagya appears in the mind, it opens the gate to Divine Wisdom. Fromdissatisfaction (with the sense-objects and worldly sense-enjoyments) comes aspiration.From aspiration comes abstraction. From abstraction comes the concentration of the mind.From the concentration of the mind comes meditation or contemplation. From contemplationcomes Samadhi or Self-realisation. Without dissatisfaction or Vairagya, nothing ispossible.

Just as cultivation in a stony land or saltish earth becomes absolutely fruitless, soalso Yogic practices and Atma-Vichara (enquiry of the Soul) done without Vairagya(dispassion and indifference to the sensual enjoyments) becomes fruitless. Just as water,when it leaks into the rat-holes, instead of running into the proper channels inagricultural fields, becomes wasted and does not help the growth of plants, grains, etc.,so also, the efforts of an aspirant become a wastage if he has not got the virtueVairagya. He gets no spiritual advancement.

Intense Vairagya Necessary For Moksha

There must be intense (Tivra) Vairagya in the minds of the aspirants, throughout theperiod of their Sadhana. Mere mental adhesion will not do for success in Yoga. There mustbe intense longing for liberation, a high degree of Vairagya plus capacity for Sadhana(spiritual practice). Then only they will get Nirvikalpa Samadhi and Moksha. It was onlyRaja Janaka and Prahlada who had Tivra Vairagya (intense dispassion). This kind ofVairagya is necessary for quick realisation. It is very difficult to cross the ocean ofSamsara with a dull type of Vairagya. The crocodile of sense-hankering (Trishna) forsense-enjoyments and sense-objects will catch the aspirants by the throat and, violentlysnatching away, will drown them half-way.

Enemies Of Vairagya

The Curse of Affection

Delusion proceeds from affection. It is a common observation that a person isdistressed if the cat eats his domestic fowl; but when his affections are not touched, forinstance, if the cat eats a sparrow or a mouse, he expresses no sorrow. You must,therefore, root out affection, which is the cause of vain attachment. The body generatesnumerous germs which people are anxious to remove; but to one variety they give the name”children,” for which their lives are wasted away. Such is the delusion of theworld.

At the back of affection and love, there is grief and sorrow. Affection is mixed withsorrow. At the back of pleasure, there is pain. Pain is mixed with pleasure. Man sows thepoisonous seed of sorrow under the name of love, from which quickly spring up shoots ofaffection which contain a fire dangerous as lightning; and from these shoots, grow treesof sorrow with innumerable branches which, burning like a heap of covered straw, slowlyconsume the body.

The knot of affection is strengthened by long indulgence. Affection has entwined itsthreads around the hearts of men. The principal means to get rid of affection is toconsider that this is a fleeting existence. In this wide world, how many millions ofparents, wives, children, uncles and grandfathers have passed away. You should considerthe society of friends as a momentary flash of lightning and, revolving this often in yourmind, enjoy felicity.

Hope and Anticipation

Hope and anticipation are the opposite of Vairagya and Tyaga. They fatten the mind. Tobe perfectly hopeless is a very high state for a philosopher. It is a very bad state forworldlings. They always say with contempt: “He is a hopeless man.” Worldlingsand philosophers move towards diametrically opposite poles.

How To Develop Vairagya

Those who do not develop the painless Vairagya inherent in one’s self and that withgreat felicity and happiness are, at best, but vermins in human shapes. When a bee findsthat its feet are stuck in the honey, it slowly licks its feet several times and thenflies away with joy. Even so, extricate yourself from the mind’s sticking and clinging tothis body and children-honey owing to Raga and Moha through Vairagya and meditation andfly away from this cage of flesh and bone to the Source, Brahman or Absolute.

It is very difficult to wean some children. They suck the breast even when they arethree or four years old. The mother applies some nim-paste to the nipples. The child isweaned quickly. Even so, you will have to get a medicine of nim-paste for the mind to getit weaned from sensual objects. Sit in a solitary room. Think of the miseries of thisearthly life, its cares, worries, anxieties, hunger, thirst, sins, temptations, passion,fighting, fears, vanity, disease, death, old age, sorrow, grief, tribulation, loss,failures, disappointments, hostility, scorpion stings, mosquito bites, etc. This willserve as an efficient nim-paste to wean the mind from Samsara. You must think in theabove-manner daily.

Remember constantly the pains of various kinds pertaining to this mundane existence.Moha will vanish if you repeat the following line of Chapter XIII of Gita several timesdaily: “Janma-mrityu-jara-vyadhi-duhkha-dosha-anudarsanam-Insight into thepain and evil of birth, old age and sickness.” Always make the mind understandclearly that there is only pain in this world. Reflect often on the instability of thisworld. This is the first Sadhana for aspirants. They can thus develop Vairagya. The mindwill be weaned from objects. Attraction for sense-objects will gradually vanish.

Renunciation Brings About Moksha

Shun the earthly objects as fire or poison or offal. Renounce all desires and cravings.This itself is Moksha (freedom). Renunciation of desires brings about the annihilation ofthe mind. Annihilation of the mind brings on the destruction of Maya, because the mindalone is Maya. Maya is enthroned in the imagination of the mind. How cunning she is! AViveki knows her tricks well. She is awfully afraid of the man of renunciation andAtmavichara. She bows to him with folded hands.

What Is True Renunciation?

The mind is the all-in-all and its mastery leads to the renunciation of all.Chitta-Tyaga alone constitutes the renunciation of all. True renunciation lies in theabnegation of the mind. It consists in renouncing all desires and egoism and notworld-existence. Through such a mental abnegation, you will be able to free yourself fromall pain. Then will come immortality in life or enjoyment of the infinite delight ofexistence free from ego, founded on oneness of all in Brahman.

Sannyasa-a Mental State

Sannyasa is a mental state only. It is Gerua or colouring of the heart and not of clothalone. He is a veritable Sannyasin who is free from passions and egoism and who possessesall the Sattvic qualities, even though he lives with the family in the world. Chudala wasa queen-Yogini-Sannyasini, though she was ruling a kingdom. That Sannyasin who lives inthe forest, but who is full of passions is worse than a householder and a worldly-mindedfool. Sikhidhvaja was a worldly man, though he lived in the forest naked for very manyyears.

True renunciation is the renunciation of all passions, desires, egoism and Vasana. Ifyou have a stainless mind, a mind free from attachment, egoism and passion, you are aSannyasin-no matter whether you live in a forest or in the bustle of a city, whether youwear white cloth or an orange-coloured robe, whether you shave the head or keep a longtuft of hair.

Shave the mind. Someone asked Guru Nanak, “O saint, why have you not shaved yourhead? You are a Sannyasin.” Guru Nanak replied, “My dear friend, I have shavedmy mind.” In fact, the mind should be cleanly shaved. Shaving the mind consists ingetting rid of all sorts of attachments, passions, egoism, Moha (infatuation), lust,greed, anger, etc. This is the real shaving. External shaving of the head has no meaningso long as there is internal craving, Trishna.

Many have not understood what true renunciation is. Renunciation of physical objects isno renunciation at all. The real Tyaga (renunciation) consists in the renunciation ofegoism (Ahankara). If you can renounce this Ahankara, you have renounced everything elsein the world. If the subtle Ahankara is given up, Dehadhyasa (identification with thebody) automatically goes away.

Vedanta does not want you to renounce the world. It wants you to change your mentalattitude and give up this false, illusory ‘I’-ness (Ahamta) and mineness (Mamata). Thesnake-charmer removes only the two poisonous fangs of the cobra. The snake remains thesame. It hisses, raises its hood and shows the teeth. In fact, it does everything asbefore. The snake-charmer has changed his mental attitude towards the snake. He has afeeling now that it has got no poisonous fangs. Even so, you must remove the two poisonousfangs of the mind, viz., Ahamta and Mamata only. Then you can allow the mind to gowherever it likes. Then you will have always Samadhi only.

You must renounce the Tyagabhimana also. The Tyagabhimana is very deep-rooted. You mustrenounce the idea, “I have renounced everything.” “I am a greatTyagi”-this Abhimana of the Sadhus is a greater evil than the Abhimana ofhouseholders, “I am a landlord; I am a Brahmin, etc.”

Chapter 26

Control Of Indriyas

Indriyas, A Prolongation Of The Mind

Indriyas are objectified desires. Will to see is the eye. Will to hear is the ear. TheIndriyas (senses) have two states, static and dynamic. When the desire begins to operate,the Indriyas are put in motion. This is the dynamic state. As soon as the desire isgratified, the Indriyas shrink through Tripti (satisfaction). This is the static orpassive state.

Mind and Indriyas are one. Indriya is a prolongation of the mind. The sea is fed by therivers; the sea cannot exist without the rivers. Even so, mind is fed by Indriyas andcannot exist without Indriyas. If you have controlled the Indriyas, you have alreadycontrolled the mind. Indriya is another name for mind.

Mind is a mass of Indriyas. Mind is a higher power than the Indriyas. Mind is aconsolidated Indriya. Indriya is mind in manifestation. Just as a minister obeys the king,so also, the five Jnana-Indriyas act in accordance with the dictates of the mind. Indriyasrepresent backwaters. The desire in the mind to eat has manifested as tongue, teeth andstomach. The desire in the mind to walk has manifested itself as legs and feet. If you cancontrol mind, you can control the Indriyas.

Eyes can only see. Ears can only hear. Tongue can only taste. Skin can only touch. Nosecan only smell. But, the mind can see, hear, taste, touch and smell. Mind is the commonsensory. The five senses are blended there. It can directly see, hear, smell, taste andfeel independent of the senses. It is an aggregate of the five senses. All thesense-faculties are blended in the mind. You can see and hear directly through the mind byYogic practice (clairvoyance and clairaudience). This blows out the Western psychologicaltheory of perception.

Mind is termed the sixth sense: “Manah shashthanindriyani-thesenses of which mind is the sixth” (Gita, XV-7). The five senses are the fiveJnana-Indriyas (organs of knowledge, sensation or perception).

Ayatana means mind (Chhandogya Upanishad, IV-vii) which is the substratum of theexperiences of all other organs. Senses cannot do anything, if the mind is not connectedwith them. When you are wholly absorbed in the study of an interesting newspaper, you donot hear when your friend loudly calls you. You are not aware that the clock has struckfive. It is everybody’s daily experience. The mind was away at that time. It was not thenconnected with the sense of hearing. The eyes may be wide open during sleep. They do notsee anything, because the mind is not there.

Sister Indriyas

Nose and anus are sister Indriyas. They are born of the same Prithvi-Tanmatra, nosefrom the Sattvic portion, anus from the Rajasic portion. These two Indriyas are the leastmischievous. The olfactory sense and the olfactory nerve do not trouble you much. They canbe controlled very easily.

Tongue and genitals are born of Jala-Tanmatra, the former from the Sattvic portion andthe latter from the Rajasic portion. They are sister Indriyas. Eating strengthens thereproductive Indriyas.

Eye and feet are of Agni-Tanmatra, eye from the Sattvic Amsa (portion), feet from theRajasic Amsa. They are sister Indriyas. Eye likes to see ‘sights’. Her sisters, feet, say,”We are ready to take you to the Kumbha Fair at Allahabad. Be ready.”

Skin and hands are born of Vayu-Tanmatra, skin from the Sattvic Amsa and hands from theRajasic Amsa. They are sister organs. Skin says, “I want silk and other smootharticles for my enjoyment.” Her sister, hand, says, “I can feel through mytactile corpuscles. I shall get for you fine soft silk. Do not be afraid, my dearsister.”

Speech and ear are born of the same Akasa-Tanmatra, ear from the Sattvic Amsa andspeech from the Rajasic Amsa. They are sister Indriyas. They help each other in theeconomy of Nature.

In a bungalow you will find two gates, one for entrance, another for exit. Our body isalso a nice bungalow for the Lord. Eyes and ears are entrance gates for the reception offorms and sounds. These are avenues of sense-knowledge (sight and hearing). UpasthaIndriya (organ of reproduction) and Guda (anus, organ of excretion) are exit gates. Theythrow out urine and faeces.

Tongue, The Most Difficult To Control

The most mischievous and troublesome Indriya is the generative organ. Then comestongue. Then comes speech. Then comes ear. Then comes eye. Control of the organ of tasteis far more difficult than control of the genitals, because you have been enjoyingdelicious articles of food even from your very birth. Lust manifests itself just beforeeighteen. You indulge in sexual pleasure only for a short period in every birth. But, youhave to take food even in advanced senility. Control of tongue means control of allIndriyas.

Music, cinema, sight-seeing are enjoyed in human births only. Ants and rats do notenjoy cinema-show. The Indriya of sight is not so powerful as the tongue.

The organ of sight serves as a loving comrade to the organ of taste. The mind is atonce tickled at the sight of a yellow colour of the mango. The eyes see a beautiful mangoand the different dishes that are served on the table. At once, the glosso-pharyngealnerves are stimulated. You get good appetite and relish. The food is rendered morepalatable. A blind man may not have as good a relish as a man with sharp sight has.

Object Of Sadhana-to Prevent Externalisation By The Indriyas

The three organs of eye, ear and tongue externalise the mind and make a man altogetherworldly. Eyes and ears are the avenues of sense-knowledge or Vritti-Jnana. Close the eyes.Shut the ears either with balls of cotton or balls of cotton beaten with yellow bee’s waxor with the two thumbs making Yoni-Mudra. Now you have destroyed two-fifths of the world.Do not allow anything to enter the mind through these two doors of sense-knowledge.

The object of Sadhana is to internalise the mind by introspection or Antarmukha Vrittiand to realise the Truth within yourself. Control the three organs of eye, ear and tongue.Then you can bring the mind under discipline and prevent the mental energy from flowingexternally. These organs are the main causes of making the mind restive. Control over themhelps the purpose of concentrating the energy internally.

He is a real Kshatriya who wages internal war with the mind, who fights with theIndriyas, the Svabhava, through Viveka and will-force and obtains absolute mastery overthe mind. He is a real Kshatriya who fights with the host of evil Samskaras and evilthoughts, the Rajasic and Tamasic, by awakening and increasing the Sattva Guna. He is areal Kshatriya whose Sastra is Will, and Astra is Viveka, whose battle-field is within,whose band is chanting of Pranava and Udgitha of the Chhandogya Upanishad and whosecoat-of-arms is the three qualifications, viz., Viveka, Vairagya and Mumukshutva.

How To Control The Indriyas

There are six ways of controlling the Indriyas: (i) through Vichara, (ii) bywill-force, (iii) by Kumbhaka (retention of breath in Pranayama), (iv) by Dama(restraint), (v) by Pratyahara (abstention) and (vi) by Vairagya and Tyaga. Perfectcontrol can be made only through Vichara.


Dama is restraint of the Indriyas. Dama blunts the Indriyas. Perfect control of thesenses is not possible through Dama alone. If the senses are very sharp and acute, theycarry away the minds of even good Sadhakas impetuously, just as the gale carries away theship in stormy weather (Gita, II-67). They can be controlled perfectly through the help ofthe mind, through Vichara.

When you walk along Mount Road, Madras, each Indriya tries its level best to get holdof its objects of enjoyment and revelry. The Indriyas revolt vehemently if you do notprocure them these objects. Tongue drags you to the coffee hotel or Hotel de Angelis. Tvak(skin) says, “Let me go to the Bombay Sait’s shop and have a piece of fine Chinasilk.” Ear says, “Let me have a gramophone or harmonium.” Nose says,”Let me have a bottle of Otto de Rose.” The mind is at the bottom ofthese Indriyas to instigate. A tumultuous internal fight goes on between the five organsof knowledge, each trying to have a lion’s share of enjoyment. Use Viveka, power ofdiscrimination, always. Indriyas tempt and deceive you. Indriyas are the jugglers. Mayaspreads her Moha-Jala through mind and Indriyas. Be on the alert. Practise Dama throughVairagya and Vasana-Tyaga. Happiness comes through calmness of Indriyas, through calmnessof mind (Uparati). Go to the sweets’ bazaar with plenty of money in hand. Walk hither andthither for fifteen minutes. Look with a greedy eye at the various sweets. Do not purchaseanything. Return home. Even if dainties are served that day at home, reject them. Have aplain diet. By so doing, you will control the tongue which is at the root of all troubles.You will eventually control the mind also. You will develop will-power.

Give up all luxurious food and all articles of sensuous enjoyment. Practise rigidpenance. Tapas thins out the Indriyas and eventually leads to control of mind. If you giveup tea, you have really controlled a small portion of the mind; control of tongue reallymeans control of mind.


When the Indriyas give up the objects, they take up the form of the mind-stuff. Theyare drawn into the mind. This is termed Pratyahara or abstraction. When the Indriyas arewithdrawn from their respective objects, it is Indriya-Pratyahara. Mental abstractiontakes place when the mind is disconnected with the Indriyas. Pratyahara is a general,broad term which includes Dama also. The effect of Dama (restraint of Indriyas) isPratyahara.

If you can do consciously Pratyahara at will, consciously attaching and detaching themind to and from the senses, you have gained really a great control over the mind. You cancheck at any time the outgoing tendencies or outgoing forces of the mind. Pratyahara isthe stepping-stone to inner spiritual life. He who has succeeded in Pratyahara canconcentrate his mind quite readily for a very long time. Dharana and Dhyana comeautomatically if Pratyahara is perfect. An aspirant has to struggle hard to have masteryover Pratyahara. Perfect Vairagya is indispensable for success in Pratyahara. You cansucceed after strenuous and incessant struggle for some years. “Tatah paramavasyatendriyanam-Thence arises the supreme control of the organs” (Patanjali YogaSutras, II-55). If Pratyahara is perfect, all the organs are under perfect control.

During the period of Sadhana, do not mix much; do not talk much; do not walk much; donot eat much; do not sleep much. Observe carefully the five ‘do-nots’. Mixing will causedisturbances in the mind. Talking much will cause distraction of the mind. Walking muchcauses exhaustion and weakness. Eating much induces Alasya and Tandri (laziness andsleepiness).

Control of Thought-A Great Desideratum

If you have the reins of the horses under your control, you can have a safe journey.The Indriyas are the horses. If you have the senses under your efficient control, you canhave a safe journey in the path of Moksha. Indriyas cannot do anything without the help ofthe mind, their master and commander. Control of the Indriyas means control of the mindonly. Control of thoughts leads to the control of mind and Indriyas also. It leads to theattainment of infinite bliss and eternal life. Control of thought is indispensable-a greatdesideratum for all.

Remember Your Original Home

O Mind! Do not ruin yourself by keeping company with the senses and their objects.Enough. Enough. Now get yourself concentrated on Brahma-Svarupa. That is your originalhome. That is your real, happy home. Remember this constantly when you chant OM.Brahmakara or Akhandakara Vritti will arise thereby. Svarupa is your original home. I haveto repeat this again and again, as you always forget your real nature. You have taken yourbirth from Svarupa. Now, go back to your original home or birth-place through the help ofBrahmakara Vritti generated by constant Nididhyasana (profound and constant meditation),through Mahavakya-Anusandhana or Chintana (enquiry into or thinking on the deep and realsignificance of the great sentence “Tat Tvam Asi” or “AhamBrahmasmi”). Then the Avidya (nescience) will be destroyed and you will be free fromall kinds of miseries and pain and will attain the Paramananda state (highest knowledgecoupled with infinite bliss). When the Svarupakara Vritti arises, all your vain Sankalpaswill vanish. You will reach the Turiya state with Sahajananda (bliss which is your verynature). Then, O mind, you will be free from birth and death. You will no longer have toenter again this filthy house of physical body. You will not be clothed again by flesh andbone. You will be merged in Sat-Chit-Ananda Brahman, your Adhishthana or repository.

Chapter 27

Mouna And Introspection

Mouna-its Practice And Benefits

Miscellaneous talking is a very bad habit. It distracts the mind. It keeps the mindalways Bahirmukha (outgoing) and makes a man unspiritual. A vow of silence must bepractised once a week. Much energy is wasted in talking.

The Vag-Indriya (organ of speech) seriously distracts the mind. “Speech is thefourth ‘foot’ of Mind-Brahman, because it is by means of the ‘foot’ of speech that themind approaches the denotable objects such as cow, goat, etc. Therefore speech is like afoot of mind. In the same manner, nose is a ‘foot’, because it is through nose that themind approaches objects of smell. Similarly, the eye is a ‘foot’; the ear is another’foot’. This constitutes the four-footed character of the Mind-Brahman” (ChhandogyaUpanishad).

Do not allow anything to come out from the mind through the Vag-Indriyas (organ ofspeech). Observe Mouna (a vow of silence). This will help you. Considerable peace followsMouna. The speech energy becomes transmuted into spiritual energy (Ojas). Sankalpas becomemuch decreased. Will becomes stronger. Now you have shut out a big source of disturbance.You will rest now in peace. Meditate on God or Brahman now in right earnest.

Spiritual aspirants must observe Mouna for some hours daily.

Be careful in the selection of your words before you speak. Think thrice before youspeak. Consider what effect the words will produce on the feeling of others. Observe Mounafor a couple of years. It is Tapas of speech.

Do not argue unnecessarily. Argument brings about hostility, heated feelings andwastage of energy. Every man has got his own views, his own opinion, ideas, sentiments,beliefs and convictions. It is very difficult to change the views of others. Do not try toconvince others. When you are an aspirant, when you are gathering facts and knowledge fromthe study of sacred lore, do not argue with others till your thoughts have become matureand steady.

Imagination in the mind always exaggerates. Exaggeration is a modification of lie.Aspirants should not exaggerate. They should utter words with mathematical and scientificprecision.

An aspirant is asked to give up company and observe Mouna, because on account of Raga,he will multiply acquaintance; on account of Dvesha, he will incur the displeasure ofothers by uttering some unpleasant words. There is a sword in the tongue. Words are likearrows. They injure the feelings of others. By observing Mouna and giving up company, onecan control the Vag-Indriya and remove Raga. Then the mind will become calm.

There are fifteen Doshas that arise from company. An aspirant should, therefore,preferably remain alone during the period of Sadhana. The Doshas of company are: (1)Misunderstanding, (2) Ill-feeling, (3) Displeasure, (4) Raga-Dvesha, (5) Jealousy, (6)Vampirism, (7) Attachment, (8) Mental sharing of pain of another man, (9) Criticisms ofothers, (10) Anatma topics, (11) Habit of talking, (12) Bahirmukha Vritti, (13) Idea andSamskara of duality, (14) Slavish mentality and weak will, (15) Contempt. Love little, butlove long.

When you take a vow of silence, never assert from within very often, ‘I won’t talk’.This will produce a little heat in the brain, because the mind wants to revenge on you.Simply once make a determination and then remain quiet. Attend to other affairs. Do not bethinking always, ‘I won’t talk, I won’t talk.’

In the beginning, when you observe Mouna, you will find some difficulty. There will bea severe attack of Vrittis. Various kinds of thoughts will arise and force you to breakthe silence. There are all vain imaginations and deceptions of the mind. Be bold.Concentrate all energies on God. Make the mind fully occupied. The desire for talk andcompany will die. You will get peace. The Vag-Indriya (organ of speech) considerablydistracts the mind.

Mouna Of The Mind

Mouna of the mind is far superior to Mouna of Vak (speech). Mouna should come ofitself. It must be natural. Forced Mouna is only wrestling with the mind. It is an effort.If you live in Truth, Mouna will come of itself. Then only will there be absolute peace.

What is wanted is natural Mouna and mental nudity. Physical nudity has no meaning. Itis Tamasic Tapas of fools, that is not countenanced by Sastras and reason. In a Jivanmuktaor a liberated soul, nudity comes of itself as he is absorbed in Brahman, when he is inthe Saptama Jnana-Bhumika (the seventh stage of knowledge).

Introspection-what It Is And What It Does

The self-existent Brahman created the mind and senses with outgoing tendencies. Themind has a pernicious habit of externalisation from time immemorial. So you behold theexternal universe and not the internal Self. It is the Vikshepa-Sakti or Maya that drawsyou out. From your childhood, you are taught to look to the external world and not to theinternal, psychic world. You have entirely lost the faculty of introspection. To have acomprehensive understanding of what is going on in the inner ‘mental factory’, a SuddhaBuddhi (pure reason) and subtle intellect with power of introspection is needed. You willhave to turn the mind inside, then concentrate all its powers and throw them upon the minditself, in order that it may know its own nature and analyse itself. This is Raja Yoga.

Make a vigorous and earnest search within. Do not trust the mind and the Indriyas. Theyare your enemies. Woman and wealth are your bitter foes. These are two great evils.

In introspection, the mind itself is the subject of study. A portion of the mindstudies the remaining portion of the mind. The higher mind studies the lower mind.Introspection is apperception. Just as you watch the work done by a coolie, a portion ofthe mind watches the movements of the rest of the mind. If you are one with the mind, ifyou identify yourself with the mind, you cannot know your defects. If you are a Sakshi orsilent witness of the mind and if you practise introspection, you can know your variousdefects.

By a careful watch, many defects are detected and removed by suitable Sadhana. Enter aquiet room. Enter into silence daily for about fifteen minutes, morning and evening.Introspect. Watch the mind carefully. The mind will be doing either thinking, planning,feeling, knowing or willing. You will have to find out through subjective introspectionwhat the mind is exactly doing at a particular time. To go through this practice, you musthave Antarmukha Vritti, a subjective mind and a subtle Buddhi. Buddhi can be renderedsubtle by study of philosophical books, Satsanga, control of Indriyas (Dama) and Sattvicfood. The constant utterance of holy Names of God as Hari, OM, Narayana, Rama, Sivapurifies the mind-stuff and helps make the mind introspective (Antarmukha).

How To Practise Introspection

You are the best judge of your mind. Introspect by living alone in solitude or retiringinto a calm room for an hour. You must sit quiet in a solitary room alone, with closedeyes and watch the activities of the mind. You will then know your defects and weaknessesvery clearly.

You should afterwards feel the necessity of removing them. Then your Svabhava shouldagree to change. You must know the right method to remove the defect. You must apply themethod constantly. Then only improvement will set in. Constant application of the Sadhanais an indispensable requisite. You must watch the improvement every now and then, say,once a week, a fortnight or a month. You will have to keep a record of your progress(spiritual daily diary). You must watch carefully whether you are progressing in thespiritual path, whether you remain stationary or retrograding, whether the mind isdistracted or concentrated. If it is distracted, you must remove the distracting causesone by one with patience and vigilance by suitable methods. If one method fails to bringabout the desired results, you will have to combine two methods (the Yogic methods andVichara).

Remember the triplet, viz., self-analysis, self-reliance, self-determination. It willbe of immense use in your spiritual Sadhana. Analyse your self through introspection. Findout the nature of your Vrittis. Find out what Guna (quality) is predominating at aparticular moment, whether it is Sattva, Rajas or Tamas. How long can the mind beabsolutely fixed on your Lakshya (point of meditation)-either God, Brahman, idea orobject, whether internal or external? How long can the mind be fixed on the object, roseand rose alone to the exclusion of all other objects-whether two seconds or two minutes orfive minutes or half an hour? This is self-analysis. Rely on your self alone. You are yourown redeemer and saviour. Nobody can give you Moksha. You will have to tread the spiritualpath step by step. Books and Gurus can show the path and guide you. This is self-reliance.Make a strong self-determination, “I will realise God. I will have Atma-Sakshatkaraor Brahmanubhava this very moment and not in the uncertain future.” This isself-determination.

Wordlings have no time to think over even for a few minutes the life-problems, themystery of life, etc. They get up in the morning. Their minds usually run to the specialobjects of enjoyment on account of Raga. Their mental energies are poured forth in theusual grooves and avenues-in thoughts of body, thoughts of eating and dressing, thoughtsof wife, children, friends and also thoughts of office-work and business; and thus, theday is over. The same routine follows day after day, week after week. Years roll on andlife is wasted. It is highly lamentable, indeed!

Only he who does Manana (reflection) and introspection through Antarmukha Vritti canchange his worldly nature. In him only the idea of Brahman can get permanently lodged.

Chapter 28

Evil Vrittis And Their Eradication

Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada, Matsarya, Darpa (arrogance), Dambha (hypocrisy), Asuya(a form of jealousy), Irshya (intolerance), Ahankara, Raga (attachment), Dvesha(repulsion) are some of the evil Vrittis. They bind a man to Samsara (transmigration).Pride, illusion and desires are so many binding cords of the mind.

Lust, A Powerful Force

Kama (lust), Krodha (anger), Lobha (covetousness), Moha (delusion), Mada (pride),Matsarya (jealousy) are the six passions of the mind. If lust is conquered, anger, Lobha,etc., which are auxiliary weapons, will become ineffective. If this inveterate enemy, lustis destroyed, its followers or retinue can be quite easily conquered. If the commander iskilled, it is easy to kill the soldiers. If lust, which is the source of all enjoyments,ceases, then all worldly bondage, which has its substratum in the mind, will cease. How,without its renunciation, can you expect to attain the rare Nirvikalpa Samadhi or BrahmaNishtha?

Lust arises in him who develops attachment specially towards a person of the oppositesex. Love’s principal weapon is woman or lust. Therefore, attachment should not bedeveloped, specially towards the opposite sex.

The love between a husband and wife is mainly physical. It is of a selfish, ephemeraland changing nature. He who has realised Atman can really love all with sincerity ofheart. The love between two aspirants based on psychological affinity and intellectualparity is real and lasting. Get rid of selfishness. Selfishness is a major dirt. It cloudsthe understanding. Remove it by selfless service, charity, study of Vedantic literatureand Satsanga.

In a Jnanin, the sexual craving is entirely eradicated. In a Sadhaka, it remainswell-controlled. In a householder, when not controlled, it does havoc. It exists in him inits fully expanded state. He cannot resist it. He yields to it helplessly on account ofhis weak will and lack of firm resolution.

If you keep lemon juice or tamarind juice in a golden cup, it is not spoiled ortainted. If you keep it in a brass or copper vessel, it is at once spoiled and renderedpoisonous. Even so, even if there are some Vishaya-Vrittis (sensual thoughts) in the puremind of a person, they will not pollute him and induce Vikara (sensual excitement). Ifthere are sensual thoughts in persons with impure minds, they cause excitement in themwhen they come across sensual objects.

Remembrance of image of a woman unsettles the mind. When a tiger has once tasted humanblood, it always runs after killing human beings. It becomes a man-eater. Even so, whenthe mind has once tasted sexual pleasures, it always runs after women. Lust is powerful.It carries a flowery bow equipped with five arrows, viz., Mohana (fascination), Stambhana(stupefaction), Unmadana (maddening), Soshana (emaciation) and Tapana (inflaming).

In the Bhagavad-Gita, you will find it mentioned that senses, mind and Buddhi are theseats of passions. Pranamaya Kosha is another seat. Desire is all-pervading in the body.Every cell, every atom, every molecule, every electron is surcharged with passion. Thereare under-currents, cross-currents, inter-currents and submarine currents in the ocean ofpassion. You must completely annihilate each one of them.

Be careful in destroying passions. It is easy to control the conscious mind. But, it isvery difficult to control the subconscious mind. You may be a Sannyasin. You may be amoral man. Mark how the mind behaves or conducts itself in dreams. You begin to steal indreams. You commit adultery in dreams. The sex-impulses, ambitions, low desires are allingrained in you and deep-rooted in the subconscious mind. Destroy the subconscious mindand its Samskaras through Vichara, Brahma-Bhavana, meditation on ‘OM’ and its meaning. Aman who is established in mental Brahmacharya can never have even a single thought of evilin dreams. He can never have a bad dream. There is lack of Vichara or Viveka in dream.That is the reason why you get bad dreams, even though you are pure in the Jagrat statethrough the power of Viveka and Vichara.

That state of mind wherein no single sexual thought enters the mind is termed mentalBrahmacharya. Bhishma had this state. If you are not established in mental Brahmacharya,at least try to control the body when the sex-impulse is troubling you.

A Source Of Perpetual Danger To Sadhakas

The presence or recollection of a woman usually excites unholy ideas in the minds ofrecluses who have abandoned this world and devoted themselves to spiritual exercises andthus deprives them of the fruit of their austerity. It is very difficult to understand thepresence of subtle lust in the minds of others, particularly in spiritual Sadhakas, thougheye (look), tone, gestures, gait, behaviour, etc., may give a clue.

The Example Of Jaimini

Once upon a time, Sri Vedavyasa was holding his Vedanta class amongst his students. Inthe course of his lecture, he mentioned that the young Brahmacharins should be verycareful and should not mix with young ladies and that, with all their vigilance andcircumspection, they may fall a victim as lust is very powerful. One of his students,Jaimini, the author of Purva-Mimamsa, was a little impertinent. He said, “GurujiMaharaj! Your statement is wrong. No lady can attract me. I am well-established inBrahmacharya.” Vyasa said, “Jaimini, you will know that soon. I am going toBenares. I will return within three months. Be careful. Do not be puffed with pride.”Sri Vyasa, through his Yogic powers, assumed the form of a beautiful young girl, withpiercing eyes and very charming face, well-dressed in a thin silken garment. The lady wasstanding underneath a tree at sunset. Clouds gathered together. It began to rain.Accidentally, Jaimini was passing along the side of the tree. He saw the girl, felt pityand addressed her: “O lady, you can come and stay in my Ashrama. I shall give youshelter.” The lady asked, “Are you living alone? Is any woman livingthere?” Jaimini replied, “I am alone. But, I am a perfect Brahmacharin. No lustcan affect me. I am free from any sort of Vikara. You can stay there.” The ladyobjected: “It is not right for a young virgin girl to stay with a Brahmacharin aloneat night.” Jaimini said, “O damsel, do not be afraid. I promise you of myperfect Brahmacharya.” Then she agreed and stayed in his Ashrama at night. Jaiminislept outside and the lady was sleeping inside the room. At the dead of night, Jaiminibegan to feel the influence of lust in his mind. A little sexual craving arose in hismind. In the beginning, he was absolutely pure. He knocked at the door and said, “Olady, the wind is blowing outside. I cannot bear the cold blasts. I want to sleepinside.” She opened the door. Jaimini was sleeping inside. Again, the sexual cravingbecame a little more intense and keen, as he was very close to a lady and as he heard thesound of her bangles. Then he rose up and began to embrace her. At once, Sri Vyasa assumedhis original form with his long beard and said, “O, my dear Jaimini, what about thestrength of your Brahmacharya now? Are you established in your perfect celibacy now? Whatdid you say when I was lecturing on this subject?” Jaimini dropped his head down inutter shame and said, “Guruji, I am wrong. Kindly pardon me.”

Even Jesus was tempted by Satan. Buddha had to fight severely with Mara (lust) justbefore he attained his Nirvana or Buddhahood.

Beware Of Maya-a Warning To Aspirants

Therefore, oh, dear aspirants, you will have to be very, very careful. During theperiod of Sadhana, avoid the company of women. You must never mix with young ladies,however strong you may be. Maya works through under-currents so stealthily that you maynot be aware of your actual downfall.

Keep the mind fully occupied with spiritual pursuits. Keep yourself at the farthestdistance from everything that would stir up your passions. Then only you will be safe.

Do not live with householders. Do not test your spiritual strength and purity when youare a beginner on the spiritual path. Do not rush into evil associations when you are aspiritual neophyte to show that you have the courage to face sin and impurity. It will bea serious mistake. You will be running into a grave danger. You will have a quickdownfall. A small fire will be very easily extinguished by a heap of dust.

Mind has a great power of imitation. That is the reason why a spiritual aspirant isprohibited from mixing with householders. His mind will try to imitate the minds ofworldlings. Downfall will ensue.

If an aspirant moves with rich people, Zamindars and Rajas, his mind begins to imitatethe luxurious habits of these people and, ere long, he gets an unconscious downfall.Certain bad habits creep in him unconsciously. And he finds it difficult to tear out orremove these bad habits. After forty, it is difficult to tear out old habits and establishnew healthy habits.

An aspirant can live only for a short time in his native place if there is an urgentcall. Yogic rules and laws cannot permit him to stay there for a sufficiently long period,however suitable the place may be and whatever may be the degree of Vairagya (dispassion)of the aspirant. The force of Samskaras (impressions) is tremendous. Unless all theSamskaras are thoroughly burnt through pure Asamprajnata Samadhi or Nirvikalpa Avastha(seedless state), it is not safe for one to stay for a long time in one’s own nativeplace. He is still within the danger zone.

After seclusion for five years, the aspirant should test his mental state by cominginto the world and mixing with the worldly people. If there is no attraction for objects,he can be quite sure that he has reached the third Jnana-Bhumika-Tanumanasi-a stagewherein the mind is thinned out like a slender thread.

How Lust Develops And Ruins

From the bed of Samskaras and Vasanas emanates imagination, through memory. Then comesattachment. Along with imagination, emotion and impulse manifest. Emotion and impulseexist side by side. Then comes sexual irritation, sexual craving, excitement and burningin the mind and throughout the body. The irritation and burning in the mind penetrate intothe physical body just as water in the pot penetrates into the surface of the pot. If youare very vigilant, you can drive off the imagination itself in the very beginning andavert the danger. Even if you allow the thief imagination to enter the first gate, keep acareful watch at the second gate when the irritation manifests. You can stop the burningnow. You can stop also easily the strong sexual impulse from being transmitted to theIndriya itself. Draw the sex energy up towards the brain through Uddiyana and Kumbhaka.Repeat OM mentally with force. Divert the mind. Pray. Meditate.

Methods To Control Lust

Just as you control the itching sensation in an eczematous part of the leg or scabiesof the hand, you must control the itching from lust by Viveka, Vichara, Brahma-Bhavana,light Sattvic diet, fasting, Pranayama, Uddiyana, Bandha, Satsanga, study of the Gita,Japa, prayer, etc. Then only can you enjoy spiritual bliss.

Vichara and Brahma-Bhavana

It is through constant Vichara and Brahma-Bhavana that the mind has to be weaned fromlustful thoughts and tendencies. You must remove not only the sexual craving and thesexual impulses, but also sex-attraction. Think of the miseries that you get from amarried life with its various entanglements and bondage. Make the mind understand byrepeated auto-suggestions and hammering that sexual pleasure is false, worthless, illusoryand full of pain. Place before the mind the advantages, bliss, power and knowledge of aspiritual life. Make it understand that the exalted, eternal life is in the immortalAtman. When it hears constantly these useful suggestions, it will slowly leave off its oldhabits. The attraction for the sex will slowly die. Then only real sex-sublimation willtake place. You will become then only an Urdhvaretas.

Atman is sexless. There is no sex in the five elements. It is the mind that creates thesex idea. Sukadeva had no sex idea. Consider that a woman is a combination of fiveelements, a mass of electrons or atoms. The sex idea will slowly vanish.

Pure Reason

There are two kinds of force in the mind, viz., hostile or antagonistic force andfriendly or favourable force. Passion is hostile force that drags you down. Pure reason isa favourable force that elevates you and transmutes you into Divinity. Develop, therefore,my child, pure reason to get unalloyed bliss and supreme Brahmic knowledge. The passionwill die itself.

Sattvic Food

Take light Sattvic food, such as milk, fruits, etc. You can control passions in thisway. The wise say that purity of food leads to purity of mind.


Fasting weakens the sex Indriya. It destroys sexual excitement. Passionate young menand ladies should take recourse to occasional fasting. It will prove highly beneficial.


By Pranayama, the mind gradually proceeds from the gross to the subtle. It, therefore,exercises a wholesome check upon the sexual irritation. When some evil thought disturbsyour mind, at once take to Padmasana or Siddhasana and practise Pranayama. The thoughtwill leave you immediately.

Satsanga and Svadhyaya

Do not study romantic novels. Do not talk on sexual subjects. Do not keep company withmen who indulge in sex. Strive your best to divert your mind and eyes from externalobjects that prompt sexual desires. Keep company with Sadhus and Sannyasins. Read sublimebooks such as the Gita, the Upanishads and the Yogavasishtha. Practise Mantra-Japa andPranayama.

Keep the Mind Ever Engaged

Keep the mind fully occupied. You can be established in mental and physicalBrahmacharya. I shall give here the routine of work: six hours for sleep (10 p.m. to 4a.m.); six hours for meditation (4 a.m. and 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. to 10 p.m.); six hours forstudy; four hours for Nishkama work, service of the poor, service of the sick, etc., twohours for walking or indoor exercise. This will keep the mind ever engaged.

Benefits Of Brahmacharya

Mind, Prana, Virya (seminal energy) are three links of one chain. They are threepillars of the edifice of Jivatman. Destroy one pillar-either mind, Prana or Virya and thewhole building will fall to pieces. If you can observe Akhanda Brahmacharya for a periodof 12 years, you will enter into Nirvikalpa Samadhi spontaneously without any effort. Themind will be controlled by itself. Seminal energy is a potent Sakti. Semen is Brahmanitself. A Brahmacharin who has practised unbroken celibacy for full twelve years willreach to Nirvikalpa state the moment he hears the Mahavakya “Tat Tvam Asi” (Thatthou art). His mind is extremely pure, strong and one-pointed. He need not have repeatedlyundergone the lengthy process of Sravana (hearing) and Manana (intellection).

A drop of semen is made out of 40 drops of blood. The energy that is spent in one actof copulation is tantamount to expenditure of mental energy through mental exertion for 24hours or expenditure of physical energy through physical exertion for three days. Mark howvaluable and precious is semen! Do not waste this energy. Preserve it with great care. Youwill have wonderful vitality and energy. When it is not used, it is all transmuted intoOjas-Sakti (spiritual energy) and stored up in the brain. Western doctors know little ofthis salient point. Most of your ailments are due to excessive seminal wastage.

A true Brahmacharin in thought, word and deed has wonderful thought-power. He can movethe world. If you develop strict celibacy, Vichara-Sakti (power of enquiry) andDharana-Sakti (power of grasping and holding the Truth) will develop. If a manpersistently refuses to yield to his lower nature and remains as a strict celibate, theseminal energy is deflected upwards to the brain and is stored up as Ojas-Sakti (spiritualpower). Thereby, the power of the intellect is intensified to a remarkable degree. Thestrict celibate has keen and acute memory even in old age. The celibate who has achievedthe transmutation of the seminal energy will find that sexual desires no longer troublehim. Such celibate is known as Urdhvaretas. Hanuman, Bhishma, Lakshmana, Swami Dayanandaand Swami Vivekananda were Urdhvareto-Yogins.

Anger-how It Arises

Anger arises in him who thinks of his enemy. Even if you have forgotten the feeling ofannoyance, it lurks in the mind in a dormant form. The effect is there for some time. Ifyou renew a number of times the same kind of thought of jealousy, envy or hatred about thesame person, the effect lasts longer. Repetition of angry feeling intensifies hatred. Mereill-feeling develops into intense malice by repetition of anger.

On days when you have many troubles, vexations, worries from the morning to evening, atrifling causes much irritation in the mind. The balance of mind is upset by a paltryaffair. A single harsh word throws you out of the balance, whereas when you are peacefulthroughout the day, even a strong abuse and severe censure do not produce any effectwhatsoever.

Anger resides in the Linga Sarira or astral body. But, it percolates into the physicalbody just as water percolates through the pores into the outer surface of an earthen pot.

Ill-Effects Of Anger

Just as heat melts lead, just as heat and borax melt gold, even so, Kama and Krodha,the heating factors of the mind, melt it. When you are angry, the mind becomes disturbed.Similarly, when the mind is disturbed, the body also becomes disturbed. The whole nervoussystem is agitated. You become enervated.

Anger spoils the brain, nervous system and blood. When a wave of anger arises in themind, Prana begins to vibrate rapidly. You are agitated and excited. Blood becomes hot.Many poisonous ingredients are formed in the blood. When the blood is agitated, the semenalso is affected.

Once a child sucked the breast of his mother when she was in a fit of violent fury orrage and died immediately on account of poisoning by virulent chemical products that werethrown into the blood of the mother when she was in great excitement. Many such cases havebeen recorded. Such are the disastrous effects of anger. Even three minutes of violent hottemper may produce such deleterious effects in the nervous system that it will take weeksor months for the repair of injury.

Anger clouds understanding. When the mind is violently agitated, you cannot understanda passage of a book clearly. You cannot think properly and clearly. You cannot write aletter with a cool mind. When the lamp is flickering through wind, you do not see theobjects clearly. Even so, when the Buddhi (mind) is flickering or agitated by anger, chaosarises in the Buddhi and you are not able to see and understand things properly. Buddhi isall light.

A man who is a slave to anger, may have washed himself well, anointed himself well,dressed his hair and put on white garments; yet he is ugly, being overcome by anger. Thereare symptoms on the face to indicate the presence of anger in the mind. If you get anger,you will lose the battle of life. If you have an easily irritable mind, you will not beable to do your daily duties and business in an efficient manner.

How To Control Anger

There are three ways of destroying the anger and lust Vrittis: (1) You can drive themthrough will-force. This is, no doubt, difficult and taxing. It exhausts your energy much.(2) Pratipaksha-Bhavana method: Entertain counter-thoughts- thoughts of purity and love.This is easy. (3) Live in Truth or Brahman. There are no Vrittis of any kind in Brahman.Brahman is Nirvikara, Nirvikalpa and Nitya Suddha (ever pure). This method is a perfectand powerful one. Vrittis completely die away.

Conquer passion. It will then be easy to subdue anger, which is only one of itsfollowers.

Control anger by love. Anger is a powerful energy that is uncontrollable by practicalVyavaharic Buddhi, but controllable by pure reason (Sattvic Buddhi) or Viveka-Vichara.

When you become angry with your servant when he fails to supply your usual milk on aday, raise a question within yourself: “Why should I be a slave to milk?” Thenthe wave of anger will at once naturally subside. It will not arise on other occasionsalso, if you are careful and thoughtful.

Control anger by Kshama (forgiveness), Daya, patience, tolerance, universal love(Visva-Prema), mildness, Viveka, Vichara, Atma-Bhava, Udasinata, Nirabhimanata and suchother virtues. Forgive and pity the man who does you harm. Consider censure as a blessing,ornament and nectar. Bear reproach. Develop universal love by service, charity,Brahma-Bhava. Recall any calm and pure state, which when once brought to mind, suppressesthe hatred and brings composure. When anger is subdued, rudeness, pride and envy willvanish of themselves. Prayer and devotion will root out anger.

Practise Pratipaksha-Bhavana (entertaining a counter-idea). When you get angry, fillthe mind with the idea of love. If you are depressed, fill the mind with the idea of joyand exhilaration.

When you become intensely angry, leave the place immediately for half an hour. Take along walk. Repeat the sacred Mantra, “OM SANTIH,” 108 times. Your anger willsubside. I shall tell you another easy way. When you get angry, count from one to thirty.The anger will subside.

When anger tries to exhibit itself, observe silence. Keep quiet. Never utter a harshword or obscene speech. Try to nip it before it emerges out from the subconscious mind.You will have to be very alert. It tries to come out suddenly. Before anger manifests,there is an agitation (Udvega) in the mind. You must try to extirpate this very agitationin the mind before it assumes a very gross form in the shape of twitching of muscles ofthe face, clenching of teeth, red eyes, etc. You will have to punish the mind well. Youwill have to impose self-restraint and punishment on yourself by way of fasting for a daywhenever Udvega (agitation) manifests in the mind.

If you strive and make sincere effort to subdue your anger, the hatred subsides. Eventhen, a slight movement of impatience lingers although the angry feeling has gone. Youmust eschew this slight disturbance also. For a man who is leading a divine life, this isa very serious drawback.

Irritability is a weakness of the mind. If you are easily irritable, it is likely thatyou may do injustice to many. Remove this by the practice of patience, Titiksha,tolerance, Karuna (mercy), love, Brahma-Bhava, Narayana-Bhava, etc.

Calmness of mind is a direct means to the realisation of Brahman (or the Highest Self).

Verily a certain man in his behaviour is calm. His calmness is noticed by everyone ashe discharges his duties, large and small, beautifully well. Another man is calm in hisbehaviour, in speech, which is noticed by everyone. For, by nature, he is friendly, sweetin speech, congenial, of a frank countenance, ready at greetings. You should be calm inall the three states. Towards such a one, the development of love is not difficult.

You must have the knack to keep the mind always in balance and in tune. Close youreyes. Dive deep into the Divine Source. Feel His Presence. Remember Him always. PractiseHis Name. Repeat His Name even while at work. You will gain immense spiritual strength.Meditate early in the morning before you mix with people. You must rise above the thousandand one things which would irritate you easily in the course of your daily life. Then onlyyou can turn out wonderful work daily with harmony and concord.

Hatred And Its Modifications

Hatred and malice are two formidable passions. They are so deeply implanted in yoursystem that it is very difficult to root them out. Pride is not so fearful as hatred andmalice. When a man is placed in a high position and earns much money and is therebyhonoured and respected by all, he becomes very proud. When he loses that position andfails to earn money, his pride vanishes. But hatred and malice are two passions which areinveterate and need constant and diligent efforts for their eradication.

Prejudice, intolerance, Ghrina, insolence, impertinence, scorn, contempt-these Vrittisare all modifications of the emotion of hatred. Suspicion becomes prejudice by repetition.Prejudice develops into ill-will (Ghrina) and intolerance. Ill-will is a mild form ofhatred. When repeated, it develops into hatred. Hatred, by successive repetition, becomesmalice or extreme enmity.


Prejudice or unreasonable dislike, prepossessions and intolerance are three undesirableVrittis in the mind. Prejudice makes the mind and brain callous. The mind cannot thinktruly. Prejudice is a kind of mental sore. If you have prejudice against Mohammedans, youcannot understand the teachings of Mohammed in the Quoran. The brain and the mind will notharmoniously vibrate to receive the spiritual ideas of the Quoran, because the prejudicehas rendered the mind callous.

Prejudice is like an open sore on the physical body through which the will-power of theman is leaking. Be liberal or catholic in your views. You must give a place for everyschool of philosophy and every religion. A particular religion suits a particular nationaccording to the stage of evolution, temperament and capacity of the people. Arya Samaja,Brahmo Samaja, New Thought Movement, Occultism and cults of various kinds anddenominations serve their own useful purpose. Prejudice is only unreasonable dislike. Youmust remove it by efforts and right thinking.


Intolerance is narrow-mindedness on account of some narrow beliefs, convictions andviews. You must be extremely detached and sober in your views. Your mind will be greatlydisturbed through intolerance. Even though your views are diametrically opposite to theviews of others, you must have perfect tolerance. A man of tolerance has an expandedheart. Tolerance brings lasting peace.


Insolence is overbearing nature. It is haughtiness manifested in contemptuous treatmentof others. It is arrogant contempt. It is brutal impudence. It is grossly rude ordisrespectful nature. Insolence is rude, haughty behaviour in violation of the establishedrules of social intercourse. The insolent man has utter disregard for the feelings ofothers. He makes personal attacks either in words or in actions, indicative of eitherscorn or triumph.

How To Eradicate Hatred

No Samadhi or union with God is possible when hatred, prejudice, jealousy, anger, lust,etc., exist in the mind. Remove these defects by love, Titiksha, Brahma-Bhavana,Atma-Drishti, Satsanga, Vichara. Love is the greatest power on earth. Karuna is thehighest Sadhana. Do not give pain to others and relieve pain where it is; this is Karuna.

He who loves another man, loves himself only. He who gives rupees five as charity to apoor man in distress, gives it to himself. For, there is nothing else save his own self inthe universe. He who hurts, hates and abuses another man, hurts, hates and abuses himselfonly. He digs his own grave.

When thoughts of revenge and hatred arise in the mind, try to control the physical bodyand speech first. Do not utter evil and harsh words. Do not censure. Do not try to injureothers. If you succeed in this by practice for some months, the thoughts of revenge,having no scope for manifesting outside, will die by themselves. It is extremely difficultto control such thoughts from the very beginning without having recourse to control ofbody and speech first.

Constant Vichara and development of the opposite virtues -Prema, Daya and Karuna (love,compassion, sympathy and commiseration)-will eradicate the two violent passions of hatredand malice.

When hatred manifests, reflect on the blessings of love; it will slowly vanish. Theblessings of love are many. Happy he sleeps. Happy he lives. He sees no bad dreams. He isdear to all alike. He is dear to subhuman beings. Devas guard him. Fire, poison and swordcannot approach him. Quickly he concentrates the mind. His complexion is serene. He diespeacefully and goes to Brahma-Loka.

Have no enemies. Do not entertain inimical thought against any person who might havedone any wrong to you. If, while you are directing your mind towards your enemy, yourecall the offences that have been committed against yourself and hatred arises in you,you should dispel it by repeatedly dwelling on love with him. Imagine again and again thathe is your intimate friend and, with effort, raise a strong current of love towards him.Call in the mind affectionate feelings and others that cause love and tenderness. Rememberthe story of Pavahari Baba and Jayadeva, the author of Gita Govinda in Bhakta Vijaya, whointently prayed to God and got Mukti for his enemy-the robber who had cut off his twohands.

Serve the man whom you hate. Share with him what you have. Give him something to eat.Shampoo his legs. Make prostration sincerely. Your hatred will subside. He will also beginto love you. Gifts and kind words tame the untamed men. Men bow their heads by gifts andkind words.

If you give a blanket to a needy man with unwillingness, it is not Dana (charitableact) at all. It is a selfish act only. The mind will be waiting to take the blanket backwhen the first chance comes. Give anything willingly.

The Sadhana Of Equal Vision

Serve all. Serve the Lord in all. Love all. Respect all. Develop cosmic love. HaveAtma-Bhavana and Atma-Drishti. Have equal vision (Sama Drishti). All kinds of hatred willdisappear. The Sadhana of equal vision is extremely difficult, but strenuous and constantefforts will bring about success eventually.

Aspirants who wish to abolish the dividing line should immediately develop love for avery dear person, after him for an indifferent person and then after him for an enemy.And, in doing so, in each compartment they should make the heart tender and loving andshould immediately afterwards induce Dhyana (meditation).

You should discriminate between a thief and an honest man, but you should love thethief. A worldly-minded person hates a thief, sees him outside and considers that he isentirely separate from the thief; whereas, a Jnani loves a thief as his own Self and seeshim within himself.

When you remember that a savage or a rogue is a saint of the future and has all thedivine qualities in a potential form, you will begin to love everybody. Hatred will slowlyvanish. It is only a question of time for the rogue or the savage for his evolution anddevelopment.

An aspirant who wishes to begin with the development of the four divine states, viz.,love, pity, sympathy, and even-mindedness should first, having cut off the impediments,take up the subject of meditation, finish his light tiffin and drive away his drowsinessdue to eating, sit comfortably on a seat well-arranged in a secluded spot and think on theevils of hatred and the very many advantages of forbearance. Verily, by means of thispractice, hatred will slowly vanish and forbearance will be developed. A man who isovercome with hatred and whose mind is assailed by hatred, kills beings. Patience is thehighest virtue. Nothing can excel forbearance. He who is strong in forbearance is, indeed,a divine being.

There is nothing absolutely right or absolutely wrong in this relative universe. Rightand wrong are mind-made. Everybody is right from his own point of view. There is a grainof truth in everything. The point of view is the determining factor in the life of each.When the understanding is illumined by wisdom, the point of view is broad and entire. Whenthe understanding is darkened by ignorance, the point of view is narrow, limited andone-sided. Broad view is the sign of expansion of heart. A man of broad view is free fromsuspicion, prejudice, prepossessions and intolerance of various sorts. Broad view resultsfrom foreign travels, good birth, vast study, Satsanga, public service, varied experience,meditation, etc. A man of broad views sees things in their entirety and in their rightrelations. Broad view creates harmony and concord. Narrow view creates disharmony anddiscord.

Anticipation And Avarice

Memory and anticipation are two kinds of evil Vrittis for a spiritual aspirant, thoughthey are beneficial for worldly-minded persons. Pratyasa (anticipation) and Parigraha(grasping) make you a beggar of beggars and destroy your will-power. Do not anticipateanything. Anticipation fattens the mind and causes restlessness. Do not expect anything.It causes mental disturbance. If you do not expect, you would not have disappointment.Forget everything that pertains to the world. Even if anything that is conducive to luxurycomes, reject it at once. You will grow strong. Remember God and God alone. Everythingelse here is a dream. The world is a long dream.

Destroy avarice by Santosha (contentment), integrity, disinterestedness and charity. Donot entertain hopes. You will not have any disappointment. Santosha is one of the foursentinels of the domain of Moksha. A contented mind is a continual feast. If you haveSantosha, you will get help from the other three sentinels, viz., Sama, Vichara andSatsanga. With the help of these four sentinels, you can attain Brahma-Jnana, the ultimategoal of life.

Moha And Its Cure

Moha (delusion) is a strong weapon of Maya. Do not say, my friend, that desire is morepowerful than Moha. Moha is as much powerful and dangerous as desire is. Moha does threethings. It creates the idea of ‘mineness’-my wife, my son, my house, etc. It producesinfatuated love and attachment for body, wife, son and property. It creates the’Nitya-Buddhi’ (the idea of stability) in the perishable objects of the world and’Dehatma-Buddhi’. It makes a false thing appear as true. The world appears as real onaccount of Moha. The body is mistaken for Atman or pure Self owing to the delusiveinfluence of Moha.

Although you know fully well that the body of a woman is made up of flesh, bone, skin,hair, blood, urine and faeces, yet you passionately cling to the form. Why? Because of theforce of Raga, Moha, Samskara, Vasana and Kalpana (imagination). When there isVasana-Kshaya (annihilation of Vasanas) through Vichara and Viveka, you will not beattached towards a woman.

Get rid of excessive Moha and attachment to wife, money and also children by Sannyasa(external renunciation). If there is external change, internal change must also come.External renunciation is quite necessary.

The mind is generally attracted by brilliant light, beauty, intelligence, variedcolours and pleasant sounds. Do not be deceived by these paltry things. Enquire within.What is the Adhishthana or background for all these things? There is one Essence at theback of the mind and all objects of this seeming sense-universe. That Essence is all-full(Paripurna) and self-contained. That Essence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. ThatEssence verily you are-“Tat Tvam Asi”-my dear readers!


Pride is a feeling of superiority over others. It is of nine kinds: (i) physical pride(pride of possessing great physical strength), (ii) intellectual pride (pride of greatlearning), (iii) moral pride (pride of possessing great moral virtues), (iv) psychic pride(pride of possessing great psychic powers or Siddhis), (v) spiritual pride, (vi) pride ofnoble birth, (vii) pride of power, wealth and other possessions, (viii) pride of beinghandsome and (ix) Rajamada (pride of sovereignty). All these varieties of pride should becompletely overcome.

Get rid of pride through Viveka. Everything is Anitya. Why are you vainly puffed upwith pride?

Arrogance is a form of pride. It is undue assumption of self-importance. It is claimingtoo much.

Darpa is vanity. It is vain display. It is vain show. The man is puffed up even thoughhe actually does not possess anything. A man of pride actually possesses something. Thatis the difference between pride and vanity. Vanity is a form of exaggerated pride.

Hypocrisy (Dambha) is pretending to be what one is really not. It is feigning. It isconcealment of one’s true character. It is the opposite of Adambhitva of the Gita(XIII-7). A hypocrite pretends to be what he is really not, in order to extract money,honour, fame or something else from others.

Hypocrisy, falsehood, cheating, avarice and Trishna (avidity) are very closely related.They are members of one family. Hypocrisy is the offspring of avarice. Falsehood is theson of hypocrisy. Hypocrisy co-exists with falsehood. Trishna is the mother of hypocrisy.Hypocrisy cannot live even for a moment without falsehood, the son and avarice and Trishna(father and mother). When there is a craving for objects, greed for money comes in.Without money, there can be no enjoyment. To satisfy the hunger for money, persons have toput on hypocrisy, tell lies and cheat others. The root cause of all this is craving forenjoyment. Deceitful diplomacy and falsehood are old allies of greed and hatred.

Self-sufficiency is a peculiar modification in the mind. It is the effect of vanity,pride and Dambha. It is a Rajoguna Vritti. Remove it by right thinking, Vichara andpractice of the opposite virtue, humility.

Jealousy And Its Modifications

Jealousy is a form of continuous anger. Irshya is a form of jealousy. It is a form ofhatred. Blaming, accusing, mocking, ridiculing, unjust criticism, censure, cavilling,vilifying, tale-bearing, backbiting, scandalmongering, faultfinding, complaining-allproceed from jealousy, either subtle or gross, a hatred of various sorts. They allindicate lack of proper mental culture and meanness of the person. They should be removed.

Taunting is to censure sarcastically. Teasing is to torment or irritate with jests.Sneering is to show contempt by the expression of the face, as by turning up the nose.Frowning is to wrinkle the brow as in anger. Mocking is to laugh at in ridicule, to mimicin ridicule. Ridiculing is to make a wit exposing one to laughter. It is derision ormockery. It is exposing one to merriment. A joke is a clever insult. You must avoid allthese when you move with others, as they cause rupture between friends, heated feelingsand a sense of hostility. Words must be soft and arguments hard; if words are hard, theywill bring discord. A single harsh word will break the friendship of long years in aminute. Word or sound has got tremendous power. It is Sabda Brahman. It is Sakti.

There is a world of difference between “Just comments” and Ninda (censure).”Just comments” is not Ninda. It is permissible. It is unavoidable too. You canavoid it only when you shut yourself alone in a far-off Himalayan cave. If you have nohatred for a man, if you are not jealous of him and if you point out to your friend in thecourse of conversation his weaknesses and good virtues also-“Mr. Thomas is an honest,loving, kind, sympathetic man. He is humble. He speaks the truth. But, he is extremelyirritable and hot-tempered.”-this is not Ninda (censure) at all, although you pointout the defect of Mr. Thomas. In Ninda, you vilify a man. You point out his defects only.You exaggerate his weaknesses. You point out the defect to everybody of your own accordwithout being asked. In your heart of hearts, you are jealous of the man. You want tovilify him.

If you always look into the faults of others, you will actually imbibe those faults byconstantly thinking of them. Always look into the bright side of a man. Ignore hisdefects. Hatred will vanish. Love will increase.

Faultfinding, cavilling and scandalmongering are defects. Defects and weaknesses aretwo distinct qualities. Anger is a defect. Tea-habit is a weakness. To be over-sentimentalis a weakness. Both defects and weaknesses should be removed by substituting the oppositevirtues.

How To Destroy Jealousy

There are three ways of destroying jealousy:

(i) Mithya Drishti (Dosha Drishti): “The whole world with its enjoyments, wealthand luxury is quite illusory. What do I gain by being jealous of another?” Whenanyone thinks like this seriously several times daily, the Vritti of jealousy will slowlydie. This Vritti is the root of all miseries. It is deep-rooted.

(ii) Bhratri Bhava (feeling of universal brotherhood). You are not jealous of yourintimate friend or loving brother. In these cases, you have become one with your friend orbrother. You feel inwardly that all that belong to them is yours. You will have to do thiswith everybody. You will have to love everybody as your brother or friend. Then you willhave no Vritti of jealousy.

(iii) This is a developed stage: Repeat the formula ‘I am the all,’ ‘I am all-in all.’Feel yourself everywhere. Think there is nothing save Atman, your own Self, everywhere.Jealousy will slowly vanish by entertaining this Atma-Bhava. You must always entertainthis idea-“Vasudevah sarvamiti” (Vasudeva is all). “Vasudeva”means all-pervading. You will have infinite joy which can only be felt. It cannot beadequately described in words.

If you place a big mirror in front of a dog and keep some bread in front, the dog atonce barks by looking at its reflection in the mirror. It foolishly imagines that there isanother dog. Even so, man sees his own reflection only through his mind-mirror in all thepeople, but foolishly imagines like the dog that they are all different from him andfights on account of hatred and jealousy.

Fear-a Dire Disease

Fear is a great human curse. It is a negative thought. It is your worst enemy. Itassumes various forms, viz., fear of death, fear of disease, fear of public criticism,fear of losing your property or money, etc. Fear blights many lives, makes people unhappyand unsuccessful.

Some people can bravely face the shell or the shot on the battlefield. But they areafraid of public criticism and public opinion. Some can face a tiger fearlessly in theforest. But they are afraid of the surgeon’s knife and bistoury. You should get rid offear of all sorts.

The power of imagination in the mind intensifies fear. Fear is due to delusion or Moha,attachment to the gross and physical body on account of Avidya (ignorance). Attachment tothe body (Moha, Dehadhyasa) is the cause of all fear. He who can throw off the physicalsheath (Annamaya Kosha) either by Yoga or Jnana will be free from fear. He who hasconquered fear, has conquered everything, has gained mastery over the mind.

Some people faint when they see a copious quantity of blood. Some men cannot see asurgical operation. They faint. These are all mental weaknesses. Some cannot take theirfood if some faecal or vomited matter is nearby. All mental weaknesses must be eradicatedby Vichara.

A calm mind means courage. You may face without fear the trials and difficulties of thespiritual path. It has its root in the recognition of the unity of the Self.”Abhayam” (fearlessness) is one of the Daivi Sampats (divine qualities).Constantly think you are Atman. You will slowly develop immense courage. The one idea thatyou are the Immortal Self (Atman) can destroy efficiently fear of every description. Thisis the only potent tonic, the one sure panacea for this dire disease of fear. Think youare immortal (Amrita), fearless (Abhaya) Atman. Slowly the fear will vanish. Develop thepositive virtue, namely, courage. Fear will slowly disappear.


Doubt is a great tormentor of mind. It has got a mental world of its own. It again andagain troubles a man. There is no end for doubts. If one doubt is removed, another doubtstands ready to take its place. This is the trick of the mind. Cut the knot of doubts bythe sword of wisdom. Know him who gets the doubts. No one doubts the doubter. If alldoubts vanish through Brahma-Jnana, then the mind will be destroyed.

Thoughts of worry and thoughts of fear are fearful forces within us. They poison thevery sources of life and destroy the harmony, the running efficiency, the vitality andvigour; while the opposite thoughts of cheerfulness, joy and courage heal, soothe, insteadof irritating and immensely augment efficiency and multiply the mental power. Be alwayscheerful. Smile. Laugh.

Evil Vrittis Are Your Real Enemies-destroy Them

Who is your real enemy? It is your own Antahkarana (mind) possessed by the evilVrittis. That mind alone, which is free from attachment, delusion, jealousy, lust,selfishness and anger, can have constant memory of God. If the mirror is dirty, you cannotsee your face properly. Even so, if the mind-mirror is dirty through the accumulation ofMala (six passions, Kama, Krodha, etc.), Brahman cannot be reflected in the mind. When itis cleansed thoroughly, when it becomes Sattvic, it is fit (Yogayukta) to reflect Brahman.

Whatever you practise-Karma Yoga or Bhakti Yoga or Raja Yoga or Jnana Yoga-, you mustbe free from jealousy, hatred, attachment, pride and egoism and you must have control overIndriyas. Chitta-Suddhi-Yama and Niyama-is a common element in all kinds of Yoga. What cana man do in Karma Yoga if he has no self-restraint, if he is extremely selfish? If youwant everything for yourself, if you are luxurious and if you have not reduced your wants,how can you spare something for others? You can unite with the cosmos only through love,unselfish service and disinterested charity.

Aspirants should totally abandon all the evil Vrittis described above. These constitutewhat is known as Asuri Sampat (devilish qualities). Whether you live in a town or in acave of the Himalayas, it is all the same when you have a ruffled mind. You carry your ownthoughts with you even if you remove yourself to a far-off, lonely cave. The mind remainsthe same. Peace comes from within. Irritation, anger, impatience, revenge, suspicion,prejudice, grudge, dislike, intolerance, restlessness, depression, fired or heatedfeelings-all these must be totally removed by spiritual Sadhana, by developing Sattvicqualities, by meditation on OM, by constant Vichara. Then only can peace be obtained. Bydeveloping Daivi Sampat (divine qualities) such as Karuna, Satya, Ahimsa, Brahmacharya,Daya, etc., the devilish qualities will be overcome.

Pratipaksha-Bhavana Or The Method Of Substitution

It is the method of substitution, Pratipaksha-Bhavana. When there is a lustful thought,substitute thoughts of purity. Begin to study the Gita or the Upanishads. Sing Hari’sBhajana on harmonium. Impure thoughts will vanish. When there is hatred, substitutethoughts of love. Think of the good qualities of the man whom you hate. Remember again andagain his kind actions. Serve him with sweets, fruits and milk. Talk to him kind words.Laugh with him. Shampoo his legs. Take him to be Lord Siva or Narayana when you serve him.Hatred will disappear. When there is fear, fill the mind with thoughts of courage. Whenthere is irritability, meditate on the virtues of tolerance, patience and self-restraint.The negative thoughts will die of themselves. If you are depressed, fill the mind with theidea of joy and exhilaration. If you are sick, fill the mind with ideas of health,strength, power and vitality. Practise this. Practise this. Herein lies a great treasurefor you.

Every thought or emotion or mood produces a strong vibration in every cell of the bodyand leaves a strong impression there. If you know the method of raising an oppositethought or counter-thought, then only you can lead a happy, harmonious life of peace andpower. A thought of love will at once neutralise a thought of hatred. A thought of couragewill immediately serve as a powerful antidote against a thought of fear.

Idea creates the world. Idea brings one into existence. Idea develops the desires andexcites the passions. So, a contrary idea of killing the desires and passions willcounteract the former idea of satisfying the desires. So, when a man will be impressedwith this, a contrary idea will help him to destroy his desires and passions.

How can you ignore an evil thought? By forgetting. How can you forget? By not indulgingin it again. How can you prevent the mind from indulging in it again? By thinking ofsomething else which is more interesting. IGNORE. FORGET. THINK OF SOMETHING INTERESTING.This is a great Sadhana. Call to mind the sublime ideas contained in the Gita. Rememberthe ennobling and soul-elevating ideas embodied in the Upanishads and the Yogavasishtha.Argue, cogitate, reflect, ratiocinate within-subjectively. Worldly thoughts, thoughts ofenmity, hatred, revenge, anger, lust-all will die.

When there are diseases, discord, disharmony in the cells of the body owing toinfluence of vicious thoughts, worry-thoughts, fear-thoughts, hatred-thoughts,jealousy-thoughts, lustful thoughts, you can neutralise the poison or canker in thesediseased, morbid cells and establish peace, harmony, health, new vigour and vitality byentertaining sublime, soul-stirring, life-giving, soul-awakening, Sattvic, divinethoughts, by vibrations of ‘OM’ chanting, by repetition of the different Names of theLord, by Pranayama, Kirtana (singing of the Name of the Lord), study of the Gita and theholy scriptures, by meditation, etc. Think constantly that you are Suddha Sat-Chit-AnandaVyapaka Atman. All the evil propensities will vanish and the Sattvic virtues will manifestthemselves.

Do not exert to destroy the different Vrittis-Kama, Krodha, Dvesha, etc. If you candestroy one Vritti Ahankara, all other Vrittis will die by themselves. Ahankara is thecorner-stone of the edifice of Jiva. If the corner-stone is removed, the whole edifice ofJiva will tumble down. This is the secret.

Why are you afraid of Kama, Krodha, etc.? They are your servants. You areSat-Chit-Ananda Atman. Assert the majesty and magnanimity of the Self.

Chapter 29

Cultivation Of Virtues

Maitri (friendliness), Karuna (compassion), Daya (sympathy), Visva-Prema (cosmic oruniversal love), Kshama (forgiveness), Dhriti (spiritual patience), Titiksha (power ofendurance, forbearance) and tolerance are Sattvic qualities of the mind. They contributeto the peace and happiness of human beings. They should be cultivated to a very highdegree.

Love and pity make the mind soft. Pity has the characteristic feature of evolving themode of removing pain; the property of not being able to bear seeing others suffer; themanifestation of not harming; the proximate cause of seeing the need of those overcome bypain. Its consummation is the suppression of harming; its failure is the production ofsorrow.

Patience, tenacity, Utsaha (perseverance) and determination are indispensable forsuccess in Self-realisation. They should be developed to a maximum degree, particularly byspiritual aspirants. When you meditate on OM, when you assert yourself as Brahman in themorning meditation, you will gain a lot of strength. That will help to give you couragethat is needed for the progress in the spiritual path. Many difficulties on the path ofTruth are to be overcome through the help of fortitude and endurance (Titiksha). Thesequalities are the forms of courage. Fortitude is mental power of endurance. It is firmnessin meeting danger. It is power of resistance.

The Ten Lakshanas Of Dharma

“Dhritih kshama damo’steyam saucham-indriyanigrahah
Dheer-vidya satyam-akrodho dasakam dharmalakshanam”
(Manusmriti, VI-92)

Patience, forgiveness, control of mind, non-stealing, external and internal purity,control of Indriyas, knowledge of Sastras, knowledge of Atman, truthfulness and absence ofanger are the ten Lakshanas of Dharma according to Manu.

Your thoughts must agree with the word. This is Arjava (straightforwardness). Practisethis. You will derive wonderful benefits. If you practise Satya for twelve years, you willget Vak-Siddhi. Whatever you speak will come to pass. Chinta (anxiety) will vanish. Youwill be free from committing many evil actions by speaking the truth.

Patience, perseverance, application, interest, faith, zeal, enthusiasm, determinationare necessary during Sadhana. Sraddha and Bhakti are noble Vrittis that help a man to freehimself from bondage. These virtues have to be cultivated. Then only is success possible.Look at the various difficulties that crop up in the way. The spiritual line is,therefore, difficult. Very few take to the path, one in thousands (according to the Gita).Out of them very few succeed. Many give up Sadhana when they are half-way, as they find itdifficult to pull on till the end is reached. It is only the Dhira (firm) with Dhriti,Dhairya and Utsaha that reaches the goal of Sat-Chit-Ananda state. Hail, hail, to suchrare noble souls!

Chapter 30

How To Control The Mind

Manojaya eva mahajayah-Conquest of mind is the greatest victory.”

Man jita, jag jita--If you conquer mind, you have conquered theworld.” (Hindi Proverb)

In Hindu philosophy, you will always find an esoteric and an exoteric meaning. This isthe reason why you need the help of a teacher. It is extremely difficult to comprehend theesoteric, inner meaning. You will find in Hatha Yogic books: “There is a young,virgin widow seated at the junction of the Ganga and the Yamuna.” What will you makeout of this? It is difficult to understand. The young widow is the Sushumna Nadi. TheGanga is Pingala Nadi. The Yamuna is Ida Nadi.

In Katha Upanishad, you will find a word whose meaning is brick. ‘Brick’ means here’Devata’ or deity.

The Secret Of Ramayana

There is also a Rahasya (secret) of Ramayana. The secret of Ramayana is control ofmind. Killing the ten-headed monster Ravana of Lanka means the annihilation of the tenevil Vrittis of the mind such as Kama, Krodha, etc. Sita is mind. Rama is Suddha-Brahman.Bringing Sita back from Lanka is concentrating the mind on Rama (Brahman) by withdrawingit from Vishaya (objects) and uniting it with Rama. Sita (mind) unites with Rama(Brahman), her husband in Ayodhya (Sahasrara Chakra). Mind merges in Brahman. This is,briefly, the esoteric meaning of Ramayana. This is the Adhyatmic exposition of Ramayana.

Mastery Of Mind, The Only Gateway To Moksha

On this side is matter; on the other side is pure Spirit (Atman or Brahman). Mind formsa bridge between the two. Cross the bridge (control the mind). You will attain Brahman.

He is a real potentate and a Maharaja who has conquered the mind. He is the richest manwho has conquered desires, passions and the mind. If the mind is under control, it matterslittle whether you stay in a palace or a cave in the Himalayas like Vasishtha-Guha,fourteen miles from Rishikesh, where Swami Ramatirtha lived, whether you do activeVyavahara or sit in silence.

It is, indeed, a rare thing to find a mind that is not affected by its contact withfluctuation. Like heat which is inseparable from fire, fluctuation which debases the mind,is inseparable from it. Devoid of this fluctuation, the mind ceases to exist. It is thisfluctuation-potency of the mind that you should destroy through ceaseless Atma-Jnanaenquiry.

Mind is the cause of Sankalpa-Vikalpa. Therefore, you must control the mind. You mustbind it.

True freedom results from the disenthralment of the mind. Reflection of the Self madeupon the mind cannot be perceptible when the mind is not free from its fluctuations, asthe reflection of the moon made upon the surface of a turbulent ocean cannot be visible orperceptible. To attain Self-realisation, one must constantly struggle with the mind forits purification and steadiness. It is only the power of the will which can control it andstop its fluctuations. With the triple weapon of strong desire, Sraddha (faith) and strongwill-power, you can have sanguine success in any attempt you undertake. If the mind ispurged of all its impurities and worldly taints, it will become exceedingly calm. Allfluctuations of the mind will cease. Then the supreme Nishtha (meditation) will supervene.Then all Samsaric delusion, attendant with its births and deaths, will come to an end.Then you will get Parama Dhama (supreme abode of peace).

There is no other vessel on this earth on which one can cross the ocean ofmetempsychosis than the mastery of the antagonistic mind. They alone will reach the worldof Moksha who have controlled the serpent of mind replete with desires and impure Vasanas.

To lovers of Moksha, in whom the invincible desires have been destroyed and who try towin their way up to Salvation through their own efforts, the easy abandonment of theirdire mind is itself their transcendental path and they then feel as if a great load wereoff their heads. No other path is truly beneficial.

If you get the mastery over the mind and get true Jnana or illumination afterdestroying Ahankara and subjugating the Indriyas (organs), you will be doubtless free fromthe trammels of births and deaths. The differentiations such as ‘I,’ ‘you,’ ‘he’ willvanish. All tribulations, annoyances, miseries, grief will cease with the destruction ofthe mind.

Who Can Control The Mind ?

The mind can be controlled by untiring perseverance and patience equal to that of oneengaged in emptying the ocean, drop by drop, with the tip of a blade of grass.

A bird laid its eggs on the seashore. The waves came in and washed away the eggs. Thebird became very angry. It wanted to empty the ocean with its beak. It applied all itsenergy in emptying the ocean. The king of the birds pitied its condition and came to itshelp. Narada, the peace-making Rishi, also came and gave some advice to the bird. When theking of the ocean saw all these, he was very much terrified. He brought back all the eggsof the bird and handed them over to the bird with apology and prostrations. Sadhakas(aspirants), who are attempting to control the mind, should have the same asinine patienceand untiring perseverance as that of the bird which attempted to empty the ocean with itssmall beak.

You must have the knack or the pluck or the aptitude to tame the mind. To tame a lionor a tiger is far more easy than taming one’s own mind. Tame your own mind first. Then youcan take the minds of others quite easily.

Mind Is The Cause Of Bondage And Liberation

Mind is the cause of bondage and salvation of man. “Mana eva manushyanamkaranam bandhamokshayoh”-The mind has two aspects-one is discriminative and theother is imaginative. Mind, in its aspect of discrimination, releases itself from thebondage and attains Moksha. In its aspect of imagination, it binds itself to the world.

It is the mind which binds a man to this world; where there is no mind, there is nobondage. Mind imagines, through indiscrimination and ignorance, that the soul has beenconfined and located in this body and hence it perceives the soul to be in bondage. Mindexactly identifies itself with the Jivatman and feels itself to be ‘I’ and hence thinks,’I am in bondage.’ The egoistic mind is the root of bondage. The non-egoistic mind is theroot of Moksha.

Destroy Mind Through Mind

The sovereign specific presented by the wise sages for the eradication of the mind’sdisease can be had easily through the mind alone. The intelligent cleanse a dirty clothwith the dirty earth only. A murderous Agni-Astra (missile) is counteracted byVaruna-Astra. The venom of serpent-bite is removed by its antidote of an edible poison. Soalso is the case with Jiva. Having developed discrimination, destroy the delusions of theheterogeneous mind through the one-pointed Manas, like an iron severing another iron.

Purify The Mind

You must be saved from the malformation and the miscarriage of your mind. Mind is likea playful child. The clamant energies of the mind must be bent to become the passivechannels for the transmission of truth. The mind must be filled with Sattva (purity). Itshould be trained to think of Truth or God constantly.

The Yoga system requires us to go through a course of mental and spiritual discipline.The Upanishads also emphasise the practice of austere virtues before the goal can bereached. Tapas destroys sins, weakens the Indriyas, purifies the Chitta and leads toEkagrata (one-pointedness of mind).

The penances will give you mental quiet and remove the restlessness of the mind whichis a great obstacle to knowledge. The life of celibacy (Brahmacharya), where you will haveno family attachment to perturb your mind, would enable you to give whole-heartedattention to your spiritual Sadhana. If you practise Satya and Brahmacharya, you willbecome fearless (Nirbhaya). You will eventually realise Brahman also. Get hold of onething firmly with leech-like tenacity. Sraddha or faith is necessary.

Arsenic, when purified and administered in proper doses, is a blessing. It removes manydiseases. It improves the blood. When it is not purified properly and given in overdoses,it brings about many ill-effects. Even so, when the mind is rendered pure and Nirvishaya,it leads on to Moksha. When it is impure and Vishayasakta (fond of sensual objects), itleads on to bondage.

Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will have Darshan of the Lord. The heart mustbe pure. The eye also must be chaste in its look. There is a tongue in the eye. A lustfuleye wants to taste the different types of beauty for its selection. Lust of the eyes is asmuch dangerous as lust of the flesh. Beauty of nature emanates from the Lord. Train theeye properly. Let it see Atman everywhere.

The Yogic methods give directions as to how you should purify and refine the mind andimprove the mirror and keep it clean by getting rid of the impurities such as lust, anger,greed, vanity, jealousy, etc. The aim of Dana, Japa, Vrata, Tirtha-Yatra, Seva, Daya,Svadhyaya, Agnihotra, Yajna is purification of the mind.

The Sermon on the Mount by Lord Jesus is the essence of Raja-Yogic Yama practice. It isdifficult to put the teachings into practice. But, if they are put into practice, mind canbe easily controlled.

This is the summary of the Sermon:

(1) “Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”

(2) “Blessed are they that mourn; for they shall be comforted.”

(3) “Blessed are the meek; for they shall inherit the earth.”

(4) “Blessed are they who do hunger and thirst after righteousness; for they shallbe filled.”

(5) “Blessed are the merciful; for they shall obtain mercy.”

(6) “Blessed are the pure in heart; for they shall see God.”

(7) “Blessed are the peace-makers; for they shall be called the children ofGod.”

(8) “Blessed are they who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake; for theirs isthe kingdom of heaven.”

(9) “Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall sayall manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad; forgreat is the reward in heaven; for so persecuted they the prophets which were beforeyou.”

(10) “But I say unto you, that ye resist not evil; but whosoever shall smite onthy right cheek, turn to him the other also.”

(11) “And if any man shall sue thee in the law and take away thy coat, let himhave thy cloak also.”

(12) “Love your enemies as thyself, bless them that curse you, do good to themthat hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you.”

Before you go to work daily, study once carefully this Sermon of Lord Jesus in themorning and remember the teachings once or twice during the course of the day. In courseof time, you will be able to regulate your emotions and moods, cultivate virtue anderadicate vice. You will have immense peace and will-force.

The spiritual path is rugged, thorny and precipitous. Sruti declares: “Kshurasyadhara nisita duratyaya durgam pathastat kavayo vadanti,-The path is as sharp as theedge of a razor and impassable; that path, the intelligents say, is hard to go by.”The thorns must be weeded out with patience and perseverance. Some of the thorns areinternal; some are external. Lust, greed, wrath, delusion, vanity, etc., are the internalthorns. Company with the evil-minded persons is the worst of all the external thorns.Therefore, shun ruthlessly evil company.

Do Good And Introspect

Do always virtuous actions. Watch the mind and see what it is doing. These two methodsare quite sufficient to control the mind.

Awaken your spiritual Samskaras by Satsanga, Japa, etc. Protect them. Develop them.Nourish them. Vichara, Sadhana, Nididhyasana, Satsanga will all pave a long way in thecontrol of the mind and the attainment of Moksha.

Introspect. Have an inner life always. Let a portion of the mind and hands do theirwork mechanically. An acrobat girl, while exhibiting her performances, has her attentionriveted on the water-pot she bears on her head although all the time she is dancing tovarious tunes. So does truly pious man attend to all his business concerns, but has hismind’s eye fixed upon the blissful feet of the Lord. This is Karma-Yoga and Jnana-Yogacombined. This will lead to integral development. This is balance. This is synthetic Yoga.Some Vedantins have one-sided development. This is not good.

Do Kirtan

A serpent is very fond of music. If you sing Punnagavarali tune melodiously, theserpent will come in front of you. Mind also is like a serpent. It likes melodious tunesvery much. It can be entrapped very easily by sweet sounds.

Fix the mind on the sweet Anahata sounds that emanate from the heart by closing theears. It can be controlled quite easily by this method. This is Laya-Yoga. The GanikaPingala fixed her mind on the “Rama, Rama” sound uttered by the parrot andattained Bhava-Samadhi. Ramaprasad of Bengal, a famous Bhakta, controlled the mind throughmusic. Music exercises a tremendous, soothing influence on a ruffled mind. In America,doctors use music in curing many diseases, particularly of nervous origin. Music elevatesthe mind also.

Kirtan, which is one of the nine forms of worship (Navavidha Bhakti) causesBhava-Samadhi (union with God through Bhava or feeling). It is prevalent throughout India.It corresponds to the singing of hymns by Christians. Ramaprasad realised God throughKirtan. His songs are very famous in Bengal. In this Kali-Yuga or Iron Age, Kirtan is aneasy way to God-realisation. Sing the Name of Hari constantly. Praise constantly Hisqualities. You will have Darshan of Hari. Those who can sing well should retire to asolitary place and sing heartily with Suddha Bhava. In course of time, they will enterinto Bhava-Samadhi. There is no doubt about it.

Always Think Of God

CONSTANTLY THINK OF GOD. YOU CAN VERY EASILY CONTROL THE MIND. Even if you think ofLord Vishnu or Siva only once, even if you once form a mental image of these deities, theSattvic material will increase a bit. If you think a crore of times, your mind will befilled with a large quantity of Sattva. Constant thinking of God thins out the mind anddestroys the Vasanas and Sankalpas.

When you fix your mind on Lord Krishna in the lotus of your heart, your attention isfixed on the figure of Lord Krishna. When the attention is fixed, the spiritual current isstarted. When you meditate, the flow of the current becomes steady and when the meditationgets very deep and intense, ‘Union’ (Samadhi) takes place. You become one with the Lord.All Sankalpas and Vikalpas stop. There is complete ‘Chitta-Vritti-Nirodha’ (restraint ofthe modifications of the mind).

Practise Pranayama

To bring about control of mind, two things are essential, viz., Prana-Nirodha(control of Prana) and Sanga-Tyaga (renunciation of Sanga or association). By the latteris meant dissociation, not with the world, but only with the longing after or theattraction towards the objects of the world.

Pranayama or control of breath checks the velocity of the mind and reduces the quantityof thinking. It removes the dross (impurities) in the form of Rajas and Tamas from themind.

For control of the mind, Kumbhaka (retention of breath) is indispensable. You will haveto practise Kumbhaka daily. You will have to practise Puraka, Kumbhaka and Rechaka(inhalation, retention and exhalation of breath) regularly and rhythmically. Then the mindwill become Ekagra. The period of Kumbhaka will increase by systematic practice, withregulated diet and proper dietetic discipline (light, nutritious, Sattvic food). This isthe Hathayogic method. The practice of Kumbhaka must be done under the guidance of a Guruwho is a developed Yogin.

Practise Sama And Dama

Uparati of mind (calmness) comes through the practice of Sama and Dama. Sama iscalmness of mind induced by the eradication of Vasanas. Vasana-Tyaga (renunciation ofdesires) through discrimination constitutes the practice of Sama, one of the sixfoldvirtues (Shatsampatti). If a desire arises in your mind, do not give way to it. This willbecome the practice of Sama. Sama is keeping the mind in the heart by Sadhana. Sama isrestraint of the mind by not allowing it to externalise or objectify. The restraint of theexternal activities and the Indriyas is the practice of Dama (Bahyavrittinigraha).

If you renounce the desire for eating mangoes, it is Sama. If you do not allow the feetto carry you to the bazaar to purchase the mangoes, if you do not allow the eyes to seethe mangoes and if you do not allow the tongue to taste them, it is Dama.

A desire arises to eat sweets. You do not allow the feet to move to the bazaar topurchase the sweets. You do not allow the tongue to eat the sweets. You do not allow theeyes to see the sweets also. This kind of restraint of the Indriyas is termed Dama.

It is termed Sama when you do not allow any thought to arise in the mind concerningsweets by eradication of Vasanas (Vasana-Tyaga). This eradication of the Vasanas can beaccomplished through Vichara, Brahma-Chintana, Japa, Dhyana, Pranayama, etc.

Sama is an internal restraint. Dama is a restraint of the Indriyas. Though the practiceof Sama includes the practice of Dama, as the Indriyas will not move and work without thehelp of the mind, yet the practice of Dama is necessary. The practice of Dama should gohand in hand with Sama. Sama alone will not suffice. You must attack the enemy, desire,from within and without. Then alone you can control the mind quite easily. Then alone themind will be in perfect control.

Develop Vairagya

Those who practise Vairagya are real tamers of their minds. Have no longing forobjects. Avoid them. Vairagya thins out the mind. Vairagya is a drastic purgative for themind. The thief-mind shudders and trembles when it hears the words, ‘Vairagya,’ ‘Tyaga,”Sannyasa.’ It gets a death-blow when it hears these three terms.

Destroy all the pleasure-centres of the mind such as frequently eating dainty dishes,gossiping, sightseeing, music and company of women slowly and cautiously. Keep up threeSattvic pleasure-centres such as study of books dealing with Atma-Jnana, meditation andservice of humanity. When you advance in meditation, give up service and study also forsome time. After you have attained Nirvikalpa state, preach, work and distribute divineknowledge (Jnana Yajna of the Gita, XVIII-70).

Whatever object the mind likes much must be given up. Whatever object the mind dwellsupon constantly, thinks about very often, must be abandoned. If you like brinjals orapples much, give them up first. You will gain a great deal of peace, will-power andcontrol of mind.

Suppose you like tea, mangoes, grapes and sweets very much. Make it a point to renouncethem and even the desire for these objects. After some months, the craving or thehankering will be attenuated and will slowly vanish. You must be devoting three or fourhours daily in proper prayer, Japa and meditation of God. The above objects which used toattract you before very much seem very loathsome now. They present the very reverse ofyour former feelings. They give you intense pain. This is a sign of true Vairagya(dispassion) and destruction of the mind.

If all objects which have an enchanting appearance become eyesores and present the veryreverse of the former feelings, then know that the mind is destroyed. When the mind ischanged, the objects which gave you pleasure before will give you pain. That is the signof annihilation of the mind.

Things which used to upset you easily will not touch you now. Occasions which wouldhave made you irritable do not make you so now. You have gained strength, power andendurance, power of resistance, power to deal with troubles. Certain unkind words fromother people which used to torment you, no longer give you the trouble now. Even if youbecome irritable and show signs of anger, you are able now to compose yourself quickly.These are all the signs of your gaining mental strength and will-power. Meditation bringsabout all these beneficial results.

When there is quiescence in the mind and an indifference in it towards all enjoymentsand when the powerful Indriyas are turned inwards and the Ajnana of the mind is destroyed,then and then only all the noble words of the wise Guru will infiltrate and spread in themind of the disciple, just as rose-coloured water impinges on a perfectly white cloth.

Have Santosha

The mind is ease-loving, easy-going and happy-go-lucky. You must check this nature. Thedesire for ease and comfort is ingrained in the mind. Aspirants should be very cautiousand careful. Do not try to fulfil your desires. This is one way of controlling the mind.

You must not take back those things which you have once renounced. Whenever you give upan object, the desire for that particular object becomes keen and strong for a few days.It agitates your mind. Keep quiet. Stand firm. It gets thinned out and dies eventually.Whenever the mind hisses to get back the objects that are rejected, raise the rod ofViveka. It will lower down its hood. It will keep quiet.

You must not give indulgence or leniency to the mind. If you increase your wants evenby one article, the articles will begin to swell in number. Luxuries will come one by one.If you allow it to take one luxury today, it wants two tomorrow. Luxuries will increasedaily. It will become like an overfondled child. Spare the rod and spoil the child; thisalso applies to the mind. It is worse than the child. You will have to punish it byfasting for every serious mistake it does. Keep the organs in their proper places. Do notallow them to move an inch. Raise the rod of Viveka whenever an organ hisses to raise itshead. By this practice you will get a concentrated mind. Those who, without longing forobjects, avoid them can be termed the subjugators of their minds.

Those who are not content with anything that comes in their way are of weak minds only.Santosha (contentment in the mind) is a very great virtue. “Santoshat paramamlabham-by contentment, you will have great gain.” It is one of the four sentinelsof the vast domain of Moksha. If you have this virtue, it will lead to the attainment ofSatsanga (association with the wise), Vichara (enquiry of Self) and Santi (peace).

When you do not want to store things for tomorrow, it is called “AsangrahaBuddhi.” It is the mental state of a true Sannyasin. A Sannyasin has no thought oftomorrow; whereas a householder has, on the opposite, Sangraha Buddhi. We must be as freeas a lark which has no “Sangraha Buddhi.”

Take Everything As It Comes

Take everything as it comes, instead of complaining. By this means, one seizes everyopportunity. One develops easily, gains a great deal of mental strength and evenness ofmind. Irritability vanishes. Power of endurance and patience will develop.

If you have to live amidst noise, do not complain of it, but profit by it. One may makeuse of outer disturbances for the practice of concentration. You must develop the power towork undisturbed by whatsoever may happen nearby. The power comes with practice and it isthen useful in a variety of ways. To learn to work under different conditions meansprogress and a great deal of mental control.

Have Recourse To Satsanga

Without being impressed with a clear idea of the nature of the mind, you cannot bridleit. A sublime thought checks the mind and a base idea excites it. It is necessary for aman to keep company with spiritual men and to avoid the company of the dregs of society.

Company of spiritual persons and good environments play a tremendous part in theelevation of the mind. Satsanga helps a long way in the attainment of Moksha. There is noother way. It thoroughly overhauls the mind and changes the current and its Rajasicnature. It removes the old Vishaya-Samskaras and fills the mind with Sattvic Samskaras. Itdestroys the three fires-Adhyatmic, Adhibhautic and Adhidaivic Tapa-and cools theAntahkarana. It destroys Moha. If you can have Satsanga, you need not go to any Tirtha. Itis Tirtha of Tirthas. Wherever there is Satsanga, the sacred Triveni is already there.

Annihilate this mind of Ajnana (ignorance) through the power of constant associationwith holy men (Satsanga). In the absence of positive good company, have negative goodcompany of books written by realised persons and books dealing with Atma-Jnana (spiritualknowledge) such as Sri Sankara’s works, Yogavasishtha, Sri Dattatreya’s Avadhuta Gita, theUpanishads, the Brahma-Sutras, Atma-Purana, Sarva-Vedanta-Siddhanta-Sara-Sangraha, SriSankaracharya’s Aparokshanubhuti, etc., etc.

Study of inspiring books helps spiritual Sadhana but too much study brings about muddycondition of the brain. When you come down from meditation, you can study occasionally fora short time book slike Avadhuta-Gita, Yogavasishtha, Katha-Upanishad,Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad. This will elevate the mind.

If you are in the company of Sannyasins, if you read books on Yoga, Vedanta, etc., amental adhesion takes place in the mind for attaining God-consciousness. Mere mentaladhesion will not help you much either. Burning Vairagya, burning Mumukshutva, capacityfor spiritual Sadhana, intent and constant application and Nididhyasana (meditation) areneeded. Then only is Self-realisation possible.

Annihilate Sankalpas

The ideas of differentiation of this person or that person or ‘I’ or ‘thou’ or of thisor that object do pertain to the mind only. Put an end to the mind with the sword ofAbhavana (non-thought). Kill the soldiers one by one when they emerge out of the fort.Eventually you can get hold of the fortress. Even so, destroy every thought one by one asit arises in the mind. Eventually you can conquer the mind.

If you can do the extinction of all sorts of Kalpanas (imaginations, thoughts). likethick clouds that are dispersed through stormy gales, the mind will get absorbed into theSource, Chit (Absolute Consciousness). Then you will be free from all sorts oftribulations and worries and miseries. Then only you will have perennial happiness and thewealth of Moksha.

Mind is Maya. If the mind runs towards the sensual objects wildly, Maya takes astronghold of the man. Maya havocs through the mind. This lower impulsive mind drags youdown in all kinds of petty sensual enjoyments and deludes you in a variety of ways. Maya,through her power, raises millions of Sankalpas in the mind. The Jiva becomes a prey tothe Sankalpas.

This lower Manas cannot approach those who have a strong Viveka (power ofdiscrimination) between Sat and Asat (the real and the unreal). Maya is very easy to bedetected and Self to be realised by men who possess discrimination and strongdetermination. Through these powers, viz., Viveka and will, it can be controlled.

Slay the lower mind, the enemy of Atman through the higher and Sattvic mind. Use yourVichara, Viveka and pure reason constantly when objects trouble you, delude you. Afterreason has dispersed the darkness of the illusions of sense which cover the mind, it stillreturns to those things which are deceitful as the appearance of water on sandy deserts.Again and again, exercise your reason till you are established in knowledge. The power ofAvidya is great, indeed.

Renounce desires; renounce Sankalpas of objects. Cultivate Vairagya. Give up thislittle false ‘I.’ All the Sankalpas encircle and envelop this ‘I.’ Do not pay much heed tothe body. Think of the body and its wants as little as possible.

Have no Sankalpa. The fluctuating mind will die by itself. It will melt in Brahman(Arupa Manonasa). Then you will have the Sakshatkara (Beatific vision of Atman). When themind dies, ‘I,’ ‘you,’ ‘he,’ ‘this,’ ‘that,’ time, space, Jiva, Jagat, all will dwindleinto nothing. Idea of inside and outside will vanish. There will be only one experience ofthe One, Akhanda (the indivisible) Chidakasa which is Paripurna (all-full). All the doubtsand delusions will disappear through the Jnana in the heart.

Destroy The Ego

You should try to destroy not only the thoughts (Sankalpas), but the mind itself andthe Aham Vritti that identifies with the body and the Vyavaharic Buddhi that creates theJiva-Bhava and differences in the world. Then you will be established in Svarupa(Sahaja-Sat-Chit-Ananda-Nirvikalpa) state. That is the real Mouna state or AdvaitaBrahmanishtha. Control of mind includes control of Buddhi and the annihilation of thelittle ‘I,’ the false self-arrogating personality.

Lord Jesus says, “Empty thyself and I will fill thee.” The meaning is:”Destroy your egoism. You will be filled with God.” This emptying means “Yogas-chittavrittinirodhah-restraining all the mental modifications.” This emptying process or “making themind blank” is, no doubt, a trying discipline. But, continued practice of an intensetype will bring success. There is no doubt about this. It is only through the rigorousdiscipline that you can rise to that height of strenuous impersonality from which thegifted souls of the world see distant visions and enjoy a higher, divine life.

If the mind is divested of all the Sankalpas of ‘I,’ then, through meditation of Atmanafter being initiated by a Guru and having known the real significance of the Vedas, themind can be turned back from various pains and made to rest on the subjective blissfulAtman.

Practise Brahma-Vichara

Do not wrestle or struggle with the mind. It is wastage of energy. It is great strainand drain on the will-force. Do not fight with the mind. Live in Truth. Live in OM. Livein Atman through Vichara, Brahma-Bhavana and Nididhyasana. All obstacles, all disturbingfactors, all emotions will vanish of themselves. Try, practise, feel and realise theusefulness of the Vichara method. Perfect control of mind can be effected only throughBrahma-Vichara. Pranayama, Japa and various other methods are only auxiliaries.

Do Not Let Failures Discourage You

Do not let failures discourage you, but go on doing your best. Do not brood over yourfaults and failures. Only look at them to see the reason why you failed and then, tryagain. So doing, you will starve out the tendencies which led you into them; whereas,thinking about them only gives them new strength. Do not make too much fuss about littlefailures. Do not sit down and brood over failures.

There are some people who have got the habit of trying to do one thing while thinkingof another. These people always fail in undertakings. The thinking part of the mind shouldwork in harmony with the acting part of the mind. While attending to any one object, ourthoughts ought not to wander on another. While you are reading, think of reading only. Donot think of cricket match. While you are playing in a cricket match, do not think ofstudies. The frequent cause of failure is striving to think of more than one thing at atime.

Whenever you observe Niyama (religious observances) do it to the letter rigidly. Do notsay, “I will do it as far as possible.” This term ‘as far as possible’ will giveleniency to the mind. The mind will be simply waiting for an opportunity and it will yieldto the first temptation quite readily, whenever the first chance arises. Be strict,therefore.

Check The Wandering Habit Of The Mind

The mind in the vast majority of persons has been allowed to run wild and follow itsown sweet will and desire. It is ever changing and wandering. It jumps from one object toanother. It is fickle. It wants variety. Monotony brings disgust. It is like a spoiledchild who is given to much indulgence by its parents or a badly trained animal. The mindsof many of us are like menageries of wild animals, each pursuing the bent of its ownnature and going its own way. Restraint of the mind is a thing unknown to the vastmajority of persons.

This wandering habit of the mind manifests itself in various ways. You will have to bealert always to check this wandering habit of the mind. A householder’s mind wanders tocinema, theatre, circus, etc. A Sadhu’s mind wanders to Varanasi, Vrindavana and Nasik.Many Sadhus do not stick to one place during Sadhana. The wandering habit of the mind mustbe controlled by rendering it chaste and constant by Vichara. The mind must be trained tostick to one place for five years during your meditative life, to one method of Sadhana,to one path of Yoga-either Karma, Bhakti or Vedanta-to one spiritual objective and to oneguide. “A rolling stone gathers no moss.” When you take up a book for study, youmust finish it before you take up another. When you take up any work, you must devote yourwhole-hearted attention to the work on hand and finish it before you take up another work.”One thing at a time and that done well is a very good rule as many can tell.”This is Yogin’s way of doing. This is a very good rule for success in life.

Do not have a goat’s mind or a prostitute’s heart. A goat grazes for a few seconds inone patch of green grass and then immediately jumps to a far distant patch, even thoughthere is plenty of grass to eat in the first patch. Even so, a wavering mind jumps fromone Sadhana to another Sadhana, from one Guru to another Guru, from Bhakti Yoga toVedanta, from Rishikesh to Vrindavana. This is extremely deleterious for the Sadhana.Stick to one Guru, one place, one form of Yoga, one kind of Sadhana. Be steady and firm.Then only, you will succeed. Have a steady, resolute mind.

Discipline the mind. Tell the mind, “O Mind! Be steady. Be fixed on one idea.Absolute is the only Reality.” If it wanders, if it wavers, go to a lonely place,give two or three sharp slaps on your face. Then the mind will become steady.Self-punishment helps a lot in checking the wandering mind. Frighten the mind as if youwill beat it with a whip or rod, whenever it wanders from the Lakshya, whenever itentertains evil thoughts.

Mind tempts and deceives you through object. Distance lends enchantment to the view.Until you attain the object, it will seem to you as a pleasurable object from a distance.When you actually get it, it becomes a source of vexation and pain. Desire is mixed withpain. Objects are so delusive that they often deceive even the wise in this way. He is areally wise man who can detect the illusive nature of these objects.

Mind always tempts you to have various sightseeing. It is all vain trick of the mind todivert you from the goal. Use your Viveka always. Address the mind thus: “O foolishmind, have you not seen before, various places and scenery? What is there in sightseeing?Rest in Atman within. It is self-contained. You can see everything there. It is Purnakama;it is Purnarupa. (It contains all forms; it is Beauty of beauties). What are you going tosee outside? Is it not the same sky, the same earth, the same passions, the same eating,the same gossiping, the same sleeping, the same latrines, the same urinals, the samecemeteries everywhere?”

In the beginning, I used to give a long rope to my mind. It will whisper to me,”Let me go to Allahabad Kumbha Mela.” I would say, “My dear friend, mymind! You can go now.” As soon as I return, I would ask, “O mind, are yousatisfied now? What did you enjoy there?” It would hide itself and drop down its headin utter shame. Gradually, it left off its old habits and became my true friend, guide andGuru through true counsels it imparts in the way of obtaining the highest goal.

Do not allow the mind to wander here and there like the strolling street dog. Keep itunder your control always. Then alone you can be happy. It must be ever ready to obey you,to carry out your behests. If the mind says to you, “Go eastward,” then gowestward. If the mind says to you, “Go southward,” then march northward. If themind says to you, “Take a hot cup of tea in winter,” then take a cup of icy coldwater. Swim like fish against the mental current. You will control the mind quite easily.

Order the mind to do a thing which it does not relish and it will revolt. Coax and itwill obey.

If the mind is deprived of its pleasure-centres of all sense-objects, it clings toVairagya and Tyaga and must naturally move towards Atman. Renounce everything mentally anddestroy the mind through the attainment of Atma-Jnana. Rest in the self-existent Brahmicseat. It is only through dauntless energy that the painless wealth of Moksha can beacquired.

Change The Habits

Mind is a bundle of habits. Bad habits and prejudices hidden in one’s nature willnecessarily be brought to the surface of the mind when the proper opportunity comes. Ifyou change the habits, you can also change your character. You sow an act; you reap ahabit. You sow a habit; you reap a character. You sow a character; you reap a destiny.Habits originate in the conscious mind. But, when they become established by constantrepetition, they sink down into the depths of the unconscious mind and become ‘secondnature.’

Though habit is second nature, it can be changed by a new healthy, agreeable habit of astronger nature. You can change any habit by patient efforts and perseverance. Habits ofsleeping in the daytime, late rising, loud talking, etc., can be gradually changed bydeveloping new habits.

By new practice, you can change the manner of your handwriting. So also, by a new modeof thinking, you can change your destiny. When you draw water with a rope and bucket froma well with a brick parapet, a definite groove is formed along the brick and the ropereadily runs along the groove. Even so, the mental force (the mind) runs easily or flowsreadily along the grooves in the brain made by continuous thinking on certain lines. Nowyou are thinking, ‘I am the body.’ Think, ‘I am Brahman.’ In course of time, you will beestablished in Brahmic consciousness.

By spiritual Sadhana, Vichara, meditation, Pranayama, Japa, Sama and Dama an entirelynew mind is formed in a Sadhaka with new feelings, new nerve-channels, new avenues andgrooves in the brain for the mind to move and walk about, new nerve-currents and newbrain-cells, etc. He will never think about affairs that tend to self-aggrandisement andself-exaltation. He thinks for the well-being of the world. He thinks, feels and works interms of unity.

Do not be a slave to one idea. Whenever you get new healthy ideas, the old ideas mustbe given up. The vast majority of persons are slaves of old outgrown ideas. They have notgot the strength to change the old habits in the mind and the old ideas. When you hear anew and striking news, you are startled. When you see a new thing, you are startled. It isnatural. It is much more so with new ideas. The mind runs in ruts-in its old, narrowgrooves. It is directly or indirectly attached to some pleasing or favourite ideas. Itunnecessarily sticks to one idea like glue and never gives it up. It is a great ordeal forthe mind to take up a new idea. Whenever you want to introduce any new, healthy idea inthe mind and eschew any old outgrown idea, the mind fights against it and rebels withvehemence. Place the idea near the ruts. It will slowly take it. It may revolt furiouslyto take it up in the beginning. Later on, by coaxing and training, it will absorb andassimilate it.

In the mind, there is an internal fight that is ever going on between Svabhava (nature)and will, between old worldly habits and new spiritual habits in the case of theaspirants, between old Vishaya-Samskaras and new spiritual Samskaras, between SubhaVasanas and Asubha Vasanas, between Viveka and instinctive mind and Indriyas. Whenever youtry to change an evil habit and establish a new habit, there will ensue an internal fightbetween Will and Svabhava. If you try to drive away anger, lust, etc., they say andassert, “O Jivas! You have given us permission to stay in this house of flesh andbody for a long time. Why do you want to drive us now? We have helped you a lot duringtimes of your excitements and passions. We have every right to remain here. We willpersist, resist all your efforts to drive us; we shall disturb your meditation and recuragain and again.” The Svabhava will try its level best to get back to its old habit.Never yield. The will is bound to succeed in the end. Even if you fail once or twice, itdoes not matter. Again apply the will. Eventually, will-pure, strong and irresistible-isbound to succeed. There is no doubt about this. When your reason grows, when you becomewiser and wiser by study, contact with the wise and meditation, your mind must be wellprepared to take up at any moment new, healthy, rational ideas and eschew old, morbidones. This is a healthy growth of the mind.

Mind Is Your Tool Only: Handle It Nicely

Mind is your tool or instrument only. You must know how to handle it nicely. Whenemotions, moods, sentiments, arise in the mind, separate them, study their nature, dissectand analyse them. Do not identify yourself with them. The real ‘I’ is entirely distinctfrom them. It is the silent Sakshi. Master your impulses, emotions and moods and rise fromthe position of a slave to a spiritual king who can rule over them with force and power.You are eternal, all-pervading Atman in reality. Shake yourself from the tyranny of themind that has oppressed you for so long, domineered over you and exploited you uptil now.Rise up boldly like a lion. Assert the magnanimity of your Self and be free.

Become an expert driver of the subtle, powerful ‘machine-mind.’ Use all the mentalfaculties to your best advantage. Mind will become quite a good, willing servant when youknow how to tackle with it ably. Use the subconscious mind also; pass on orders to workfor you while you are asleep and even while you are conscious. It will sort, analyse andrearrange all facts and figures for you in the twinkling of an eye.

The mind is very plastic if you know the secret of its manipulation. You can bend itany way you like. You can create a dislike for the things you like best now and a likingfor the articles which now you dislike most.

Do a thing which the mind does not want to do. Do not do a thing which the mind wantsto do. This is one way of developing the will and controlling the mind.

Maintain A Positive Attitude

Try to acquire the power of closing yourself against detrimental or undesirableinfluences by making yourself positive by a particular attitude of the mind. By so doing,you may be receptive to all higher impulses of the soul within and to all higher forcesand influences from without. Make a suggestion to yourself, “I close myself; I makemyself positive to all things below and open and receptive to all higher influences, toall things above.” By taking this attitude of the mind, consciously, now and then, itsoon becomes a habit. All the lower and undesirable influences from both the seen and theunseen side of life are closed out while all higher influences are invited and, in thedegree that they are invited, they will enter.

In the mind there is doubt; there is reality also. A doubt arises whether there is aGod or not. This is termed Samsaya-Bhavana. Another doubt crops up whether I can realiseBrahman or not. Then another voice yells: “God or Brahman is real. He is a solid,concrete Reality as an Amalaka fruit in my hand. He is a mass of Knowledge and Ananda(Prajnanaghana, Chidghana, Anandaghana). I can realise!” We have clearly understoodsomething and these ideas are well-grounded and ingrained. Some ideas are hazy and notfirm. They come and go. We will have to cultivate ideas and ground them till they arefirmly fixed and implanted. Clarification of ideas will remove perplexity and confusion inthe mind.

When a doubt arises, “whether there is God or not, whether I will succeed inSelf-realisation or not,” it must be dispelled by well-directed suggestions andaffirmations such as: “It is true; I will succeed. There is no doubt of this.”In my dictionary, in my vocabulary, there are no such words as ‘can’t,’ ‘impossible,”difficult,’ etc. Everything is possible under the sun. Nothing is difficult when youstrongly make up your mind. Strong determination and firm resolution will bring sanguinesuccess in every affair or undertaking.

The Power Of The Helping Forces

Inside, there are helping forces also to act against the hostile forces of demoniacalnature. If you once repeat ‘Om’ or ‘Rama’ ten times, if you once sit in meditation forfive minutes, the Samskara of this will force you to repeat the Mantra again many times,to sit again in meditation for some time though you forget all about spirituality owing tothe force of Maya or Avidya. The hostile forces, e.g., lust, anger, etc., will try tobring you down; the spiritual currents, the force of Sattva and Subha Vasanas will try totake you up to God. If evil thoughts enter your mind once in a month instead of thriceweekly (remember that evil thinking is the beginning of adultery), if you become angryonce in a month instead of once weekly, that is a sign of progress, that is a sign of yourincreased will-power; that is a sign of growing spiritual strength. Be of good cheer. Keepa diary of spiritual progress.

A mind always hopeful, confident, courageous and determined on its set purpose andkeeping itself to that purpose, attracts to itself, out of the elements, things and powersfavourable to that purpose.

Some Guide-Lines In Mind-Control

Mind is so framed that it runs to extremes. Through Sadhana or spiritual practice, itshould be brought to a balanced state (Samata). It is one-sided by its very nature. It isthrough mental drill or training that integral development must be achieved.

Make a vigorous and earnest search within. Do not trust the mind and the Indriyas. Theyare your enemies. Women and wealth are your bitter foes. These are two great evils.

Mind exercises its sovereignty over man through the force of attachment, craving,Samskara and Vasana (tendency, latent desire, will to possess and enjoy, world-desire). Itdoes various tricks. When you once know its ways, it lurks like a thief. It will no longertrouble you.

In controlling the mind, you have to do seven things: (1) You must get rid of alldesires, Vasanas and Trishnas. (2) You must control your emotions. You must control thetemper so that you may feel no anger or impatience. (3) You must control the mind itselfso that the thought may always be calm and unruffled. (4) You must control the nervesthrough the mind so that they may be as little irritable as possible. (5) You must give upAbhimana. Abhimana strengthens the mind. It is the seed of the mind. When you have becomea Nirabhimani, how can criticisms, taunts and censure affect you? (6) You must destroy allattachments ruthlessly. (7) You must give up all hopes and prejudices.

The following will bring you peace of mind undoubtedly. (1) Avoid the company of evilpersons. (2) Live alone. (3) Reduce your wants. (4) Do not argue. Arguing creates sense ofhostility. It is a sheer waste of energy. (5) Do not compare yourself with others. (6) Donot lend your ears for public criticism. (7) Give up the idea of name and fame.

According to Patanjali Maharshi, Maitri (friendship between equals), Karuna (mercytowards inferiors), Mudita (complacency towards superiors), Upeksha (indifference towardsrogues), will bring about Chittaprasada or peace of mind.

You should, through your higher Sattvic mind, avoid the mind which runs in thedirection of objects and, progressing higher up, should, without any despondency of heart,accumulate wealth of Tapasya for acquiring that imperishable Supreme Seat (Parama Pada).Like an emperor who brings under his sway all kings on earth, the fluctuating mind shouldbe brought under the perfect control of the non-fluctuating mind and then, the latterreaches its own state which is the Supreme One.

Chapter 31


Tatpratishedhartham-ekatattvabhyasah – To remove this (tossing and variousother obstacles which stand in the way of one-pointedness of mind), the practice ofconcentration on one thing alone (should be made).”

(Patanjali Yoga Sutras, I-32)

Concentration, The Key To Peace

Worldly pleasures intensify the desire for enjoying greater pleasures. Hence, the mindof worldlings is very restless. There is no satisfaction and mental peace. Mind can neverbe satisfied, whatever amount of pleasure you may store up for it. The more it enjoys thepleasures, the more it wants them. So, people are exceedingly troubled and bothered bytheir own minds. They are tired of their minds. Hence, in order to remove thesebotherations and troubles, the Rishis thought it best to deprive the mind of all sensualpleasures. When the mind has been concentrated or made extinct, it cannot pinch one toseek for further pleasure and all botherations and troubles are removed for ever and theperson attains real peace.

There is an externalising or objectifying power in the mind. This leads to BahirmukhaVritti. The mind is drawn towards various objects. There is dissipation of mental energy,the powers of the mind, in various directions. The rays of the mind are like the rays oflight, scattered in the case of worldly-minded persons. When the rays of the mind arescattered over diverse objects, you get pain. When the rays are gathered and concentratedby practice, the mind becomes concentrated and you get Ananda (happiness) from within.

When you see your dear friend after six years, the Ananda that you get is not from theperson, but from within yourself. The mind becomes concentrated for the time being and youget happiness from within your own self.

When you are in Kashmir, when you are enjoying the picturesque scenery of Muttan,Gulmarg, Sonamarg, Chashmashahi and Anantanag, your mind will be suddenly upset by shock,if you receive a telegram which brings the unhappy tidings of the untimely demise of youronly son. The scenery will no longer interest you. They have lost their charm for you.There is ejection of attention. There is depression. It is concentration and attentionthat gives you pleasure in sightseeing.

For purposes of concentration, you will have to gather the scattered rays of the mindpatiently through Vairagya and Abhyasa, through Tyaga (renunciation) and Tapas and thenmarch boldly with indefatigable energy towards God or Brahman. Through constant Sadhana(spiritual practice), the mind must be checked from externalising. It must be made to movetowards Brahman, its original home. When the mental rays are concentrated, illuminationbegins.

Illustrations Of The Nature Of Mind

Mind is compared to quicksilver, because its rays are scattered over various objects.It is compared to a monkey, because it jumps from one object to another object. It iscompared to moving air, because it is Chanchala. It is compared to a furious, ruttingelephant, because of its passionate impetuosity. Mind is known by the name ‘Great Bird,’because it jumps from one object to another object just as a bird jumps from one twig toanother, from one tree to another. Raja Yoga teaches us how to concentrate the mind andthen how to ransack the innermost recesses of our own mind.

Different Degrees Of Concentration

Kshipta, Mudha, Vikshipta, Ekagra and Niruddha are the five Yogic Bhumikas. The Chittaor mind manifests itself in five different forms. In the Kshipta state, the rays of themind are scattered on various objects. It is restless and jumps from one object toanother. In the Mudha state, the mind is dull and forgetful. Vikshipta is the gatheringmind. It is occasionally steady and, at other times, distracted. By practice ofconcentration, the mind struggles to gather itself. In the Ekagra state, it isone-pointed. There is only one idea present in the mind. The mind is under perfect controlin the Niruddha state. Dharana is practised for stopping the modifications of the mind.

The Power Of Concentration

By manipulating the mind, you will be able to bring it under your control, make it workas you like and compel it to concentrate its powers as you desire. He who has learnt tomanipulate the mind will get the whole of Nature under his control. There is no limit tothe power of the human mind. The more concentrated it is, the more power is brought tobear on one point.

A scientist concentrates his mind and invents many things. Through concentration, heopens the layers of the gross mind and penetrates deeply into higher regions of the mindand gets deeper knowledge. He concentrates all the energies of his mind into one focus andthrows them out upon the materials he is analysing and so finds out their secrets.

Concentration, Man’s Foremost Duty

Sri Sankara writes in the commentary on Chhandogya Upanishad (VII-xx-1) that a man’sduty consists in the control of the senses and concentration of mind. So long as thethoughts of one are not thoroughly destroyed through persistent practice, he should everbe concentrating his mind on one truth at a time. Through such unremitting practice,one-pointedness will accrue to the mind and instantly, all the hosts of thoughts willvanish. Concentration is opposed to sensuous desires, bliss to flurry and worry, sustainedthinking to perplexity, applied thinking to sloth to torpor, rapture to ill-will.

You are born to concentrate the mind on God after collecting the mental rays that aredissipated on various objects. That is your important duty. You forget the duty on accountof Moha for family, children, money, power, position, respect, name and fame.

Concentration of the mind on God after purification can give you real happiness andknowledge. You are born for this purpose only. You are carried away to external objectsthrough Raga and Moha (attachment and infatuated love).

Fix the mind on Atman. Fix the mind on the all-pervading, pure Intelligence andself-luminous effulgence (Svayamjyotis). Stand firm in Brahman. Then will you become’Brahma-samstha,’ established in Brahman.

How To Concentrate

Practise concentration of mind. In trying to concentrate your mind or even project athought, you will find that you require naturally to form images in your mind. You cannothelp it. Fix the mind on one object, on one idea. Withdraw the mind, again and again, whenit runs away from the Lakshya and fix it there. Do not allow the mind to create hundredsof thought-forms. Introspect and watch the mind carefully. Live alone. Avoid company. Donot mix. This is important. Do not allow the mind to dissipate its energy in vain on vainthoughts, vain worry, vain imagination and vain fear and forebodings. Make it hold on toone thought-form for half an hour by incessant practice. Make the mind to shape itselfinto one shape and try to keep the shape for hours together through constant and incessantpractice.

What Is Concentration?

“Desabandhas-chittasya dharana-Concentration is holding the mind to oneform or object steadily for a long time” (Yoga Sutras, III-1). “Dharana isfixing the mind on an external object or an internal Chakra or one abstract idea as Ahambrahmasmi” (Yoga Sutras, III-1).

Concentration On The Internal Chakras

A Raja Yogi concentrates on the Trikuti (Ajna Chakra, the space between the twoeyebrows) which is the seat of the mind in the waking state. You can easily control themind if you can concentrate on this region. Meditation and concentration on the AjnaChakra lead to control of mind very easily. Light is seen during concentration in thisregion very quickly, even in a day’s practice, by some persons. He who wants to meditateon Virat and he who wants to help the world should select this region for hisconcentration.

A Bhakta or devotee should concentrate on the heart, the seat of emotion and feeling.He who concentrates on the heart gets great Ananda. He who wants to get Ananda shouldconcentrate on the heart.

A Hatha Yogi fixes his mind on the Sushumna Nadi, the middle path in the spinal canaland on a specified centre, viz., the Muladhara or the Manipura or the Ajna Chakra. SomeYogis ignore the lower Chakras and fix their mind on the Ajna Chakra only. Their theory isthat by controlling the Ajna Chakra, all the lower Chakras can be automaticallycontrolled. When you concentrate on a Chakra, a thread-like connection is formed in thebeginning between the mind and the Chakra (centre of spiritual energy). Then the Yogiascends along the Sushumna from Chakra to Chakra. The ascent is made gradually by patientefforts. Even a mere shaking of the opening of Sushumna causes a great deal of Ananda(bliss). You become intoxicated. You will entirely forget the world. When the opening ofSushumna is shaken a bit, the Kula-Kundalini Sakti tries to enter Sushumna. Great Vairagyacomes in. You will become fearless. You will behold various visions. You will witness thesplendid “Antarjyotis.” This is termed “Unmani Avastha.” You will getdifferent Siddhis, different types of Ananda and you will get different kinds of knowledgeby controlling and operating on different Chakras. If you have conquered the MuladharaChakra, you have conquered the earth-plane already. If you have conquered the ManipuraChakra, you have already conquered fire. Fire will not burn you. Panchadharana (five kindsof Dharana) will help you to conquer the five elements. Learn them under a Guru who is adeveloped Yogi.

A Note Of Caution

If you get headache or pain by concentrating on the Trikuti (the space between the twoeyebrows) by turning the eyes upward, give up the practice at once. Concentrate on theheart. If you find it difficult to concentrate on your heart or the space between the twoeyebrows (Trikuti) or top of the head, if you experience headache or pain in the skull,shift your centre of concentration to any object outside the body.

Concentration On External Objects

It is easy to concentrate the mind on external objects. The mind has a natural tendencyto go outwards. You can concentrate on the blue sky, light of the sun, the all-pervadingair or ether or sun, moon or stars.

Training In Concentration

Train the mind in a variety of ways in concentration in the beginning. Concentrate onthe Anahata sounds of the heart by closing the ears. Concentrate on the breath with Sohamrepetition. Concentrate on any concrete image. Concentrate on the blue sky. Concentrate onthe all-pervading light of the sun. Concentrate on the various Chakras of the body.Concentrate on the abstract ideas of Satyam (Truth), Jnanam (Wisdom), Anantam (Infinity),Ekam (One), Nityam (Eternal Essence), etc. Lastly, stick to one thing only.

Aids To Concentration


Though any subject has been established by means of arguments and valid authorities,still people’s minds being entirely taken up with gross external objects, any clearconception of subtle ultimate truths is almost impossible without proper faith. When thereis faith, the mind can be easily concentrated on the subject to be understood; and thenthe understanding quickly follows.

Control of Breath

Remove the Rajas and Tamas that envelop the Sattva of the mind by Pranayama, Japa,Vichara and Bhakti. Then the mind becomes fit for concentration. Pranayama or control ofbreath removes the veil of Rajas and Tamas that envelops Sattva. It purifies the nerves(Nadis). It makes the mind firm and steady and thereby renders it fit for concentration.The dross of the mind is cleansed by Pranayama, just as the dross of gold is got rid of bymelting. A Hatha Yogi tries to concentrate his mind by having his breath controlledthrough Pranayama.

A Raja Yogi tries to concentrate his mind by “Chitta-Vritti-Nirodha”(restraining the various modifications of the Chitta), by not allowing the mind to assumevarious shapes of objects. He does not care for control of breath. But, his breath becomesnecessarily controlled when his mind is concentrated. Hatha Yoga is a branch of Raja Yoga.

Avadhana or Attention

Attention (Avadhana) plays a very great part in concentration. It is the basis of will.When it is properly guided and directed towards the internal world for purposes ofintrospection (Antarmukha Vritti), it will analyse the mind and illumine very manyastounding facts for you.

The force wherewith anything strikes the mind is generally in proportion to the degreeof attention bestowed upon it. Moreover, the great art of memory is attention andinattentive people have bad memories. Power of attention becomes weakened in old age.

Attention is focussing of consciousness. It is one of the signs of trained will. It isfound in men of strong mentality. It is a rare faculty. Brahmacharya wonderfully developsthis power. A Yogi who possesses this faculty can even fix the mind on an unpleasantobject for a very long time. Attention can be cultivated and developed by persistentpractice. All the great men of the world who have achieved greatness have risen up throughthis faculty.

It is through the power of attention that mind carries out all its activities.Attention is the basis of will-force. Therefore cultivate the power of attention.

Attention may be either subjective or internal on an idea or objective or external onany object. Throw your entire attention into whatever you happen to be doing at themoment. It is easy to fasten the mind on an object which the mind likes best. Practiseattention on unpleasant tasks, from which you have been shrinking before on account oftheir unpleasantness. Throw interest upon uninteresting objects and ideas. Hold them onbefore your mind. Interest will slowly manifest. Many mental weaknesses will vanish. Themind will become stronger and stronger.

An Illustration Of Single-Minded Concentration

There was a workman who used to manufacture arrows. Once he was very busy at his work.He was so much absorbed in his work that he did not notice even a big party of a Raja withhis retinue passing in front of his shop. Such must be the nature of your concentrationwhen you fix your mind on God. You must have the one idea of God and God alone. No doubt,it takes some time to have a complete Ekagrata of mind. You will have to struggle veryhard to have a single-minded concentration. Sri Dattatreya made the above arrow-maker asone of his Gurus.

A Common Blunder

Some medical students leave the medical college soon after joining it as they find itdisgusting to wash the pus in ulcers and dissect the dead bodies. They make a seriousblunder. In the beginning, it is loathing. After studying Pathology, Medicine, OperativeSurgery, Morbid Anatomy, Bacteriology, the course will be very interesting in the finalyear. Many spiritual aspirants leave off the practice of concentration of mind after sometime as they find it difficult to practise. They also make a grave mistake like themedical students. In the beginning of practice, when you struggle to get over thebody-consciousness, it will be disgusting and troublesome. It will be a physicalwrestling. The emotions and Sankalpas will be abundant. In the third year of practice, themind will be cool, pure and strong. You will derive immense joy. The sum total ofpleasures of the whole world is nothing when compared to the Ananda derived from themeditation. Do not give up the practice at any cost. Plod on. Persevere. Have patience(Dhriti), Utsaha (cheerfulness) and Sahasa (tenacity, application). You will succeedeventually. Never despair. Find out by serious introspection the various impediments thatact as stumbling blocks in your concentration and remove them with patience and effortsone by one. Do not allow new Sankalpas and new Vasanas to crop up. Nip them in the budthrough Viveka, Vichara and Dhyana.

Know that you are progressing in Yoga and that the Sattva is increasing, when you arealways cheerful, when the mind is even and concentrated.

Chapter 32


Achintaiva param dhyanam-To be thoughtless is the highest form ofmeditation.” (Sri Sankaracharya)

Dhyanam nirvishayam manah-When the mind becomes Nirvishaya (free fromthinking of sense-objects and their enjoyments), it is meditation.” (PatanjaliYoga Sutras)

What Is Meditation?

In Vedanta or the path of Jnana, the terms “Manana” (reflection) and”Nididhyasana” are very frequently used. Manana-Vritti-Tiraskara is driving awayall the thoughts of worldly objects and Svajatiya-Vritti-Pravaha is increasing thethought-currents of God or Brahman like a steady stream. Nididhyasana is meditation ofAtman. It is deep and intense contemplation. It is Anatma-Vritti-Vivadana-RahitaAtmakara-Vritti-Sthiti. The mind is perfectly established in the Absolute. No worldlythoughts will intrude now. The contemplation is like a steady flow of oil (Tailadharavat).

Indispensability Of Meditation For God-Realisation

Mind feels tired after hard and protracted work. It cannot therefore, be Atman. Atmanis the store-house of all powers (Ananta-Sakti). Mind is only an instrument of Atman. Itshould be properly disciplined. Just as you develop the physical body through gymnasticsand various kinds of physical exercises, you will have to train the mind through mentaltraining, mental culture or mental drill. In meditation and concentration, you will haveto train the mind in a variety of ways. Then only the gross mind will become subtle(Sukshma).

Put a piece of iron rod in the blazing furnace. It becomes red like fire. Remove it. Itloses its red colour. If you want to keep it always red, you must always keep it in fire.Even so, if you want to keep the mind charged with the fire of Brahmic wisdom, you mustkeep it always in contact or touch with the Brahmic fire of knowledge through constant andintense meditation. You must keep up an unceasing flow of the Brahmic consciousness. Thenyou will have the Sahajavastha (natural state).

Leading a virtuous life is not by itself sufficient for God-realisation. Concentrationof mind is absolutely necessary. A good, virtuous life only prepares the mind as a fitinstrument for concentration and meditation. It is concentration and meditation thateventually lead to Self-realisation.

God has hidden Himself in this world (immanent) and is seated in the cavity of thelotus of your heart. He is an absentee landlord. You will have to seek Him throughconcentration and meditation with a pure mind. This is a real play of hide and seek.

All the visible things are Maya. Maya will vanish through Jnana or meditation on Atman.One should exert himself to get rid of Maya. Maya havocs through the mind. Destruction ofthe mind means the annihilation of Maya. Nididhyasana is the only way for conquering Maya.Lord Buddha, Raja Bhartrihari, Dattatreya, Akhow of Gujarat-all had conquered Maya andmind through deep meditation only. Enter the silence. Meditate. Meditate. Solitude andintense meditation are two important requisites for Self-realisation.

Make the mind blank. It is the only medium for these severe strokes of grief. It isdifficult to suppress thought and, after it is once suppressed, a new succession ofthoughts arises which overpowers the mind. Fix the mind on some tranquil object. You willsucceed in checking the mind. Collect your thoughts in the Spirit (Atman), as a personcools himself by going into a pool of water in the hot season. Meditate continually onHari, who is of an azure hue and who wears an invaluable necklace and is adorned withornaments on His arms, in His ears and on His head.

Prerequisites For Meditation

For meditation, you want a properly trained instrument (mind). You must have a calm,clear, pure, subtle, sharp, steady and one-pointed Buddhi to understand the Brahma-Tattvaor Brahma-Vastu. Then and then only is realisation possible. Brahman is pure and subtleand you need a pure and subtle mind to approach Brahman.

Only a trained mind which utterly controls the body can inquire and meditate endlesslyso long as life remains, never for a moment losing sight of the object of its search andcontemplation (the Brahman), never for a moment letting it to be obscured by anyterrestrial temptation. All physical activities should be completely suspended, allattachments should be ruthlessly cut asunder completely for five or six years, if you wantto practise Dhyana Yoga, if you want to realise God through concentration of mind.Newspaper-reading and correspondence with friends and relatives should be completelystopped, as they cause distraction of mind and strengthen the world-idea. Seclusion for aperiod of five or six years is indispensable.

For purposes of meditation, everything must be rendered Sattvic. The place ofmeditation must be Sattvic. The food must be Sattvic. The wearing apparel must be Sattvic.The company must be Sattvic. Talking must be Sattvic. The sound that you hear must beSattvic. Thinking must be Sattvic. Study must be Sattvic. Everything must be Sattvic. Thenonly good progress in Sadhana is possible, particularly with the beginners (neophytes).

A solitary place with spiritual vibratory conditions, a cool, Sattvic place withtemperate climate as at Uttarkashi, Rishikesh, Lakshmanjhula, Kankhal or Badrinarayan isindispensably requisite for concentration of mind and meditation, because the brain getshot during meditation. The banks of the Ganga or Narmada, Himalayan scenery, lovelyflower-gardens, sacred temples-these are the places which elevate the mind inconcentration and mediation. Have recourse to them.

Of course, the ideal condition cannot always be obtained as this is a relative plane.All places combine advantages and some disadvantages also side by side. You must select aplace which has the maximum of advantages and minimum of disadvantages. You must do thebest you can. You must try to put up with some difficulties. You must overcome them. Youshould be alone with yourself. You should be able to abstract yourself from thedistracting causes.

There must be good, Sattvic, substantial light, nutritious food. Meditation is possibleonly when the mind is full of Sattva-Guna. The stomach should not be loaded. There is anintimate connection between the mind and the food. A heavy meal is harmful. Take a fullmeal at 11 a.m. and half a seer of milk at night. The night meal should be light for thosewho meditate.

There must be capacity for Sadhana. Then only meditation will go on steadily withhappiness. Asana (posture) steadies the body. Bandhas and Mudras make the body firm.Pranayama makes the body light. Nadi-Suddhi effects Samyavastha of the mind. Havingacquired these qualifications, you will have to fix the mind on Brahman.

When Sushumna Nadi is working, i.e., when the breath flows through both the nostrils,meditation goes on with ease and joy. The mind then is calm. There is an increase ofSattva Guna when Sushumna is operating. Sit for meditation the moment Sushumna begins toflow.

You can meditate only when the mind is beyond all anxieties. Retire to a quiet room orplace where you do not fear interruption so that your mind may feel secure and at rest.Sit in a comfortable posture and be, so far as possible, free from external disturbinginfluences. Drive off negative thoughts. Become positive always. Positive overpowersnegative. You can do nice meditation when you are positive.

There must be firm Vairagya, burning Mumukshutva and strong Viveka in you. There mustbe a good, spiritual teacher (Anubhava Guru) to guide you.

You must have an intellectual grasp, intellectual conviction and comprehensiveunderstanding of Brahman first through the purified mind.

Many do not get the above favourable conditions for spiritual Sadhana. That is thereason why they do not make any spiritual progress.

Saguna And Nirguna Forms Of Meditation

When you see the concrete figure of Lord Krishna with open eyes and meditate, it is theconcrete form of meditation. When you reflect on the image of Lord Krishna by closing youreyes, it is also concrete form of meditation, but it is more abstract. When you meditateon the infinite abstract light, it is still more abstract meditation. The former two typesbelong to Saguna form of meditation, the latter to Nirguna form.

Even in Nirguna meditation, there is an abstract form in the beginning for fixing themind. Later on, this form vanishes and the meditator and the meditated become one.Meditation proceeds from the mind only. The help of the mind is always needed either forperception of an object or for the understanding of Brahman. When you read a book withabsorbing interest and attention, your mind gets fixed to the ideas. Even so, in Nirgunameditation of Brahman (formless Dhyana), the mind is fixed on one idea, viz., thatof Atman.

Exercises In Saguna Meditation

Sit on Padmasana in a solitary room. Close your eyes. Meditate on the effulgence in thesun, splendour in the moon, glory in the stars, beauty in the sky. This is one kind ofmeditation for beginners.

Meditate on the Himalayas. Imagine that the river Ganga takes its origin from the icyregion of Gangotri, near Uttarkashi, flows through Rishikesh, Haridwar, Varanasi andenters the Gangasagar in the Bay of Bengal. Himalayas, Ganga and the sea-these threethoughts only should occupy your mind. First, take your mind to icy Gangotri, then alongthe Ganga and finally to the sea. Then, again take it to the icy Gangotri. Rotate the mindin this manner for 15 minutes. This is another kind of meditation.

Imagine that there is a fine garden with lovely flowers. In one corner, there arejasmine flowers. In another corner, there are beautiful cabbage roses. In the third cornerthere is the ‘lady of the night.’ In the fourth corner, there are Champaka flowers. Now,meditate on these four varieties of flowers. First meditate on jasmine. Then take the mindto rose, then to the ‘lady of the night’ and finally to the Champaka. Again rotate themind as above. Do this again and again for fifteen minutes. Gross meditations like thesewill prepare the mind for finer abstract meditation on subtle ideas.

Meditate on the magnanimity of the ocean, its infinite nature. Compare the ocean withthe Infinite Brahman, the waves, foams and blocks of ice to the various names and forms.Identify yourself with the ocean. Become silent. Expand. Expand.

Exercises In Nirguna Meditation

There is a living, universal Power that underlies all these names and forms. Meditateon this Power which is formless. This will form an elementary Nirguna meditation withoutany form (formless Dhyana).

“There is no world. There is neither body nor the mind. There is only oneChaitanya (pure consciousness). I am that pure consciousness.”-This is Nirgunameditation (without attributes).

Sit on Padmasana. Open the eyes. Gaze steadily on the formless air only. This is alsoanother method of formless meditation. Concentrate on the air. This will lead to therealisation of the nameless and formless Brahman, the One Living Truth.

Imagine that there is a Parama, Ananta, Akhanda Jyotis (supreme, infinite effulgence)hidden behind all the phenomena with an effulgence that amounts to the blaze of crores ofsuns together. Meditate on That. That is also another form of Nirguna meditation.

Concentrate and meditate on the expansive sky. This is also another kind of Nirguna,Nirakara meditation. By the previous methods in concentration, the mind will stop thinkingof finite forms. It will slowly begin to melt in the ocean of Peace, as it is deprived ofits contents, viz., forms of various sorts. It will become subtler and subtler also.

Meditation On ‘om’

Have the figure OM in front of you. Concentrate on this. Do Trataka also with open eyes(steady gazing without winking till tears flow profusely). This is both Saguna and Nirgunameditation (with and without attributes). Keep a picture of OM in your meditation room.You can do Puja for the symbol of Brahman. Burn incense, etc. Offer flowers. This suitsthe modern educated persons.

Meditation On Mind

Mind is Brahman or God in manifestation. Mind is God in motion. As Brahman isapproachable by means of the mind, it is only proper to meditate upon the Mind as Brahman.”The mind should be adored as Brahman; this is intellectual worship.”(Chhandogya Upanishad, III-18). This is Upasana Vakya.

The Meditation Room

The meditation room should be regarded as a temple of God. Talks of profane natureshould never be indulged in the room. No vicious thoughts of rancorous jealousy, avariceare to be entertained there. Admittance should ever be sought in it with a pious andreverent mind. For, what we do, what we think and what we speak of leave their impressionson the ether of the room and, if no care is taken to avoid them, they will exert theirinfluence on the aspirant’s mind and, rendering his mind perverse and restive, make himincapable of attending to the devotion. The words uttered, the thoughts cherished, thedeeds done are not lost; they are always reflected on the subtle layers of etherencircling the room where they are done and affect the mind invariably. As much aspossible effort should be made to overcome them. This is to be done for a few months only;when the habit is changed, everything will be all right.

How To Meditate

Sit in a lonely place on Padma, Siddha or Sukha Asana. Free yourself from all passions,emotions and impulses. Subjugate the senses. Withdraw the mind from objects. Now the mindwill be calm, one-pointed, pure and subtle. With the help of this trained instrument,disciplined mind, contemplate on that one Infinite Self. Do not think of anything else. Donot allow any worldly thought to enter the mind. Do not allow the mind to think of anyphysical or mental enjoyment. When it indulges in these thoughts, give it a goodhammering. Then it will move towards God. Just as the Ganga flows continuously towards thesea, thoughts of God should flow continuously towards the Lord. Just as oil, when pouredfrom one vessel to another, flows in an unbroken, continuous stream, just as theharmonious sound produced from the ringing of bells falls upon the ear in a continuousstream, so also the mind should ‘flow’ towards God in one continuous stream. There must bea continuous divine Vritti-Pravaha, Svajatiya-Vritti-Pravaha, from the Sattvic mindtowards God through continuous Sadhana.

You must have a mental image of God or Brahman (concrete or abstract) before you beginto meditate. When you are a neophyte in meditation, start repeating some sublime Slokas orStotras (hymns) for ten minutes as soon as you sit for meditation. This will elevate themind. The mind can be easily withdrawn from the worldly objects. Then stop this kind ofthinking also and fix the mind on one idea only by repeated and strenuous efforts. ThenNishtha will ensue.

In Nididhyasana (meditation), you will have to develop the Svajatiya-Vritti-Pravaha.Make the thoughts of Brahman or Divine Presence flow like inundation or flood. DoVijatiya-Vritti-Tiraskara. Renounce the thoughts of objects. Drive them away with the whipof Viveka and Vichara. There is struggle in the beginning. It is trying indeed. But, lateron, as you will grow stronger and stronger and as you grow in purity, Brahma-Chintanabecomes easy. You rejoice in the life of unity. You get strength from Atman. Innerstrength grows when all the Vishaya Vrittis are thinned out and the mind becomesone-pointed (Ekagra).

When you start a fire, you heap up some straw, pieces of paper, thin pieces of wood.The fire gets extinguished quickly. You blow it again several times through the mouth ofthe blow-pipe. After some time it becomes a small conflagration. You can hardly extinguishit now even with great efforts. Even so, in the beginning of meditation in neophytes, theyfall down from meditation in their old grooves. They will have to lift up their mindsagain and again and fix on the Lakshya. When the meditation becomes deep and steady, theyget established in God eventually. Then the meditation becomes Sahaja (natural). Itbecomes habitual. Use the blow-pipe of Tivra Vairagya and intense meditation to kindle thefire of meditation.

During meditation, note how long you can shut out all worldly thoughts. Watch the mindvery carefully. If it is for twenty minutes, try to increase the period to thirty or fortyminutes and so on. Fill the mind with the thoughts of God again and again.

Allow the one Brahmic idea to flow gently and continuously. Constantly think of God.The mind should always move towards God. Fasten the mind with a fine silk thread to thelotus feet of Lord Siva or Hari. Drive out foreign or extraneous (worldly) ideas gently.Try to keep up the Brahmakara Vritti by repeating OM or “Aham Brahmasmi”mentally very often. The idea of infinity, the idea of an ocean of light, the idea ofall-knowledge and all-Ananda should accompany the mental repetition of OM. If the mindwanders, repeat verbally six times the long (Dhirga) Pranava with 3 Matras. This processwill remove the Vikshepa and all other obstacles.

When you begin to sweep a room that was kept closed for six months, various kinds ofdirt come out from the corners of the room. Similarly, during meditation, under pressureof Yoga, through the Grace of God, various kinds of impurities float about on the surfaceof the mind. Bravely remove them one by one by suitable methods and counter-virtues withpatience and strenuous efforts. The old vicious Samskaras revenge when you try to suppressthem. Do not be afraid. They lose their strength after some time. You have to tame themind just as you tame a wild elephant or a tiger. Do not indulge in vicious thoughts whichserve as food for the mind. Make the mind Antarmukha (self-introspective). Substitutegood, virtuous, sublime thoughts. Feed the mind with ennobling aspirations and ideals. Oldvicious Samskaras will be gradually thinned out and eventually obliterated. Now theBrahmakara Vritti will dawn. Coupled with Brahma-Jnana, this is the destroyer of Avidya.Allow the Brahmakara Vritti to flow steadily like Tailadhara (continuous flow of oil). NowNiratisayananda (infinite bliss) will flow. At this state, the whole universe will appearas Sat-Chit-Ananda only. This thought also will die. You will then enter Sahajananda state(Advaita-Avastharupa Samadhi).

Some Useful Hints

In meditation, do not strain the eyes. Do not strain the brain. Do not struggle orwrestle with the mind. It is a serious mistake. Many neophytes commit this grave error.That is the reason why they get easily tired soon. They get headache and they have to getup very often to pass urine during the course of meditation owing to the irritation set upin the micturition centre in the spinal cord.

Make no violent effort to control the mind. Do not wrestle with it with force. It is amistake to do so. But, rather allow it for a while and let it run and exhaust its efforts.The mind will jump now like an untrained monkey first. Gradually, it will slow down. Thenyou can fix the mind on your Lakshya either on a concrete form or on an abstract idea.

Get up at 4 a.m. (Brahma Muhurta). Sit comfortably in the Padma, Siddha, Sukha orSvastika Asana. Keep the head, neck and trunk in one straight line. Relax the muscles,nerves and brain. Calm the objective mind. Close the eyes. Do not struggle with the mind.Do not voluntarily and violently drive away intruding thoughts. Gently allow the divinethoughts to flow. Steadily think of the Lakshya (point of meditation). Have sublime,Sattvic thoughts. Vicious thoughts will, by themselves, vanish.

Even if the mind runs outside during your practice in meditation, do not bother. Allowit to run. Slowly try to bring it to your Lakshya (centre). By repeated practice, the mindwill be finally focussed in your heart, in the Atman, the Indweller of your hearts, thefinal goal of life. In the beginning, the mind may run out 80 times. Within six months, itmay run 70 times; within a year, it may run 50 times; within 2 years, it may run 30 times;within 5 years, it will be completely fixed in the Divine Consciousness. Then, it will notrun out at all even if you try your level best to bring it out, like the wandering bull,which was in the habit of running to gardens of different landlords for eating grass, butwhich now eats fresh gram and extract of cotton seeds in its own resting place.

If there is much strain in meditation, reduce the number of hours for a few days. Dolight meditation only. When you have regained the normal tone, again increase the period.Use your common-sense all throughout Sadhana. I always reiterate on this point.

Those who meditate for four or five hours at one stretch can have two Asanas, eitherPadma and Vajra or Siddha and Vajra, in the beginning. Sometimes, the blood accumulates inone part of the legs or thighs and gives a little trouble. After two hours, change theAsana from Padma or Siddha Asana to Vajrasana or stretch the legs at full length. Leanagainst a wall or a pillow. Keep the spine erect. This is the most comfortable Asana. Jointwo chairs. Sit on one chair and stretch the legs on another chair. This is anothercontrivance.

Pose or Asana is really mental. Try to have a mental Padma or mental Siddha Asana. Ifthe mind is wandering, you cannot have a steady body or a steady physical pose. When themind is steady or fixed in Brahman, steadiness of the body automatically follows.

Have the one all-pervading Bhavana (feeling). Deny the finite body as a mereappearance. Try to keep up the feelings always. Whatever elevates you, you can take it upfor your advantage just to elevate the mind and then continue your prolonged meditation.

You must daily increase your Vairagya, meditation and Sattvic virtues such as patience,perseverance, mercy, love, forgiveness, purity, etc. Vairagya and good qualities helpmeditation. Meditation increases the Sattvic qualities.

Just as you conserve the energy by observing Mouna (vow of silence), so also you willhave to conserve the mental energy by stopping useless thinking. Then you will saveabundant reserve energy for meditation.

Remember these three word-images: PURIFICATION, CONCENTRATION, ABSORPTION. Repeat themmentally during meditation. This is a triplet. Remember this triplet. Purify the mind. Getrid of Mala (impurities such as Kama, Krodha, etc.). Perform selfless, desireless actions.This will purify the mind. Practise Upasana, Pranayama, Trataka and Rajayogic”Chitta-Vritti-Nirodha.” This will help Ekagrata. Then practise constant anddeep meditation. The mind will be absorbed eventually.

“Pranavo dhanuh saro hyatma brahma tallakshyam uchyate;
Apramattena veddhavyam saravan tanmayo bhavet.”

“Om is the bow, mind is the arrow and Brahman is the mark to be aimed at. Brahmanis to be hit or pierced by him whose thoughts are concentrated. Then he will be of thesame nature (Tanmaya) as Brahman, as the arrow becomes one with the aim when it haspierced it.” (Mundakopanishad, II-ii-4)

Sit on Padma or Siddha Asana. Close the eyes. Concentrate the gaze on the Trikuti(space between the two eyebrows). Now, chant Dhirga Pranava (long OM) forcibly for fiveminutes. This will remove Vikshepa or tossing of the mind. Concentration will ensue. Nowrepeat OM mentally with Brahma-Bhavana. Whenever the mind begins to wander, again chant OMverbally. As soon as the mind gets calm, mentally repeat OM again. The same process can beadopted for Saguna meditation also.

Those who have knowledge of the flow of the five Tattvas in the nostrils can veryrapidly advance in meditation. There is an intimate connection between the mind and thefive Tattvas. When Agni-Tattva flows through the nostrils, mind is much agitated andmeditation is interrupted. During the flow of the Akasa-Tattva, meditation is veryfavourable. A knowledge of “Svara-Sadhana” or “Svarodaya” as it ispopularly termed is an indispensable necessity for those who take up to meditation.

Just as a very skilful archer, in shooting at a bird, is aware of the way in which hetakes his steps, holds the bow, the bow-string and the arrow at the time when he piercesthe bird-“Standing in this position, holding thus the bow, thus the bow-string andthus the arrow, I pierce the bird”-and ever afterwards would not fail to fulfil theseconditions that he might pierce the bird, even so should the aspirant note the conditionssuch as suitable food thus: “Eating this kind of food, following such a person, insuch a dwelling, in this mode, at this time, I attained to this meditation andSamadhi.”

As a clever cook, in serving his master, notes the kind of food that he relishes andhence forward serves it and gets gain, so the aspirant too notes the conditions such asnourishment, etc., at the moment of attaining meditation and Samadhi and, in fulfillingthem, gets ecstasy again and again.

Meditation With Eyes Open

In the beginning, when you are a neophyte, you can close your eyes to remove thedistraction of mind, as you are very weak. But, later on, you must meditate with eyesopen, even during walking. You must keep your balance of mind even when you are in thebustle of a city. Then only you are perfect. Why do you close your eyes during meditation?Open your eyes and meditate. Think strongly that the world is unreal, that there is noworld, that there is Atman only. If you can meditate on Atman even when the eyes are open,you will be a strong man. You will not be easily disturbed.

Benefits Of Meditation

Agni (fire) is of two kinds, viz., Samanya Agni (ordinary fire) and Visesha Agni(special fire). Samanya Agni is hidden in all trees and woods. It is of no use for burningpurposes. Visesha Agni that is formed by rubbing a match or rubbing two pieces of wood isuseful for cooking and other purposes. Similarly, there is Samanya Chaitanya (ordinaryintelligence or consciousness) that is pervading everywhere. There is also ViseshaChaitanya (special intelligence). Samanya Chaitanya cannot destroy the ignorance or Avidyaof men. It is only the special intelligence-Atmakara Vritti or Avichhinna ViseshaChaitanya that can destroy the Mula Ajnana, the primitive ignorance that envelops theSvarupa (Brahman or Existence). This special intelligence is developed when a manmeditates on the Infinite with a pure heart.

In contemplation, you are in spiritual contact with the unchanging Light. You arecleansed of all the impurities. This Light cleanses the soul which touches it. Thesun-glass is exposed to the light of the sun and the straws that are underneath catchfire. So, within yourself, if you have an open heart devotedly lifted up to God, the Lightof His purity and love, illumining this open soul, will consume all your shortcomings inthe fire of Divine Love. The Light brings enhanced energy and great comfort.

This purifying process leads to a deeper insight into Truth. This is the action ofGrace of the Lord upon the soul in meditation. In this inflowing Grace, there forthwitharises that Light of the mind into which God is sending a ray of His unclouded Splendour.This Light is vastly potent.

If you can meditate for half an hour, you will be able to engage yourself with peaceand spiritual strength in the battle of life for one week through the force of thismeditation. Such is the beneficial result of meditation. As you have to move withdifferent minds of a peculiar nature in your daily life, get the strength and peace fromthe meditation and you will have no trouble and worry then.

All actions, whether internal or external, can be done only when the mind is unitedwith the organs. Thought is the real action. If you have control over the mind by steadypractice, if you can regulate your emotions and moods, you will not do foolish and wrongactions. Meditation will help a lot in checking various emotions and impulses.

Meditation acts as a powerful tonic. It is a mental and nervine tonic as well. The holyvibrations penetrate all the cells of the body and cure the diseases of the body. Thosewho meditate save doctor’s bills. The powerful, soothing waves that arise duringmeditation exercise a benign influence on the mind, nerves, organs and cells of the body.The divine energy freely flows like Tailadhara (flow of oil from one vessel to another)from the feet of the Lord to the different systems of the Sadhakas.

Considerable changes take place in the mind, brain and the nervous system by thepractice of meditation. New nerve-currents, new vibrations, new avenues, new grooves, newcells, new channels are formed. The whole mind and the nervous system are remodelled. Youwill develop a new heart, a new mind, new sensations, new feelings, new mode of thinkingand acting and a new view of the universe (as God in manifestation).

The fire of meditation, annihilates all foulness due to vice. Then suddenly comesknowledge or Divine Wisdom which directly leads to Mukti or final emancipation.

Real peace and Ananda (bliss) manifest only when the Vasanas are thinned out andSankalpas get extinguished. When you fix the mind either on Sri Krishna or Siva or Atmaneven for five minutes, Sattva Guna is infused into the mind. Vasanas are thinned out andSphurana of Sankalpa becomes less and less. You will feel peace and bliss during the fiveminutes. You can compare this Ananda from meditation with the transitory sensualpleasures. You will find that this Ananda from meditation is a million times superior tosensual pleasure. Meditate and feel this Ananda. Then you will know its real value.

You will get the full Ananda of the divine glory only when you merge deep into silentmeditation. When you are on the border-land of divinity of God, when you are at thethreshold of God, when you are in the outer skirts, you will not get the maximum peace andbliss.

These are the benefits that are derived by the Yogic students who practise meditationsystematically. They are Santi (peace), Santosha (contentment), Abhaya (fearlessness),peculiar spiritual Ananda (bliss), unruffled state of mind in worldly difficulties,Nischala Sthiti (steadiness), inspiration, intuitive perception, Sattvic qualities andabsence of anger (Akrodha), egoism and Raga-Dvesha (like and dislike).

Develop the Prakamya, the divine vision (Divine Drishti), Jnana-Chakshus byconcentration, purification and meditation.

How To Develop Virtues By Meditation

Examine your character. Pick some distinct defect in it. Find out its opposite. Let ussay that you suffer from irritability. The opposite of irritability is patience. Try todevelop this virtue by meditation on the abstract virtue of patience. Regularly, everymorning, sit down at 4 a.m. in Padma or Siddha Asana in a solitary room for half an hourand begin to think on patience, its value, its practice under provocation, taking onepoint one day, another on another day and thinking as steadily as you can, recalling themind when it wanders. Think of yourself as perfectly patient, a model of patience and endwith a vow: “This patience which is my true self, I will feel and show fromtoday.”

For a few days, probably, there will be no change perceptible. You will still feel andshow irritability. Go on practising steadily every morning. Presently, as you say anirritable thing, the thought will flash into your mind, unbidden: “I should have beenpatient.” Still go on in practice. Soon, the thought of patience will arise with theirritable impulse and the outer manifestation will be checked. Still go on practising. Theirritable impulse will grow feebler and feebler until you find that irritability hasdisappeared and patience has become your normal attitude towards annoyances. In thismanner, you can develop various virtues as sympathy, self-restraint, purity, humility,benevolence, nobility, generosity, etc.

Chapter 33

Experiences And Obstacles In Meditation

What Happens During Meditation

In meditation, new grooves are formed in the brain and the mind moves upwards in thenew spiritual grooves. When the mind becomes steady in meditation, the eyeballs alsobecome steady. A Yogi whose mind is calm will have a steady eye. There will be no winkingat all. The eyes will be lustrous, red or pure white. When you enter into very deep,silent meditation, the breath will not come out of the nostrils. There may be occasionalslow movement of the lungs and the abdomen. During normal exhalation the air comes out 16digits. When the mind gets concentrated, it will become less and less. It will come to 15then 14, 13, 12, 10, 8 and so on. From the nature of the breathing, you can infer thedegree of concentration of an aspirant. Watch the breath very carefully.

Man tries to grasp the abstract through forms. After the mind has been purified, anabstract image is formed in the purified mind by Sravana (listening to spiritualdiscourses and holy scriptures) and Brahma-Chintana. This abstract image melts later oninto deep Nididhyasana. What is left behind is Chinmatra or Kevala Asti (pure Existencealone).

In Nididhyasana or profound and continued meditation, thinking ceases. There is onlyone idea of “Aham Brahmasmi.” When this idea also is given up, NirvikalpaSamadhi or Sahaja Advaita-Nishtha ensues. Just as salt melts in water, the Sattvic mindmelts in silence in Brahman-its Adhishthana (substratum).

Experiences In Meditation

Various persons get various spiritual experiences. There cannot be a common experiencefor all. It depends upon the temperament, mode of Sadhana, place of concentration andvarious other factors. Some hear melodious sounds in the ears. Some see lights. Some getAnanda (spiritual bliss). Some get both Prakasa and Ananda. During meditation, you mayexperience that you are rising from your seat. Some experience that they fly in the air.


The Divine light comes not through open doors, but only through narrow slits. Theaspirant sees the Divine Ray as a sunbeam passing through a chick into a dark room. It islike a ‘flash of lightning.’ This sudden illumination chokes all sounds of words. Theaspirant is spell-bound in ecstasy and awe. He trembles with love and awe, just as Arjunadid when he had the Virat-Visvarupa-Darsana of Lord Krishna. So bright and glorious is theLight environing the Divine that the initiate is dazzled and bewildered.

During meditation, the colour of lights that you see varies according to the Tattvathat flows through the nostrils. If there is Agni-Tattva, you will see red-colouredlights. If Akasa-Tattva flows, you will have blue-coloured lights. If Apas-Tattva (water)prevails, you will see white-coloured lights. If there is Prithvi-Tattva, you will haveyellow lights. If there is Vayu-Tattva, you will see black colour. You can change theTattva by various ways. But the best way is by thought. “As you think, so you alsobecome.” When the Agni-Tattva flows, think intently of Apas-Tattva. Apas-Tattva willbegin to flow soon.


During meditation, you get rapture or ecstasy. It is of five kinds viz., thelesser thrill, momentary rapture, flooding rapture, transporting rapture and all-pervadingrapture. The lesser thrill is only able to raise the hairs of the body (like the gooseskin). The momentary rapture is like the productions of lightning, moment by moment. Likewaves breaking on the seashore, the flooding rapture descends rapidly on the body andbreaks. Transporting rapture is strong and lifts the body up to the extent of launching itinto the air. When the all-pervading rapture arises, the whole body is completelysurcharged, blown like a full-bladder.

Crossing the Body-Consciousness

Aspirants are eager to get spiritual experiences soon. As soon as they get them, theyare afraid. They are awfully alarmed when they go above the body-consciousness. Theyentertain a passing wonder whether they will come back again or not. Why should they beafraid at all? It does not matter much whether they return to body-consciousness or not.All our attempts are mainly directed towards getting over this body-consciousness. We areused to certain limitations. When these limitations suddenly drop away, we feel that thereis no definite base left to stand upon. That is the reason why we are afraid when we goabove the body-consciousness. That is a novel experience. Courage is needed. Bravery is anindispensable requisite. Sruti says, “Nayam-atma balahinena labhyah-This Atmancan hardly be attained by weak (timid) persons.” All sorts of forces have to beencountered on the way. A dacoit or an anarchist can easily realise God, because he isfearless. A push in the right direction is only necessary for him. How Jagai and Madhai,rogues of the first water, became very good saints! They pelted stones at Nityananda, thedisciple of Lord Gouranga. Nityananda won them by pure divine love. Dacoit Ratnakarabecame Sage Valmiki.

Visions of Spirits

Sometimes, bad spirits will trouble you. They may have ugly, fierce faces with longteeth. Drive them with your strong will. Give the word of command: “Get out.”They will go away. They are vampires. They are elementals. They will not do any harm tothe Sadhakas. Your courage will be tested here. If you are timid, you cannot marchfurther. Draw power and courage from the Atman within, the inexhaustible Source (Avyaya).You will come across very good spirits also. They will help you a lot in your onwardmarch.

There is a kind of vision one occasionally gets during meditation. You may behold adazzling light with abrupt motion. You may behold a head of marvellous form, of the colourof a flame, red as fire and very awful to look at. It has three wings of marvellous lengthand breadth, white as a dazzling cloud. At times they would beat terribly and again wouldbe still. The head never utters a word, but remains altogether still. Now and again, thereis beating with its extended wings.

During meditation, some of the visions that you see are your own materialised thoughts,while some others are real, objective visions.

Break Veil After Veil

If you get experiences of the glimpses of Self during intense meditation, if you see ablazing light during meditation and if you get spiritual visions of angels, archangels,Rishis, Munis, Devatas and any other extraordinary spiritual experiences, do not fall backin terror. Do not mistake them for phantoms. Do not give up the Sadhana. Plod on.Persevere diligently. Break veil after veil.

If there is any error in Sadhana (meditation), at once consult the senior Sannyasins orrealised souls and remove the mistake. If your general health is sound, if you arecheerful, happy and strong, physically and mentally, if the mind is peaceful andunruffled, if you get Ananda in meditation and if your will is growing strong, pure andirresistible, think that you are improving in meditation and everything is going allright.

March on boldly. Do not look back. Cross the intense void and darkness. Pierce thelayer of Moha. Melt the subtle Ahankara now. Svarupa will shine by itself. You willexperience the Turiya (Arudha state).

Obstacles To Meditation

Obstacles to meditation are really from within. Environments are from within; youcreate your own environments. Try to be happy in whatever situation you are placed. Do notcomplain. Bear sufferings. You can conquer Nature. Maya is Tuchha (nothing) or Alpa (smallor non-entity) for a Brahma-Jnani.

The obstacles to meditation are only from within. Sleepiness, passions, confused stateof the mind, Manorajya (building castles in the air) are the chief obstacles that stand inthe way of fixing the mind on God or Brahman. The five hindrances to meditation, viz.,sense-desire, ill-will, sloth-torpor, flurry-worry and perplexity should be removed. For,when these are not removed, meditation cannot arise. The mind that lusts after many thingsthrough sense-desire is not concentrated on one object; or being overcome by sense-desire,it does not enter upon the progress of meditation in order to put away the sensuouselement. The mind that is harassed by ill-will concerning an object does not proceed atonce. The mind that is overcome by sloth and torpor is unwieldy. Obsessed by worry andflurry, it does not repose, but flirts about. Struck by perplexity, it does not go on thepath that leads to the attainment of meditation and Samadhi. Obstacles to meditation arethus really from within. They are not from without. Train the mind properly.

Laya (sleep), Vikshepa (tossing of mind from one object to another), Kashaya (memory ofsensual pleasures) and hidden Vasanas and Rasasvada (the happiness derived from SavikalpaSamadhi) are four stumbling blocks in meditation.

Tandri and Manorajya

When the mind has been withdrawn from objects through Vairagya and Uparati, do notallow it to go into sleep or Manorajya (fancies and wild imagination). When you constantlycontemplate on the meaning of the Mahavakya ‘Aham Brahmasmi’ or ‘Tat Tvam Asi’through the process of Mahavakyanusandhana, all the Vishayas (seeing, hearing, touching,tasting and smelling) will stop. But, owing to the force of Samskaras, Manorajya (buildingcastles in the air) will continue. Mind builds castles in the air. This is termedManoratha in Sanskrit. This is a serious obstacle to meditation. It should be stopped byVichara. Sometimes, during the course of meditation, the mind suddenly slips into its oldgrooves for sleeping. People think that they are meditating, while they are actuallysleeping. A mixture of drowsiness (Tandri) and Manorajya (building castles in the air,reverie) is mistaken by aspirants for deep meditation and Samadhi. The mind appears to beestablished in concentration and free from Vikshepa (distraction). This is a mistake.Alasya and Stabdhata (stupefaction arising from fear or wonder, mental restlessness andmental depression) are other disturbing factors in meditation.

Closely watch the mind. Make it Ekagra (one-pointed) and allow it to rest on theSvarupa Brahman). Be thoughtful, careful and vigilant. Stand up for ten minutes and dashcold water on the face and head, if drowsiness comes in. Remove the two serious obstaclesof Tandri and Manorajya by Vichara, Pranayama and light, Sattvic diet. Tandri and Alasyaare removed by Pranayama, Sirshasana, Sarvangasana and Mayurasana and light, Sattvic diet.Find out the disturbing causes and remove them. Avoid the company of those whom your minddislikes. Do not argue. Do not contradict. Do not try to convince persons who areunreasonable and undeveloped. Talk little. Observe Mouna. Live alone. In this way, you canavoid all sorts of excitements. Have constant Satsanga. Study elevating books such as theYogavasishtha, the Upanishads, etc. Have Brahma-Bhavana. Repeat OM with meaning andfeeling. All depressing thoughts will melt away.

If you are alert and if by protracted efforts and incessant, vigilant Svarupa-Chintana(meditation on Brahman), you get over the obstacles of sleep, Manorajya, etc., the steadyBrahmakara Vritti and Brahma-Jnana will dawn in no time. Ajnana will vanish. You will beestablished in Sahaja Paramananda state. All Sanchita (accumulated) Karmas will be burntup in the fire of wisdom.

Dreams in Meditation

Various sorts of fantastic dreams trouble some aspirants very much. Sometimes, there isa mixture of meditation and dreams. The presence of dreams denotes that you are not yetwell-established in deep meditation, that you have not removed Vikshepa (tossing of themind) and that you have not done constant, intense Sadhana. As the phenomenon of dreams isvery peculiar and inexplicable, it is very difficult to control dreams unless you wipe outall the Samskaras in the Karana Sarira (causal body) and control all thoughts. As you growin purity, Viveka and concentration, dreams will decrease.


Very often, depression comes in meditation in neophytes owing to previous Samskaras,influence of astral entities, evil spirits, bad company, cloudy days, bad stomach owing toindigestion and loaded bowels in constipation. It must be removed quickly by cheerfulthoughts, a brisk walk, singing, laughing, prayer, Pranayama, etc.


Scents, soft beds, novel-reading, dramas, theatres, cinemas, vulgar music, dancing,flowers, company of women, Rajasic diet-all these excite passions and cause disturbance ofthe mind. Too much salt, too much chillies, too much sweets cause intense thirst anddisturb meditation. Too much talking, too much walking and too much mixing disturb themind in meditation.

Impulses disturb meditation. All obscure subconscious impulses should be controlled bythe intellect and will. Sex-impulse and ambition are two real disturbing factors inmeditation. They carry on guerilla warfare. They attack the Sadhakas again and again. Theyappear to be thinned out for some time. They get revived often. They should be extirpatedby great efforts, Vichara, Viveka (power of discrimination between Atman and Anatman, Selfand non-Self) and Sivoham-Bhavana.

It is the sound that sets the mind in motion. It is the sound that makes the mind tothink. Sound disturbs the mind a great deal in meditation. A sound with meaning disturbsmore than a sound without meaning. A continuous sound as the silent murmur of a river isnot so disturbing as an abrupt, sudden, sharp, broken sound. The mind does not feel asound when it is used to it. You feel only when the clock stops.

Tushnimbhuta Avastha

Tushnimbhuta Avastha is a quiet state of the mind wherein there is neither attractionnor repulsion for objects for a short time. It occurs in the Jagrat state. It is a neutralstate of the mind. It is an obstacle to meditation. It should be avoided. It is mistakenby ignorant Sadhakas for Samadhi.


Kashaya means colouring. Raga, Dvesha and Moha are the Kashaya or colouring of themind. Kashaya is the subtle influence in the mind produced by enjoyment and left there tofructify in time to come and distract the mind from Samadhi. This is a serious obstacle tomeditation. It does not allow the Sadhaka to enter into Samadhi-Nishtha. It induces thesubtle memory of pleasures enjoyed. It is hidden Vasana. From the Samskara, Vasanaoriginates. Samskara is the cause and Vasana is the effect. It is a kind of Mala (impurityof mind). Constant Vichara coupled with Brahma-Bhavana is the only potent remedy toeradicate this dire malady Kashaya.

Sattvic Vrittis

During meditation, when your mind is more Sattvic, you will be inspired. The mind willbe composing fine poems and solving some problems of life. Stamp out these Sattvic Vrittisalso. This is all dissipation of mental energy. Soar higher and higher to Atman only.

Savikalpa Samadhi

Even the happiness of Savikalpa Samadhi is an obstacle, because it prevents you fromentering into the Nirvikalpa state. It produces false Tushti (contentment) and you stopyour further Sadhana.

The mind should be freed from all these obstacles. Then only will you enter into pureAdvaita Nirvikalpa state. Vichara and Brahma-Bhavana are the only helps to attain thishighest state.

Meditation And Work

He who meditates is not able to work. He who works is not able to meditate. This is notbalance. This is not equanimity. The two principles, meditation and action, must bewell-balanced. You must be able, if you are ready to follow the divine injunction, to takeup whatever work you are given-even a stupendous work-and leave it the next day, with thesame quietness with which you took it up and without feeling that the responsibility isyours. You must be able to work hard in the world with tremendous force and, when the workis over, you must be able to shut yourself up in a cave as an absolute recluse for a longtime with great peace of mind. That is balance, that is real strength. Then only you havegone beyond the qualities (Gunatita). “He, O Pandava, who hateth not radiance(Sattva) nor outgoing energy (work), nor even sloth and slumber (Moha) when present, norlongeth after them when absent-he is said to have crossed over the qualities” (Gita,XIV-22).

When you advance in the spiritual practice, it will be very difficult for you to domeditation and office work at the same time, because the mind will undergo double strain.Those who practise meditation will find that they are more sensitive than the people whodo not meditate and, because of that, the strain on the physical body is enormous. Themind works in different grooves and channels with different Samskaras during meditation.It finds it very difficult to adjust to different kinds of uncongenial activities. As soonas it comes down from the meditation, it gropes in darkness. It gets bewildered andpuzzled. The Prana (energy) which moves inward in different grooves and channels and whichis subtle during the meditation has to move in new, different channels during worldlyactivities. It becomes very gross during work. It has to work in different grooves andchannels. When you again sit for meditation in the evening, you will have to struggle hardto wipe out the newly acquired Samskaras you have gathered during the course of the dayand get calm and one-pointedness of mind. This struggle sometimes brings in headache.

It behoves, therefore, that advanced Grihastha Yogic students (householders) will haveto stop all the worldly activities when they advance in meditation, if they desire toprogress further. They themselves will be forced to give up all work, if they are reallysincere. Work is a hindrance in meditation for advanced students. That is the reason whyLord Krishna says in the Gita, “For a sage who is seeking Yoga, action is called themeans; for the same sage who is enthroned in Yoga (state of Yogarudha), serenity (Sama) iscalled the means.” Then, work and meditation become incompatible like acid and alkalior fire and water or light and darkness.

Reasons For Failures In Meditation

Some practise meditation for a period of 15 years and yet they have not made any realprogress at all. Why? This is due to lack of earnestness, Vairagya, keen longing forliberation and intense, constant Sadhana. There is always a complaint amongst theaspirants, “I am meditating for the last 12 years. I have not made any improvement. Ihave no realisation.” Why is it so? What is the reason? They have not plungedthemselves in deep meditation into the innermost recesses of their hearts. They have notproperly assimilated and saturated the mind with the thoughts of God. They have not doneregular, systematic Sadhana. They have not disciplined the Indriyas perfectly. They havenot collected all the outgoing rays of the mind. They have not made theself-determination, “I will realise this very second.” They have not given thefull 100% of the mind or 16 annas of the mind-their full mind-to God. They have not keptan increasing flow of Divine Consciousness like the flow of oil (Tailadharavat).

You will have to note very carefully whether you remain stationary in the spiritualpath even after many years of spiritual practice or whether you are progressing.Sometimes, you may go downwards also, if you are not very vigilant and careful, if yourVairagya wanes and if you are slack in meditation. Reaction may set in.

Just as the man who foolishly run after two rabbits will not catch hold of any one ofthem, so also a meditator who runs after two conflicting thoughts will not get success inany one of the two thoughts. If he has divine thoughts for ten minutes and then worldlyconflicting thoughts for the next ten minutes, he will not succeed in anything, in gettingat the Divine Consciousness. You must run after one rabbit only with vigour, strength andone-pointedness. You are sure to catch it. You must have only divine thoughts at alltimes. Then you are sure to realise God soon.

You must not be too hasty in longing for the fruits at once, when you take tomeditation. Haste makes waste. A young lady perambulated an Asvattha tree (Filicusreligiosa) 108 times for getting an offspring and immediately touched her abdomen tosee whether there was a child or not. It is simply foolishness. She will have to wait forsome months. Even so, if those who read works dealing with Atma-Jnana and who do takedelight therein will not be hasty in longing for the fruits at once, but will meditateregularly and gradually upon them, then the mind will, by degrees, be ripened and, in theend, the endless Atman will be reached; and they will get Atmasakshatkara(Self-realisation).

You will have to exert in the beginning to get an equilibrium of mind. Later on, youwill have a habitual balanced state of mind. So is the case with meditation. After someyears of practice, meditation becomes habitual.

Conditions For Self-Realisation

Just as you saturate water with salt or sugar, you will have to saturate the mind withthoughts of God and Brahman, with divine glory, Divine Presence with sublimesoul-awakening spiritual thoughts. Then only you will always be established in the DivineConsciousness. Before saturating the mind with thoughts of Brahman, you will have toassimilate the divine ideas first. Assimilation first and then saturation. Then comesrealisation, at once, without a moment’s delay. Remember the triplet always:”Assimilation-Saturation-Realisation.”

Free yourself from the base thoughts of the mind, the various useless Sankalpas(imaginations). Just as you render the turbid water pure by the addition of clearing nut (strychnospotatorum), so also you will have to make the turbid mind, filled with Vasanas andfalse Sankalpas, pure by Brahma-Chintana (thinking and reflecting on the Absolute). If themind constantly dwells on sensual objects, the conception of the reality of the universewill surely increase. If the mind ceaselessly thinks of Atman (Absolute), the worldappears like a dream. Mark the word “ceaseless.” This is important. Then onlythere will be true illumination. Then only there will be dawn of spiritual knowledge. TheJnana-Surya (the Sun of Knowledge) will rise in the firmament of Chidakasa(knowledge-space).

You will find very often these terms in the Gita: “Ananyachetah””Matchittah” “Nityayuktah” “Manmanah””Ekagramanah” “Sarvabhavah.” These terms connote that you willhave to give your full mind, entire 100% mind to God. Then only you will haveSelf-realisation. Even if one ray of mind runs outside, it is impossible to attainGod-consciousness.

It is the actions of the mind that are truly termed Karmas. True liberation resultsfrom the disenthralment of the mind. Those who have freed themselves from the fluctuationof their minds come into possession of the supreme Nishtha (meditation). Should the mindbe purged of all its impurities, then it will become very calm and all the worldlydelusion, with its births and deaths, will be soon destroyed.

Mind exists on account of “I.” “I” exists on account of mind.”I” is only an idea in the mind. “Mind” and “I” areidentical. If “I” vanishes, mind will also vanish; and if mind vanishes,”I” will vanish. Destroy the mind through Tattva-Jnana. Destroy the”I” through “Aham Brahmasmi Bhavana,” through constant and intenseNididhyasana. When mind vanishes or thoughts cease, Nama-Rupa will cease to exist and theGoal is reached.

Chapter 34


Characteristics Of Samadhi

When the mind is completely absorbed in one object of meditation, it is termed Samadhi.The mind identifies itself with the object of meditation. In Samadhi, there is neitherDhyana nor Dhyata (neither meditation nor meditator). The meditator and meditated, thethinker and the thought, the worshipper and the worshipped become one or identical. TheTriputi (triad) vanishes. The mind loses its own consciousness and becomes identical withthe object of meditation. The meditator has dissolved his personality in the sea of God,drowned and forgotten there till he becomes simply the instrument of God. When his mouthopens, it speaks God’s words without effort or forethought through direct intuition and,when he raises his hand, God flows again through that to work a miracle.

In Samadhi, there is neither seeing nor hearing. There is neither physical nor mentalconsciousness. There is only spiritual consciousness. There is only Existence (Sat). Thatis your real Svarupa. When the water dries up in a pool, the reflection of the sun in thewater also vanishes. When the mind melts in Brahman, when the mind-lake dries up, thereflected Chaitanya (Chidabhasa) also vanishes. The Jivatman (personality) goes away.There remains Existence alone.

Turiya is the spiritual condition where there is no play of mind, where the mind isdissolved in Brahman. It is the “fourth dimension,” where there is infiniteBrahmic bliss. It is not a condition of inertia, forgetfulness or annihilation. It is astate of absolute consciousness which baffles all attempts at description. It is the finalgoal of all. It is Mukti. It is Moksha.

Generally, when you have what you call dreamless sleep, it is one of two things; eitheryou do not remember what you dreamt of or you fell into absolute unconsciousness which isalmost death-a taste of death. But, there is the possibility of a sleep in which you enterinto an absolute silence, immortality and peace in all parts of your being and yourconsciousness merges into Satchidananda. You can hardly call it sleep, for there isperfect “awareness.” In that condition, you can remain for a few minutes orhours or days; but, these few minutes give you more rest and refreshment than hours ofordinary sleep. You cannot have it by chance. It requires a long training.

Samadhi is not a stone-like inert state as many people imagine. A life in the spirit(Atman or Divine) is not annihilation. When the self is bound down to its empiricalaccidents, its activities are not fully exercised and, when the limitations of theempirical existence are transcended, the universal life is intensified and you haveenrichment of Self. You will have a rich inner life. You will have an expanded cosmic lifeand supra-cosmic life, too.

The Different Kinds Of Samadhi

A Raja Yogi gets Nirodha-Samadhi through Chitta-Vritti-Nirodha (by restraining themental modifications). A Bhakta gets Bhava-Samadhi through Prema of the Lord. A Vedantigets Bheda-Samadhi through Mithyatva-Buddhi and concentration on the idea of theAsti-Bhati-Priya (the Anvaya method).

It is only the Raja Yogi who attempts the annihilation of the Vrittis, the NirodhaSamadhi (“Yogaschittavrittinirodhah” -Patanjali Yoga Sutras, I-2). AVedanti has always Atma-Bhava, Brahma-Bhava whenever he comes across objects. So he doesnot try to annihilate the Vrittis. There is no Pratyahara for him. There is no BahirmukhaVritti for him. He rejects Nama-Rupa and takes Asti-Bhati-Priya (Bheda-Samadhi). A Bhaktasees Narayana or Krishna in all objects. He also does not check the Vrittis. He, like theVedanti, changes his mental attitude. It is the mind that creates all the differences andseparateness. The world is all Ananda, only if you change your angle of vision, yourmental attitude. You will find heaven on earth.

You can bring down to normal objective consciousness a Raja Yogi or Bhakti Yogi orJnana Yogi by mere shaking of the body or blowing a conch. Chudalai brought down herhusband Sikhidhvaja from Samadhi by shaking his body. Lord Hari brought Prahlada down fromhis Samadhi by blowing His conch.

Samadhi Through Hatha Yoga

A Hatha Yogi draws all his Prana from the different parts of his body and takes it tothe Sahasrara Chakra (thousand-petalled lotus) at the top of the head. Then he enters intoSamadhi (superconscious state). Therefore it is very difficult to bring him down toobjective consciousness by merely shaking his body. Hatha Yogis have remained buriedunderneath the earth in Samadhi for years together. They plug the posterior nostrilsthrough Khechari Mudra (a king of Hatha Yogic Kriya) with their long tongues.

Prana and Apana that move in the chest and anus respectively are united by the Yogicprocesses of Jalandhara, Mula and Uddiyana Bandhas and the united Prana-Apana is driveninto the Sushumna Nadi of the spinal canal. The Pranas, when thus driven, draw up the mindalso along the Sushumna Nadi which is otherwise known as Brahma Nadi. During the ascent inthe Sushumna Nadi, the three Granthis or knots, viz., Brahma-Granthi at Muladhara-Chakra,Vishnu-Granthi at Manipura-Chakra and Rudra-Granthi at Ajna-Chakra should be cut asunderby strenuous efforts. These knots prevent the ascent of Kundalini. Bhastrika Pranayamabreaks down these knots. When Kula-Kundalini Sakti that lies dormant in theMuladhara-Chakra in the form of a coiled serpent with 3 curves or turns, with the facedownwards is awakened by spiritual Sadhana, it ascends upwards towards Sahasrara Chakra orthe thousand-petalled lotus in the crown of the head and takes along with it the mind andPrana also. When the mind is in the Sushumna, the Yogi is shut out from the objective,physical consciousness of the world. He is practically dead to the world, sees variousvisions and moves in the mental, ethereal space (Chidakasa). Samadhi starts.

Samadhi Through Raja Yoga

Deep meditation leads to Samadhi or oneness with God. If you can fix the mind for tenseconds steadily on a particular object or Murti, it is Dharana (concentration). Ten suchDharanas become Dhyana (meditation). Ten such Dhyanas form a Samadhi. The mind is filledwith Atman or God. Mind loses its own consciousness and becomes identified with the objectof meditation (Tatchitta, Tanmaya, Tadakara). Just as a toy made of salt melts in water,even so, the mind melts in Brahman in Nirvikalpa Samadhi. A sudden stroke of mysticillumination puts an end to all the empirical existence altogether and the very idea orremembrance of such a thing as this world or the narrow individuality of the spirit inthis world absolutely leaves the Self.

In trained Yogis, you cannot say where Pratyahara (abstraction) ends and Dharana(concentration) begins; where Dharana ends and Dhyana (meditation) begins; where Dhyanaends and Samadhi (superconscious state) begins. The moment they sit on the Asana, all theprocesses occur simultaneously with electric or lightning speed and they enter Samadhi attheir conscious will. In the neophytes, Pratyahara first takes place. Then Dharana begins.Then Dhyana slowly commences. Before Samadhi manifests, their minds, getting impatient andtired, drop down. Constant and intense Sadhana, with light but nutritious food, will bringabout sanguine success in getting Samadhi.

Yogic Samadhi And Vedantic Samadhi

There is a difference between the Nirvikalpa state of a Yogi and the Nirvikalpa stateof a Vedantin. The former concerns the mind. The latter concerns the pure Atman or Brahmanonly. In Yogic Samadhi, Dhyeya remains. Dhyeya means the object of meditation. In VedanticSamadhi, Kevala Asti (Existence alone) remains.

Savikalpa Samadhi And Nirvikalpa Samadhi

The ground floor represents the life of passion in the sense-universe. The first storeycorresponds to Savikalpa Samadhi. The second storey is tantamount to Nirvikalpa Samadhi.The third storey represents the Sahajavastha or a Jivanmukta. The moving of a bullock cartcan be compared to Savikalpa Samadhi. It stops. This is Nirvikalpa Samadhi. The bulls aredetached. This is Sahajavastha. When the Yogi has reached the last perfect stage ofmeditation and Samadhi, the fire whereof burns surely all the residue of his actions, heat once gets Liberation (Jivanmukti) in this very life.

In Savikalpa Samadhi, there is Triputi or the triad- Dhyata (the meditator), Dhyana(meditation) and Dhyeya (object of meditation). In Nirvikalpa Samadhi, this Triputivanishes (Triputirahita). Nirvikalpa means “free from all sorts of modifications andimaginations.” The mind completely melts in Brahman. The happiness or bliss that youget in Savikalpa Samadhi is termed Rasasvada. This is also an obstacle (Pratibandha orVighna) for further spiritual progress. It makes you stop here. It cannot liberate you.You must further march onwards to attain the highest Nirvikalpa state wherein lies yourwhole freedom.

Advantages Of Bhakti Yoga Sadhana

The practices of Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga are not suited to the majority of men in thisage, while they have always an irresistible charm for such practices because of theirapparent concreteness and promise of speedy rewards. A vast majority of persons have nogood physique and robust constitution. They are weaklings. In this age, children begetchildren. There are baby mothers. Devotion or Bhakti Yoga is, therefore, easy and safe.Any man can repeat the Name of God. Anyone can sing His praise. Without a mother, youcannot have a son. Even so, without Ananya Bhakti (one-pointed or single-minded devotion),you cannot have Jnana. When Bhakti is fully ripe, Brahma-Jnana dawns of itself, withoutmuch effort on the part of the Sadhaka.

Any Mantra is very powerful. It purifies the mind. It induces Vairagya. It causesAntarmukha Vritti. Every Mantra has a Rishi who gave it; a Devata as its informing power;the Bija or seed, a significant word which gives it a special power; a Sakti or energy ofthe form of the Mantra, i.e., the vibration-forms set up by its sounds; the Kilaka or thepillar, that which supports and strengthens the Mantra. Kilaka is a sort of plug whichconceals the Mantra-Chaitanya. By constant and prolonged repetition of the Mantra withBhava (feeling or right mental attitude) and concentration, the Mantra-Chaitanya isawakened. Then the Sadhaka gets Mantra-Siddhi. There is a spiritual current in allMantras. A Mantra takes the devotee’s soul first to one centre and then to another and soon, till access is gained to the goal or final region. Dhruva had Darshana of Lord Hari byrepeating the Dvadasakshara (consisting of twelve letters) Mantra ‘Om Namo BhagavateVasudevaya’ given by Rishi Narada. Prahlada had Darshana of Mahavishnu by repeatingthe “Narayana” Mantra. Valmiki realised God by repeating “Mara-Mara”(which becomes Rama-Rama during the course of repetition). Tukaram of Maharashtra becameone with Lord Krishna by chanting always “Vittala-Vittala,” the name of thereputed image of Sri Krishna at Pandharpur.


Mark the three processes that take place in the mind during meditation. These are:CONTEMPLATION, FILLING, IDENTIFICATION. This is another triplet. Remember these threeword-images. Repeat them mentally while doing Sadhana. It will help you a lot really.

Contemplate on Atman. Fill the mind with Atman. Then the mind becomes identified withBrahman in accordance with what is known as the Bhramarakitanyaya (analogy of wasp andcaterpillar). As you think, so you become. Think you are Brahman; Brahman you will become.

When the mind is withdrawn from the objects and deep reflection sets in, the objectiveconsciousness is shut up; Savitarka Samadhi commences. Ratiocination, analysis andsynthesis (a priori and a posteriori ways of reasoning), investigation andabstract reasoning take place. This is Samadhi with reasoning. Evil thoughts cannot enternow. The mind is Sattvic.

Deep study of philosophical works with Chitta Suddhi is itself a form of Samadhi. Themind here is free from worldly thoughts.

When your meditation becomes deep, you generally operate through the subtle KaranaSarira only. The Karana-Sarira consciousness becomes your normal consciousness. Yogis havea normal Karana-Sarira consciousness. Bhaktas like Lord Gouranga, Tukaram, Tulasidasidentified themselves with their Karana Sarira and had a normal Karana-Sariraconsciousness. A Bhakta of Karana-Sarira consciousness is an occupant of Brahma Loka evenwhen living in the fleshy tabernacle. He is one with Brahman or Hiranyagarbha. He hasDivine Aisvarya; yet he has a thin ethereal body. He keeps up his individuality. Awhirlpool is one with the whole mass of the water. It has a separate existence also.Similar is the case with the Bhakta who has a life with his Karana-Sarira in Isvara.

How To Attain Samadhi Through Vedanta

Purify the mind by Japa, Pranayama, Satsanga, Svadhyaya, Dana, Yajna, Tapas andselfless service. Then fix it on God. Destroy Sankalpa-Vikalpa of the mind. Unite thecurrents of the mind with the spiritual current. Abandon the idea or notion of”I,” “he,” “thou,” Ghata (pot), Pata (cloth), i.e.,Nana-Bhava, Dvaita-Bhava. Have Brahma-Bhavana instead. Then Samadhi or superconsciousstate will supervene automatically.

There are four ways of destroying the ego or Ahankara, viz., two Advaiticmethods (positive and negative), one Bhaktas’ method of ungrudging, unreserved, absoluteself-surrender (Atmanivedana) and the fourth, complete self-sacrifice of Nishkama KarmaYogis.

The negative Vedantic method is denial: “I am not the body, I am not themind.” “Brahma satyam jaganmithya jivo brahmaiva na-aparah:-Brahman aloneis real. The world is unreal. Jiva is identical with Brahman.” World includes thebody. Meditate on this idea. Aham will vanish. The positive method is that everything isSelf only: “Sarvam khalvidam brahma-All is Brahman. There is nothing butBrahman.”

Intelligent Moderation In Sadhana
Indispensable For Samadhi

Should you hold communion with Brahman, devoid of mental fancies and modifications,then the great bondage of the mind will cease, all doubts will vanish and all Karmas willperish:

“Bhidyate hridayagranthih chhidyante sarvasamsayah
kshiyante chasya karmani tasmin drishte paravare”

The stupid bee, knowing that flowers are blossoming in a certain tree and setting outwith a terrific speed, passes it; and, in turning back, reaches it when the juice isfinished. Another stupid bee, setting out with a low speed reaches it when the juice isfinished. A clever bee, on the other hand, setting out with just the necessary speed,easily reaches the bunch of flowers, takes the juice to its heart’s content and, turningit into honey, enjoys its taste.

Similarly, among the students of surgery who are practising surgical work on alotus-leaf placed in a vessel of water, one stupid student, letting fall the knife withspeed, either cuts the lotus-leaf into two or sinks it in the water. Another stupid one,out of fear of cutting or sinking, dare not touch it with the knife. The clever one, onthe other hand, makes the stroke with the knife with uniform force, finishes his courseand earns money by doing similar work when occasion arises.

To take another instance: on an announcement from the King, “He who brings acobweb four fathoms long gets 4,000 coins,” a stupid man draws the cobweb in hasteand cuts it here and there. Another stupid man, through fear of cutting it, dare not eventouch it with his fingers. The clever man, on the other hand, rolls it from one end on astick with mild force, brings it and gets the reward.

To take a fourth instance, a stupid sailor, who goes full sail when the wind is strong,causes the boat to rush off her course. Another stupid man, who lowers the sails when thewind is low, makes the boat remain in the same place. The clever one, on the other hand,goes full sail when the wind is low and half sail when the wind is strong and reaches hisdestination in safety.

Again, when the teacher announces to his pupils, “He who fills the tube withoutspilling the oil gets the reward,” a stupid student, greedy of gain, filling withhaste, spills the oil. Another stupid one, through fear of spilling oil, dare not attemptthe task. A clever one, on the other hand, fills the tube with calm and steady force andgets the reward.

Even so, when the sign appears, an aspirant makes strong efforts, saying: “I willquickly attain Samadhi”; but, his mind, through excessive strain, becomes distractedand he is not able to attain ecstasy or Samadhi. Another person, seeing fault in excessivestrenuousness, gives up the effort, saying: “What is the use of Samadhi to menow?” His mind, through over-slackness of energy, becomes idle and he too is not ableto attain Samadhi. But, he who releases with an intelligent, calm, uniform force the mindthat is slack ever so little from slackness and the distracted mind from distraction,drives it towards the goal or Lakshya (i.e., Brahman) and attains Nirvikalpa Samadhi(Advaita-Nishtha). Become like such a one.

Be silent. Know thyself. Know That. Melt the mind in That. Truth is quite pure andsimple.

Chapter 35


Mind, through ignorance and indiscrimination, considers its false personality to betrue and thinks it is the doer of all Karmas and thus becomes egoistic. It imagines thatit is in bondage. It identifies itself with the Jivatman; it becomes Jivatman itself andtakes the responsibility upon itself for doing good or bad Karmas and enjoying orsuffering from their fruits. Hence is mind the doer of Karmas (actions) and responsibilityfor the Karmas, therefore, rests with it.

Mind is the stealer of Atman. It is a thief. Mind drags the Jivatman into Vishayas(sensual enjoyments). Jivatman is the Abhasa of Chaitanya or reflected intelligence inmind. Mind and Jivatman always live together. They cannot be separated. Slay the mind, thestealer of Atman, through Vichara, Manana and Nididhyasana (constant and profoundmeditation) on Brahman.

Mind has the potency of creating or undoing the whole world in the twinkling of an eye.Therefore, slay this mind, the slayer of Atman, whether through the destruction of Vasanas(latent subtle desires) or the control of Prana or Brahma-Vichara and Mahavakya-Chintana.The best means of disposing of this great danger of Maya involving all in pains is thedestruction of mind. With the destruction of the mind, all the three periods of timevanish into nothing. With the destruction of mind, Atman begins to dawn.

The extinction of Vasanas (Vasana-Kshaya), Manonasa (annihilation of the mind) andTattva-Jnana (understanding of the Reality), when practised together for a long time areregarded as fruitful. They should be practised at a time. So long as these three are notequally practised again and again, the Supreme Seat (Parama Pada) cannot be attained evenafter a lapse of hundreds of years. Through the practice of these three for a long time,the firm knots of the heart are cut without doubt, like the breaking of the threads in alotus-stalk rent in twain.

The Meaning Of Manonasa

Destruction of the mind does not mean annihilation of the Self. The Vedantins dividethe mind into the higher and the lower, of which the lower one leading to desires is askedto be destroyed.

Destruction of desires, annihilation of Ahankara, destruction of Sankalpa-all meancontrol of mind or annihilation of mind (Manonasa or Amanaskata). Destruction of egoism,Raga-Dvesha (attraction and repulsion for objects) and all Vasanas alone is Manonasa.Manonasa comes through the destruction of the Vasanas. Manonasa does not mean that youshould take a sword and cut the mind to pieces.

Manonasa means the death of the present form of the mind (i.e., the instinctive mind ofemotions and passions), the form which perceives differences where none exists, whichidentifies the Self with the body. Its death really means its transformation into and,therefore, the birth of cosmic consciousness.

Vast majority of persons live in Annamaya Kosha only. Their thoughts are directedtowards eating, cleansing the body and putting on neat dress. That is all. Even theso-called educated persons live in Annamaya Kosha only. Sometimes, they live in ManomayaKosha (mental sheath). A spiritual aspirant and a Vivekin live in Vijnanamaya Kosha(Buddhi sheath). The Vijnanamaya Kosha is developed by abstract thinking and reasoning, bysystematic meditation, Brahma-Chintana, study of the Upanishads, the Yogavasishtha and theBrahma-Sutras. You must all develop the Vijnanamaya Kosha by the study of Vedanticliterature and pure thinking. Then you are safe. Mind will stop to deceive and tormentyou.

Laya-Chintana Of Antahkarana

Mind is absorbed in Mahat or Buddhi. Individual Buddhi is absorbed in the CosmicBuddhi; Cosmic Buddhi in Avyakta; Avyakta in Brahman. This is the Laya-Chintana orAntahkarana or Mind.

Sambhavi Mudra, Bhrukuti-Drishti (looking at the spot midway between the two eyebrows),Nasikagra-Drishti (looking steadily at the tip of the nose), Nadanusandhana (hearing thesounds of the ear)-all belong to Laya-Yoga. By these practices the mind gets Laya soon.The Unmani state supervenes rapidly. The Unmani Avastha of Laya-Yogis corresponds to theBhava-Samadhi of Bhaktas. In Sambhavi Mudra, the eyes are open but the mind is fixed onthe Lakshya. The eyes do not see the external objects.

When the mind and senses are thinned out and eventually controlled,Karanendriya-Vyapara (the various activities of Antahkarana and senses) ceases. Jivatva(personality-notion and sensation) vanishes. Brahmatva (existence) remains. This is KevalaAsti.

The Two Kinds Of Manonasa

Manonasa is of two kinds, viz., (i) Svarupa Manonasa, destruction of the Svarupa ofmind, as in the case of the Jivanmukta and (ii) Arupa Manonasa, destruction of the veryform of the mind, as in the case of Videhamuktas, when they leave off their physicalbodies. The first is termed “destruction of the mind with form.” The second istermed “destruction of the mind without form.”

How To Bring About Manonasa

There are five ways of effecting Manahkshaya (destruction of the mind). Two are Yogicmethods. Three ways concern Jnana Yoga. (i) When a thought arises, drive it out. Say untoyourself, “Neti, Neti-not this thought, not this thought. I do not want thisthought.” (ii) Pratipaksha Bhavana-substitute a counter-idea, love for hatred,courage for fear, etc. (iii) Have Brahma-Bhavana. All Sankalpas will die. (iv) Be a Sakshiof the mind. Be indifferent (Udasina). (v) Make the enquiry, “Who am I?”constantly. All thoughts will die. For a man of Vichara (enquiry), the mind dwindles intoan airy nothing. This is easier and more effective than the “Neti, Neti” or”Pratipaksha Bhavana” method.

Sankalpa, desire, Raga, Dvesha, Ahankara and mind are the six bricks of the mansion ofJiva. They are the six links of the chain which constitutes the personality-Jiva.Destruction of one brick or one link brings about the destruction of the whole edifice orwhole chain.

Therefore, cut off daily the branches of Sankalpa from this dire tree of Manas andultimately destroy the tree of mind at its root completely. The cutting off the branchesis only secondary. The eradication of the tree by removal of ‘I’ is the primary thing.Therefore, if through virtuous actions you destroy the idea of ‘I’ which forms the veryroot of the tree of mind, then it will not spring up again.

Power, possessions, money and knowledge strengthen the Abhimana, i.e., the idea of ‘I.’They thicken the mind also. They should be given up in order to thin out the ‘I’ and themind. It is through Vairagya and Tyaga that you will have to thin out the mind. When themind becomes thread-like through the thinning process, it is termed Tanumanasi.

The mind can be controlled either through the control of Prana (Hatha Yogic method) orthe arrest of the fluctuation of the mind (Raja-Yogic method-“Yogas-chittavrittinirodhah”of Maharshi Patanjali). Control of mind leads to stoppage of breath and control of breathleads to stoppage of mind, because Prana and mind are under one Sambandha. Duringmeditation, the breathing becomes very slow. Those who practise meditation may be aware ofthis fact. This goes to show that when the mind is concentrated, Prana stops by itselfwithout any effort.

Pranayama cannot bring about Manonasa (annihilation of the mind). The Vrittis arequietened only temporarily.

Constant and pure thought of Paramatman in our heart would bring about the naturalKumbhaka and absorption of the mind in the heart, the ultimate state and the state whichthe sages long for. Absorption of the mind in itself is Eternal Bliss (Salvation). Throughdirect perception of Atman, the mind will be destroyed and will generate infinite Bliss.In such a perception, the seer, sight and the seen become one.

Manonasa And Manolaya

Manolaya is a temporary absorption of the mind in the object of meditation. When youmeditate on the form of Bhagavan Sri Krishna, the mind becomes absorbed in the form ofBhagavan Sri Krishna temporarily.

Manolaya takes place during sleep. The mind gets involved into its cause, the MulaAvidya.

Manolaya is not sufficient for attainment of Jnana. In Manolaya, the mind is prone torevive. Manolaya cannot save you from bondage. Manolaya cannot give you Mukti. It is onlyManonasa (annihilation of the lower mind) that can give you liberation. In Manonasa, themind revives not and is dead. Manonasa is brought about by Brahma-Jnana.

Chapter 36

The Mind Compared

Restless Like A Ghost

The mind is like a ghost which is restless. Once, a Brahmin Pundit, throughMantra-Siddhi, had control over a ghost. The ghost said to the Pundit, “I can do anywork for you in a minute. You must always be giving me some work. If you leave me even fora second without work, I will at once devour you.” The Brahmin agreed. The ghost duga tank for the Brahmin, ploughed the fields and did various sorts of work in a short time.He was not able to give the ghost any further work. The ghost threatened the Brahmin,”Now there is no work for me. I will devour you.” The Brahmin was quite puzzled.He did not know what to do. He went to his Guru and explained to him his whole situation.His teacher said, “O Chela, use your common-sense or Yukti (Buddhi). Install a big,stout, soft, wooden post in front of your house. Apply castor oil, wax and other greasysubstances to the post. Ask the ghost to get up and get down the whole day andnight.” The disciple acted accordingly and controlled the ghost. The ghost becamevery helpless. Even so, you must give always some kind of work or other to the mind, e.g.,Japa, meditation, Svadhyaya, service, Kirtan, prayer, Pranayama. You must keep it fullyoccupied. Then only the mind can be easily controlled. You can be established in physicaland mental Brahmacharya.

Scatters Like Mercury

The activity of the mind is compared to the mobile mercury. If you place a smallquantity of mercury on the ground, it will split into several small pieces and run invarious directions. You cannot collect them again. Even so, the rays of the mind arescattered in various directions, in sensual objects. It becomes difficult to collect thedissipated mental rays. Vairagya and Abhyasa will help in making the mind one-pointed.

Shameless As A Street Dog

The mind can be compared to the shameless, wandering street-dog with so many wounds onthe body. The dog goes to the door of a house. Someone throws a stone at it and it runsaway. It goes to another house. There also, it gets a good hitting and thrashing. Then itcomes back again to the first house wherefrom it received a pelting of stone. Someoneagain throws a big stone and it gets another wound. The dog will never leave off itswandering habit in spite of the repeated bad wounds it receives. Even so, this mind alwaysruns towards sensual objects, even though it experiences immense miseries, griefs andsorrows, pains and tribulations. It will never leave off its old habits. You will have tothrash this shameless mind and take it to its source, Brahman, by chanting OM with feelingagain and again. Let it taste the Ananda, the Infinite Bliss of Atman. Then alone it willfind its rest in OM, its original Abode of Eternal Peace.

Jumps Like A Tennis Ball

When you play tennis, the ball goes very high in the sky and the next second, it comesdown to the ground. Even so, the mind jumps high to the divine glory, dwells on Sattvicdivine virtues for a very short time in the beginning of meditation in neophytes and, atonce falls down into its old rotten grooves, nasty ruts, foul avenues, stinking channelsand dwells on useless, abominable thoughts. The developing soul, the new flame shuddersand quivers at the sight of these shocking thoughts. It does not matter; you need notworry. Just as you raise the ball again to the sky by a good, fresh cut or twist or gentlebeating, so also, you will have to raise the mind again with effort to the heights ofdivine glory and divine consciousness.

Reflects Like A Mirror

The mind of a man is compared to a mirror in which Reality (Brahman) is reflected. Theextent you know about Reality depends upon the state of your mind-whether it correspondsto the full wealth of Reality or not. Colours are not revealed to the blind nor music tothe deaf nor philosophical truths to the feeble-minded: “Nayam-atma balahinenalabhyah.” The revelation will be imperfect or distorted if there is any taint orimperfection. The selfish desires and passions get between the instrument of mind and theReality to be revealed. Hidden subtle desires (Gupta Vasanas) attack the Sadhakas(aspirants) in a variety of ways. Sadhakas should be ever watching the mind throughserious introspection. When the personality of the subject affects the nature of theinstrument, the reflection becomes blurred.

Again, if you place a big mirror in front of a dog and keep some bread in front, thedog at once barks by looking at its reflection in the mirror. It foolishly imagines thatthere is another dog. Even so, man sees his own reflection only through his mind-mirror inall persons, but foolishly imagines like the dog that they are all different from him andfights on account of hatred, malice and jealousy.

Oscillates Like A Pendulum

In a clock, the pendulum moves to the right and thence to the left. When the childrenplay on a swing, the swing moves high to one side and at once rises high to the otherside. Even so, in the case of aspirants who are not established or well settled in deepmeditation, their minds also resemble the pendulum or the swing. They sometimes think ofKarma Yoga, enter the world and do actions; while, at other times, they run to theHimalayas for leading a contemplative life. There is struggle inside whether to take upKarma Yoga or Dhyana Yoga. You must decide it once for all and be firm in practising KarmaYoga or in shutting yourself up in a room or cave for some years in the practice ofmeditation. To run for work into the world for six months and then again into the forestfor six months for meditation is no good. Decide one way or the other. Cut asunder theGordian Knot. Work till you get Chitta-Suddhi. Then meditate till you realise. This is thewisest course.

Drops Down Like A Tennis Ball

If you allow a tennis ball to drop from the highest stair-case, it will not stop at anyof the middle steps in the stair-case. It will come down to the ground floor at once. Evenso, if you do not take the proper precautions, if you mix with the worldly-minded persons,you will get a quick downfall like the tennis-ball. The mind that you elevated byspiritual practices in six or eight years will become tainted with various sorts ofimpurities. Beware, therefore, O aspirants!

Miscellaneous Comparisons

Mind is compared to a SMALL VESSEL which contains small articles, because mind alsocontains Vasanas, Trishnas, Samskaras, Vrittis, ideas, Gunas, etc.

Mind is compared to a DHARMASHALA or public resting place, because the Vrittis such aslust, greed, anger, pride, hypocrisy, egoism, etc., take their rest in the mind. Mind isDharmashala for those Vrittis.

Mind is compared to a PUBLIC ROAD. In a public road, anybody can walk. All sorts ofpeople are moving in a public road. Similarly, all sorts of thoughts are moving in thismind.

Mind is compared to the HOUSE OF A PROSTITUTE, because mind is attached to one objectthis moment, to another object the next moment, like the prostitute. It has a liking forone object at one time, for another object at another time.

Mind is compared to a DEER, because it is unsteady. It is compared to a MONKEY, becauseit jumps from one object to another. It is compared to a BIRD, because it flies like abird. It is compared to the WIND, because it is impetuous, like the wind. Mind is comparedto a Ghost, because it behaves like a devil.

Mind is compared to a CHILD, because it needs caning.

Mind is compared to an ENGINE, because it works when the food-fuel is supplied.

Mind is compared to a GARDEN. There are beautiful flowers in a garden. You cancultivate several kinds of flowers in a garden. Even so, you can cultivate the flowers ofpeace, equal vision, contentment, etc., in the garden of mind.

Mind is compared to a TEMPLE (Mano-Mandira). When the mind is purified, when the evilVrittis such as lust, greed, etc., are destroyed, the Lord takes His seat in the mind andso it becomes the temple of the Lord.

Mind is also compared to a FLOWER, because it is offered to the Lord by the devotee.

Mind is compared to REINS according to Upanishads. He who holds the mind-reins tightcan reach the abode of Bliss.

Chapter 37

Essence Of Jnana Yoga

What Is Jnana?

Tattva-jnana is the release from the trammels of one’s own mind. Such a release aloneleads to the attainment of Moksha. The mind becomes of the nature of Jnana by dint of theefforts towards spiritual direction; but becomes of the nature of the universe throughAjnana. If the mind is bathed in the water of Jnana and cleansed of all its impurities,then the shining Moksha will disclose itself in its native effulgence to those who striveafter it. The real bliss is that which arises when the mind, divested of all desiresthrough the eternal Jnana, destroys its subtle form.

The Glory Of Jnana Yoga

A Hatha Yogi starts his Sadhana with the body and Prana. A Raja Yogi starts hisspiritual practice with the mind. A Jnana Yogi starts his spiritual Sadhana with theBuddhi and Will. To be more accurate a Jnana Yogi starts directly with Brahman. He repeatsconstantly: “Aham Brahmasmi.” He who is attempting to fix the mind on Brahman isreally doing the highest Karma Yoga, highest Yajna, highest duty and highest charity. Heneed not visit Tirthas. He need not distribute charity.

Qualifications For The Student Of Jnana Yoga

A complete detachment from the outward things, the manifold objects of sense, togetherwith a capacity for metaphysical abstraction and concentration on inward things aredemanded from a spiritual aspirant or an earnest seeker after Truth. The voice of the purespirit cannot be heard till all superficial organs cease to exist.

For the aspirant in the Jnana-Yogic path, you have the Four Means of Salvation,Sadhana-Chatushtaya, in Vedantic preliminary practice. One of the four means is Shatsampat(six-fold virtues). Of these six virtues, Sama, Dama and Samadhana are really Yogicpractices to control the mind. Sama represents the Chitta-Vritti-Nirodha of Raja Yogis byVasana-Tyaga, Dama corresponds to Pratyahara. Samadhana is Ekagrata of Yogis. Yoga andJnana are the two wings of the Hamsa bird (Moksha).

Sama (calmness of mind through Vasana-Tyaga) and Dama (restraint of the Indriyas) aretwo important items of Shatsampat. Sama and Dama are really Yogic Kriyas. When thisSadhana is over, you will have to take recourse to Sravana and Manana. When you take todeep Nididhyasana, seclusion is necessary for three years.

The purification of the mind will not, by itself, bring about Brahma-Jnana. Thepurified mind is rendered fit to receive the transcendental light and Ananda. You willhave to take refuge in Sravana, Manana and Nididhyasana after purifying the mind.

Sravana, Manana and Nididhyasana (hearing of Srutis, reflection and then meditation onBrahman) are the three Vedantic processes for the attainment of Jnana(Jnanadvaita-Nishtha). This is the ladder with three rungs through which the Vedantiascends to Brahman. If you do Sravana or hearing of the Srutis once, you must do Mananaten times (reflection of what you have heard) and a hundred times or a thousand timesNididhyasana (profound and constant meditation). Then only real fruit is attained.

A man with Antarmukha Vritti, changed angle of vision, Vairagya and Mumukshutva isalone fit for the study of Vedanta and the practice of OM and Jnana Yogic contemplation.Such a man only will be really benefited. When a man gets a firm conviction that names andforms are unreal and the Adhishthana at their back is real, then it is said that his angleof vision is changed.

It is only through your dauntless energy and own indefatigable efforts that you can getBrahma-Jnana. Guru and Sastras can show you the path and remove your doubts. Anubhava ofAparoksha kind (direct, intuitive knowledge) is left for your own experience. A hungry manwill have to eat for himself. He who has a severe itching will have to scratch forhimself.

Mind And Brahman

The capacity of the mind to think exists, because it is enlightened by the Brahman orAtman shining within and it is by that the mind is capable of activity. Those who haverealised the Self say that the mind is pervaded by Brahman. “He who dwells in themind, is within the mind, whom the mind does not know, whose body is the mind, who fromwithin rules the mind is thy Self, the Inner Ruler, immortal.” (BrihadaranyakaUpanishad, III-vii-20) “That which one cannot think with the mind, but that by whichthey (wise sages) say the mind is made to think, know that alone to be Brahman” (KenaUpanishad, 5). Mind is a mere beggar. It borrows its light and intelligence from the InnerRuler, the Atman that is self-effulgent. Just as a piece of iron moves in front of amagnet, so also, this mind moves in front of the Inner Ruler. It plays, thinks, feels andimagines before the Divine Presence, just as a prime minister plays and works before thepresence of the king. The mind shines in its borrowed feathers. It appears like Chaitanya(pure consciousness). How can the mind which gropes in darkness, which changes in everyminute, which has a birth from Mahat and also death (dissolution) in Prakriti be termed aspure consciousness?

The thoughts are various and changing. Now good thoughts manifest. Five minutes later,vicious thoughts appear. The mind is very fickle and changing. It cannot, therefore, bethe changeless Atman or Kutastha-Nirvikalpa (unchanging, rock-seated) Brahman.

Jada And Chaitanya

Mind, Buddhi, Indriyas and all other things are Jada. That thing which has no knowledgeof itself and of other things also is called Jada. Brahman only is Chaitanya-Vastu.Chaitanya or Chit or Chetana is Svayamprakasha (self-luminous) and Sarva-Prakasha(illuminating everything). It illuminates the mind, Buddhi and all Indriyas internally;and externally the sun, the moon, the stars, lightning, fire, etc.

Brahman Is Chaitanya

Who sees the defects in the sun-whether it shines brightly or whether it is obscured byclouds? It is the eye. Who sees the defects in the eye whether it is a cataract or Timiraor not? It is the Buddhi (intellect). Who sees the defects in the Buddhi-whether there isconfusion or clarity in it? Who illumines the Buddhi? It is Aham (Infinite ‘I’). This Ahamis the Kutastha or Atman or Brahman, illuminator of everything.

Who illuminates in dreams? There is no other light there. The mind is notself-luminous. It is Jada. It is Brahman who illuminates the objects in the dream.

Suppose there is a blazing light at night. You stand at a distance. Something standsbetween you and the light as an obstruction and you cannot see the light. But you canclearly see the objects that are illuminated by the light. Though you cannot see the lightdirectly, you clearly conclude that there must be a big light through the perception ofthe objects. So also, there must be a self-luminous illuminator behind this Nature. Thatilluminator, the “Light of lights” (Jyotisham-api tajjyotih) is theAdhishthana (support) for this illusory world.

If you sit down and realise that you only think by virtue of the one Life and that themind, animated by the one Life into the act of thinking, is a part of the whole which isGod, then you will argue that your mind is out of existence as a separate entity and theresult is that mind and body physically (so to speak) disappear and the only thing thatremains is Being-Existence which is not explicable in words.

Brahman Is Sakshi

Raga, Dvesha, pleasure and pain, Kartritva (agency), Bhoktritva are the Dharmas of themind only. Atman is Sakshi (perceiver) and Asanga (unattached). Like a crystal (Sphatika)which, though tinged with the seven colours is yet unaffected by them, Atman too is notaffected by the actions of the mind.

The very idea of creation suggests that there must be a creator. The very idea ofmatter suggests that there must be a spirit. The very idea of changing phenomenon suggeststhat there must be an unchanging noumenon. The very idea of a changing mind suggests thatthere must be an unchanging Sakshi and controller (Niyamaka) for the mind. He is KutasthaBrahman that clearly understands everything and is a Sakshi or silent witness of the Jivaand his activities.

You are able to see the objects only. But the Sakshi or Kutastha Brahman sees the mind,its modifications, the Jivatman or reflected consciousness and the various objects of theuniverse.

Brahman Is Akhanda

Time, space and Vastu (substance) are the three categories of the mind. Every objecthas three kinds of limitations (Pariccheda). Grapes, for instance, are obtainable in acertain season only and in certain places only. So grape has got Desa-Kala-Pariccheda(limitation by space and time). It has got Vastu-Pariccheda also. You cannot find grape ina mango tree. But, the existence of Brahman or Satchidananda is free from these threekinds of Pariccheda (Trividha-Pariccheda-Rahita), because He is eternal, infinite and theessence and Adhishthana for all substances.

An Englishman is different from an Indian. There is Svajatiya Bheda. A tree isdifferent from a stone. There is Vijatiya-Bheda. There is difference between a fruit,flower and leaves in the tree. There is difference between a hand, arm, leg, foot, etc.This is Svagata-Bheda. Brahman has not got these three kinds of Bheda. There cannot beanother Brahman, because Infinity is One. So there is no Svajatiya-Bheda in Brahman. Theworld has emanated from Brahman. It is illusory. So it cannot bring Vijatiya-Bheda forBrahman. World is Brahman Himself. Sat-Chit-Ananda are not three entities. They are one.It is only Sabda-Bheda, like water, Pani, Jala. Sat is Chit. Chit is Sat. Chit is Ananda.So there is no Svagata-Bheda in Brahman. Bheda is a mental creation produced by space,colour, size, etc.

If anything is free from the three kinds of Pariccheda (limitation) of Desa, Kala,Vastu and three kinds of Bheda as described above, then it is termed Akhanda. You canascribe Akhanda-Lakshana to that substance. That Lakshana can be attributed to Brahmanonly.

Enquiry Of ‘who Am I?’

Moksha (release from the Samsaric wheel of birth and death) comes through Jnana(knowledge of Atman or God). Jnana comes through Vichara (right enquiry) of ‘Who am I?’ orunderstanding and thinking of the right essential significance of the Mahavakya, “TatTvam Asi” (Thou art That) of the Upanishads. Enquiry of ‘Who am I?’ and understandingof ‘Tat Tvam Asi’ are one and the same.

Brahma-Jnana, which enquires into the true nature of ‘I’ is the fire which destroys themind. It is the ‘Jnanagni’ referred to in the Gita (IV-37): “Jnanagnihsarvakarmani bhasmasatkurute tatha-The fire of wisdom reduces all actions (and thefalse ‘I’) to ashes.”

When any thought arises in the mind, enquire: Why has this Vritti (modification)arisen? Whom it concerns? Who am I? All the thoughts will die eventually. All mentalactivities will cease. The mind will turn inward. It will rest on Atman. This is VedanticSadhana. You will have to persist constantly in the Sadhana whatever stray thoughts arise.The one thought ‘Who am I?’ will destroy all other thoughts of worldly nature. Thatthought will die by itself. Ego will vanish. Balance left is Kevala Asti; Chinmatra;Kevala Suddha Chaitanya; Chidakasa-Matra which is Nama-Rupa-Rahita (free from all namesand forms), Vyavahararahita, Mala-Vasana-Rahita, Nishkriya, Niravayava, which isSanta-Siva-Advaita of the Mandukya Upanishad. That is Atman. That is to be known.

The Sakshi Bhava

It is the Vritti (modification in the mind) that binds you with the object. Youidentify yourself with the Vritti and, through the Vritti, with the object. That is thesecret. Be a Sakshi (silent witness to the activities of the mind) of the Vrittis of themind. There will be no longer bondage. Be the seer of the mind’s dramatic performances andbe not involved with the mind itself.

When you see a man suffering from appendicular colic, you do not feel yourself anypain. But when you get the same colic, you cry out and experience intense agony. Why?Because of egoism (Ahankara) you identify yourself with the body. If there is absence ofAhankara, you will not feel any pain. This absence of Ahankara can come only when youbecome impersonal, when you become the Sakshi, when you identify yourself with Brahman(Absolute).

“I am neither Prana nor the senses. I am quite distinct from these. I am Sakshi(witness) for these and their activities. I am Sat-Chit-Ananda Svarupa.” This aloneis sufficient for the Vedantic Nirguna meditation (formless meditation without anyattribute). At once you will be elevated to the highest pinnacle of glory. This is thebest formula.

If you have a strong Nischaya (determination) only on the above formula, it is termedParoksha Jnana (indirect knowledge of Brahman). If you have actual Anubhava throughmeditation, it is termed Aparoksha Jnana (direct intuitive knowledge of Brahman) orAtmasakshatkara.

If you go above body-consciousness, if you can abandon the body-idea and if the mindrests on Atman or the Self, then, doubtless, you are Sukhi, Santa and Mukta (happy,peaceful and free).

Mind has got a reflexive power of looking up into its own depths. A Raja Yogi developsthis power. Introspection helps to cultivate this Yogic faculty. Enter into silence nowfrom today in a dark quiet room. Watch the mind carefully. Be patient. Do not identifyyourself with the mind. Be a Sakshi or a silent witness. Separate yourself. You candirectly perceive the various mental states.

Soham Dhyana

The effort to keep the mind always concentrated on Atman or Brahman is what is calledAtma-Vichara.

Till the blissful Jnana dawns on you, you should do constant and intense Sadhana. Youmust not stop thinking of Brahman (Brahma-Chintana) even for half a second, even for thetime taken for one winking. You must become Nididhyasana-Parayana (one whose sole refugeis meditation on OM with feeling and meaning). Then only Brahma-Jnana is possible.

You will have to destroy the Jiva-Bhavana by entertaining the opposite ‘Aham Brahmasmi’Bhavana. The Jiva-Bhavana is created by the Vyavaharic Buddhi. You will have to destroythis kind of Vyavaharic Buddhi by developing the Suddha Buddhi or pure reason.

Although you see your body and the world, they really exist not. Never move a fractionof an inch from your established position in Atman. Constantly think that you are theall-pervading Atman (Chidakasa). Even if you are in the mouth of a machine-gun, repeat”Soham”-“Soham”-“Aham Brahma Asmi.” Roar like a lion. Fearcomes only when you identify yourself with this perishable, fleshy body. If you identifyyourself with the infinite, eternal immortal Atman, you will become at once absolutelyfearless. Fear is an imaginary modification of the mind of an Ajnani.

Find out your centre. Rest in your centre or equilibrium. That centre is Atman orBrahman or the One Truth that is shining in your heart from eternity to eternity. If youcan rest in your centre, neither trouble nor tribulation, neither loss nor disappointment,neither grief nor sorrow can affect you and throw you off the balance.

If you can keep yourself up in tune with the Infinite, you will have a poised andbalanced mind. Nothing can hurt you. You will be always in joy, because you areidentifying yourself with Atman. You are resting on the Highest Self. Even though Mansoorand Shams Tabriez the great Sufi Jnanis, were flayed alive, they never felt any sort ofpain. They simply uttered ‘Analhaq’ (I am He). Every drop of blood that fell down alsouttered ‘Analhaq.’ They were always in the bliss of Atman. Look at this marvel. These arethe real Jnanis. They showed their power and knowledge of Atman.

A small fishing boat is tossed about severely hither and thither even by ordinary wavesof a river. But, a big steamer remains unshaken even though violent waves dash against itwith tremendous impetuosity. Even so, a man of the world with a fickle mind is tossedabout hither and thither even by the small waves of Raga-Dvesha of the mind; whereas asaint or a Jivanmukta with a balanced and serene mind remains in the world quite steadywithout being in the least affected by the stormy waves of troubles, tribulations,miseries, afflictions, etc. He is always resting peacefully in the perpetual calm of Atmanor the Absolute Self.

Whenever you are much worried, whenever you get heavy depression, whenever you getsevere attacks of pain, think you are Atman, full of Ananda. Withdraw the mind fromobjects and worldly thoughts and fix it on Atman. Enter a solitary room and assert:”I am Anandamaya Atman. How can there be pain there? Pain belongs to the mind. It isa mental creation. I am above mind. Atman is an ocean of Ananda. Atman is a storehouse ofAnanda, power and knowledge. I feel that I am Suddha Chaitanya, all-pervadingconsciousness which is at the back of all these forms, at the back of mind. I am Atman. Iam all Ananda.” You will derive immense joy, power and exhilaration by this practice.

Strangle every thought of deficiency, imperfection, weakness, inferiority. Even if youhave nothing to eat, no cloth to wear, even if you suffer from a terrible incurabledisease, cling tenaciously to the ideas, “I am God. I am perfect. I possesseverything. All health I am. All joy I am.” Remember that to be your right mentalattitude. What you habitually think prepares a pattern which the life-processes areconstantly weaving, outpicturing in the life.

“I am that Atman or Brahman which is Eka (One), Chidakasa, Akhanda (without parts,indivisible), the Self of all beings (Sarvabhutantaratma).” Try to get established inthis Bhava with all efforts (Prayatna). Then the Chanchalata of the mind will vanish. Thenyou will get eternal bliss. You will become a Jivanmukta. There is not an atom of doubt onthis point.

Imagine that you hold the whole world in your womb, in the physical ether which isagain supported in your own Svarupa (Chinmaya) body (Chidakasa, Jnana-Vigraha). Then theideas of externality and separateness will vanish. There is nothing outside you. There isnothing outside Brahman.

Apavada-Yukti Of Vedanta

The toy-elephant made of wood has hidden the reality WOOD when you take it for anelephant. Even so, these names and forms have concealed the Reality BRAHMAN behind thesenames and forms. Get rid of the Bhranti (illusion) in the mind, that is deep-rooted fromAnadikala (beginningless time). This is wood. This is not elephant. So also this isBrahman. This is not world. This is Atman. This is not body. This is Apavada-Yukti inVedanta. Take out the balance left that is true after throwing off the false thing, viz.,elephant, wood, body, etc.

Duality is the very nature of the mind. It can never think in terms of unity. It isthrough Chitta-Suddhi and Vedantic Sadhana that it should be trained to think in terms ofunity.

Clay is the only reality in all the three periods of time. Pot is an unreal thing:”Vacharambhanam vikaro namadheyam mrittiketyeva satyam“-Clay only is thereality. The modifications such as jar, pot, etc., are in speech only like ornaments(Chhandogya Upanishad). Similarly, Brahman or Atman is the only real thing, eternal Vastuwhich has no beginning, no end, no change. The modifications, body, mind, Indriyas andworld are all totally false. They are in name only. See the clay in all earthenwarevessels. See Atman in all objects (Atma-Drishti).

The cows are different. They differ in colour and various other particulars. But, milkis the same. Man minus customs, manners, mode of dress and eating, is the same throughoutthe world. His passions and feelings are the same throughout the world. The languages aredifferent in various districts and climes, but the idea behind all languages is the same.This is oneness behind variety, duality and multiplicity. There is one essence or one Rasain sleep. All feel alike. There is no Nanabhava in sleep. Similarly, there is onehomogeneous substance behind the objects. That is Atman. That is Brahman. That is yourreal Self.

There is a coconut made of sugar only. It has got marks, lines, external shell, ridges,eyes and everything. But, you have got internal Bhava (feeling) in the mind that it isonly sugar. Similarly, even though you see the different objects of the universe, you musthave a Bhava and Nischaya (determination) of the Atman that is at the bottom of all theseobjects, which is the ultimate reality and essence of everything.

Why do you look into the leaves, twigs, flowers, fruits of the mango tree? Look intothe source, the seed. The cloth is only cotton and thread. Take the cloth as cotton only.Even so, take the world as Atman or Brahman.

When you see any person or object, think and feel that he or it is Atman or Narayana.By incessant practice, the Nama-Rupa, (name and form) will vanish. Atman or Narayana willshine. The world-idea will vanish. It takes a long time. It demands strenuous efforts. Youwill see and feel Atman or Narayana everywhere. During the course of the practice, yourold Samskaras will trouble you. They are your real enemies. Fight against them boldly.This is the practice of Samyag Jnana. You will have Samyag Darshan of Atman. You willtransmute all objects into Atman. Think and feel that all actions are Atma-Puja. Idea ofinferiority and idea of menial service will disappear as you see Narayana or Atmaneverywhere.

The Dawn Of Jnana

Just as you know the flowering of mango trees that you will get mango fruits shortly,so also you can know that you will get Abheda-Jnana (knowledge of identity of Atman andParamatman) when the flower of Santi blossoms in your mind.

Just as the six tastes-sourness, bitterness, astringency, sweetness, saltishness andpungency-are rendered full and enjoyed completely only when the Saktis of tastes and themind join together, so also the plenum (All-full Brahman) arises when all these articlesof worship as contentment, equal vision, etc., are combined with Santi (sweet patience orquiescence of mind).

Santi or peace of mind is of two kinds-Sadharana Santi (ordinary peace) and ParamaSanti (supreme peace). Ordinary Santi comes when the Vrittis (modifications in the mind)are controlled and the Vikshepa (tossing of mind) is removed. Parama Santi manifests whenyou get Jnana (Knowledge of Brahman or the Absolute).

Description Of The Jnana State

The Jnana state is a state very difficult to be comprehended. It is a tremendously highstate wherein all the Tattvas drop by themselves and Chidakasa only-like the vast,infinite ocean of ‘Vyoma’ or ‘ethereal space’ or ‘Gagana’-shines by itself. It is thestate of pure knowledge which transcends the pleasures of natural scenery and beauties.The beauties of pleasure-gardens, rivers, lakes, snow-clad mountains, green forests, etc.,are the creations of Maya. It veils our eyes and prevents us from experiencing theinfinite Sahaja (natural) beauty of Atman. The melodious music of birds is also a creationof Maya. It prevents us from hearing the natural Nada of OM-the sweetest Pranava Dhvani.That Nirvana state which transcends all nature is Jnana state.

Jnana-Mouna is that state wherein the mind remains merged in Brahman or Atman orSvarupa. In this state, there is not the slightest trace of the notion of’I.’ As there isno mental activity and as there is no doer, all the Karmas are burnt in the Jnanagni (fireof wisdom). The Jiva feels that he is entirely different from the five Koshas or sheaths,as he identifies himself with the Atman.

In Jnana (Absolute), there is neither East nor West, neither dawning nor setting,neither increase nor decrease, neither sitting nor standing, neither life nor death,neither waking consciousness nor dream state, neither talking nor lecturing, neitherthinking nor knowing, neither light nor darkness. The three-actor (Karta), action (Karma)and instrument (Karana)- will shine as one in the Self of Jnanis. What an exalted state itis! It is simply marvellous. It is wonderful. One becomes speechless. It can never beadequately described in words.

I sat on Padmasana. I meditated on Atman. I forgot myself and the surroundings. I sawsomething which I had never seen upto this time. I heard a Nada which I had never heardupto this time. There was a sensation and knowledge that I was absolutely free from allsorts of attachment. I had an experience of new knowledge. The thought of Atman continuedfor some time. I had a novel experience of pure bliss. It is a void full of Light andKnowledge and Bliss free from vicissitudes of this world.

When the Self is once recognised and realised, it can never be forgotten. Theimpression of the recognition of the Self, if once made, can never be obliterated from themind. It sticks to the mind always.


Mukti is for the mind only. Mukti is for Prakritti. It is not for the Jiva. Jiva isalready Brahman. Jiva is ever free. He is identical with Brahman. When the water dries up,the reflection of the sun in water also vanishes. Even so, when the mind-lake dries up byextirpation of all Sankalpas and Vasanas, the reflection of intelligence, Chidabhasa inthe mind-lake, also vanishes. The name Jivatman disappears. Ego goes away.

Chapter 38

The Mind In A Jivanmukta

Dehabhimane galite vijnate paramatman
Yatra yatra mano yati tatra tatra samadhayah

“With the disappearance of the attachment of the body and with the realisation ofthe Supreme Self, to whatever object the mind is directed, one experiences Samadhi.”

Amana is a Sanskrit term which means ‘without mind.’ “Amanaskata” is acondition where there is no mind. It is mindlessness. You will find this in Jivanmuktas orliberated sages.

Residual Sattva

Jivanmukta is a sage free (from the trammels of births and deaths) while living. Evenin the case of a Jivanmukta, though the instinctive mind with low desires is destroyed,the spiritual Sattvic mind does not perish. Like flowers and fruits latent in a seed, aresidue of Sattva, the cause of intelligence, rests always in the heart. If you say thathis mind is completely annihilated as soon as he attains Jnana, Jivanmukti state isimpossible. How will he be able to do Vyavahara (worldly dealings) without an instrumentviz., the mind? A Jnani identifies himself with the all-pervading Brahman and useshis mind and body as His instruments for Vyavahara (worldly activities); an Ajnaniidentifies himself with his body. There have been cases of Jivanmuktas like Raja Janakawho attained Jnana and who utilised mind and body in this manner for the well-being of thehumanity at large.

Sri Rama and Sri Krishna were ever resting on Brahman even when they were ruling theirkingdoms. They were ever very conscious of their essential Sat-Chit-Ananda Brahmic nature,even though they assumed human forms. They utilised their minds and bodies as theirinstruments when they were doing various activities.

Empirical Existence And Existence-Reality

Even this world does not disappear as absolutely as is supposed in Jivanmukti state.Empirical world, in fact, ceases to exist. But, this does not mean annihilation. It merelymeans that existence changes its form and colour, as it were, for the Absolute. It isempirical existence and not all-existence which vanishes. Existence-Reality remains, butits limited forms vanish. Externality has to go; spatial and temporal views of things mustgo; causal determination of one thing by another must go; many-ness and oneness must go.This is inevitable. But, the universe with all its reality will not go even for theliberated soul. It will merely change its form, meaning and significance. Nothing willdisappear except a false view, a limited horizon, erroneous idea and a circumscribedvision. Fact, Reality, Existence, however, will remain as fundamental as ever; but theviewpoint will change.

The mind of the Jnanis cannot be termed as a mind, but only as Tattva (Reality). Thatwhich gets differentiated through diverse objects is the mind. The mind of a Jnani, on theother hand, becomes stainless, like copper transmuted into gold by alchemic process. Themind of a Jnani is Sattva itself, while persons without Jnana will follow the path chalkedout by their minds. When a Jnani sees outside, he may simply see, but the Vritti may notassume Vishayakara as in the case of worldly-minded persons. Just as the mind is free fromany Vishayakara in deep-sleep state in all, it is free from any Vishayakara in the wakingstate also in a Jnani. The world appears to him as a mere dream. He dwells in Brahman evenwhile working. In those that have cognised their Self, the pure Vasanas with which theyperform Karmas will not entail them rebirths. The mind of such a Jnani is called Sattvic,but a mind without Jnana is generally termed Manas.

The Perfectly Balanced Mind

Now, mark the nature of the mind of a Jivanmukta. It is perfectly balanced under allcircumstances. His mind is always cool and unaffected by the Dvandvas (pairs ofopposites). His mind is free from Harsha and Soka (elation and depression). It is neitherelated by enjoyments nor depressed by sorrow and grief. Without being affected by thepleasures or pains of enjoyments though moving in them, the mind of a Jivanmukta willbecome inured to them. Through internal contentment and freedom from pains, there willarise in the Jnani an equanimity of mind in all circumstances and at all places. Even whenpains and the rest attaching themselves to his body exhibit themselves on his face, hismind never writhes under them or their antithesis. It is free from impure Vasanas. Therewill be no anger or desire. There will not arise any evil impulse of Kama in such a mind.There is not the least longing for objects. His mind is above worldly things. He is notaffected by the world. He need not have a separate room or Asana. He need not close theeyes. He need not do any Pratyahara of the senses.

A mind which, though apparently enjoying the diverse objects, does not, in reality,enjoy them, may be stated to be Brahman itself.

Dual Consciousness

An occultist learns through self-control and discipline to work on two planes at once,that is, to be partly out of his body at the same time when he is working on the physicalplane; so that, while he is writing or speaking, he may be doing other things with hisastral body. When such is the case with an occultist, little need be said of a full-blownJnani who is resting on his own Svarupa. A Jnani has dual consciousness. He hasconsciousness of Brahman as well as consciousness of the world. He sees the world as adream within himself. A Jnani is always in Samadhi. There is no ‘in Samadhi’ and ‘out ofSamadhi’ for a Jnani like that of a Raja Yogi.

When you play on the harmonium, you adjust the tune first. It may be fixed either onthe second reed or the fourth reed according to the strength and power of your voice. Thenyou begin to play on the various reeds. The Sapta Svaras are pronounced now. You can playnow various Raga-Raginis. He who is aware of the main Sruti can be compared to a Jnani whoknows the Atman or support for this universe. He who is aware of the Sapta Svara onlywithout knowing the fundamental Sruti is like an Ajnani who is unaware of the Atman, butwho has knowledge of the sense-objects only.

When you see an object with your eyes, you know that it is through the light of the sunthat you are able to see it. You have a double Drishti. Similarly, a Jnani has always adouble Drishti when he does Vyavahara. Even when he works, he knows he is not working; heis unattached. Even though he sees the world, it is all Brahman and Brahman for him.

Sama Bhava And Sama Drishti

There is a slight difference between Sama Bhava and Sama Drishti. The former is thecondition of the mind (as balanced in pleasure and pain, gain and loss, heat and cold,victory and defeat). The latter is the condition of knowledge. The Jnani sees the Atmanalone in a scavenger and a king.

When you are expecting to meet a friend of yours at the railway station, the mind triesto see him in several other persons with a like physiognomy (Sadrisya), because the mindis engrossed with the one idea of meeting a particular friend at a particular time. Themind is very eager to see him. A lustful young man sees a woman in a pillar tied with awoman’s cloth, in fact, everywhere. The mind is charged with very powerful and lustfulthoughts. A God-intoxicated man, on the contrary, sees God in a tree, a stone, boy, child,girl, cow, dog-in fact, in everything. “Sarvam khalvidam brahma.”

A Jivanmukta, though he has infinite powers, cannot express all his Siddhis through hisfinite mind.

Chapter 39

The Powers Of A Yogi

Siddhis And Riddhis

There are nine Riddhis and eight Siddhis (major) and eighteen Siddhis (minor). Theeight Siddhis are Anima (atomic size), Mahima (colossal size), Garima (excessive bulk),Laghima (extreme lightness), Prapti (attainment of whatever you desire), Prakamya(unhampered will), Isatva (lordliness) and Vasitva (control over all senses). Riddhi meansaffluence. It is inferior to Siddhi.


A Raja Yogi gets conquest over the mind (Manojaya) through Nirvikalpa or Nirbija(without seeds or Samskaras) Samadhi and, through Manojaya, gets Bhutajaya also (conquestover the five elements). Fire will not burn such a Yogi. Water will not drown him. LateTrailinga Swami of Benares who lived 80 years ago and Sri Jnanadeva of Alandi (near Poona)had various Siddhis. Sri Jnanadeva made his house move to receive Changdeva who was comingon the back of a tiger. He made the Masjid walk. Trailinga Swami used to live for sixmonths underneath the Ganga.

Knowledge Of The Past

The Yogi has got the power to plunge deep into the depths of his subconscious mindwherein the Samskaras are embedded and to have direct vision and understanding of theSamskaras of different births through his new Yogic eye. “Samskarasakshatkaranatpurvajatijnanam” (Patanjali Yoga-Sutras, III-18). He makes the Yogic Samyama(Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi) on these latent Samskaras which are only the pastexperiences in a subtler form. Thus he gets the knowledge of his past life.

Ashtavadhana And Satavadhana

An untrained mind can only see or hear at a time, but a perfected mind can see and hearat the same time. It can be linked to several organs, to one or to none. It can bemanipulated in any way the Yogi likes. It can do eight things at a time. This is calledAshtavadhana. It can do hundred things at a time. This is Satavadhana.

Separation Of Astral Body From Physical Body

A Yogi separates his astral body from the physical body, travels to different parts ofthe world, as well as to higher planes, in the twinkling of an eye and returns to thisphysical body like a bird returning to its prison of a cage. A slender thread of Pranaconnects the physical and the astral bodies. The moment he gets out of the body, the Yogisees with his astral vision his physical body as a cast-off slough. The process is a verysimple one when you know the Yogic technique of separating yourself from the physicalbody.

Psychic Siddhis-a Source Of Great Danger
To Spiritual Sadhakas

A man may have psychic powers and Siddhis through concentration of the mind. But, hemay not have mental purity. Mental purity is of paramount importance for Self-realisation.

Do not think too much of psychic Siddhis. Clairvoyance and clairaudience are not worthhaving when far greater illumination and peace are possible without the Siddhis than withthem.

Why do you care for psychic Siddhis? They are absolutely useless. Shun them ruthlesslyeven when they try to manifest. They will mislead you and cause your downfall. Beware,Lord Buddha shunned Mara (temptations and Siddhis). Try to get Brahma-Jnana. Then you willhave everything. All spiritual Siddhis will welcome you with outstretched hands. Youcannot have a downfall then.

A Jnani never cares for psychic powers, for he does not need them in his daily life.Through his Sat-Sankalpa, a Jnani does whatever a Raja Yogi does through his YogicSamyama. He simply wills. Whatever he desires, then and there it materialises.

Chapter 40

Necessity For A Guru

“Learn thou this by prostration, by investigation and by service. The wise, theseers of the essence of things, will instruct thee in wisdom.” (Gita, IV-34)

Guru or a spiritual preceptor is necessary for aspirants. Some do the practice for someyears, independently. Later on, they feel acutely the necessity for a Guru. They comeacross some obstacles on the way. They do not know how to proceed and how to obviate theseimpediments. Then they begin to search for a master. This particularly happens in Yogicpractice.

It is the duty of the Guru to set each of his disciples upon that path of spiritualdevelopment which is best suited to the Chela, one on one path, one on another, accordingto the Guru’s insight into the innate tendency of each.

Isvara is Guru of Gurus. He removes the veil of ignorance and blesses the ignorantJivas. The aspirant should regard his immediate Guru in the physical form as anincarnation of that Guru of Gurus and should have equal devotion to him also. Guru in thephysical form is the main source and embodiment of all good and happiness that can accrueto the Chela. The disciple should realise the supreme necessity of obeying the Guru’scommands and behests and keeping his faith in him unsullied and staunch.

Lay bare to your Guru the secrets of your heart; and the more you do so, the greaterthe sympathy, which means an accession of strength to you in the struggle against sin andtemptation.

Sakti-Sanchara Or Transmission Of Spiritual Power

Just as you can give an orange to a man and take it back, so also spiritual power canbe transmitted by one to another and taken back also. This method of transmittingspiritual power is termed Sakti-Sanchara. Like birds, fish and tortoise, the transmittingof spiritual power can be done by the Guru through touch or sight or willing, andthinking. The transmitter sometimes enters the astral body of the student and elevates hismind through his power. The operator makes the subject sit in front of him and asks him toclose his eyes and then transmits his spiritual power. The subject feels the electriccurrent actually passing from Muladhara Chakra higher up to the neck and top of the head.He does various Hatha Yogic Kriyas, Asanas, Pranayama, Bandhas, Mudras, etc., by himselfwithout any instruction, through inspiration. Here Prakriti works herself. The studentmust not restrain his Iccha-Sakti. He must act according to the inner light. The mind ishighly elevated. The moment the aspirant closes his eyes, meditation comes by itself.Through Sakti-Sanchara, Kundalini is awakened by the grace of the Guru in the disciple.

A spiritual teacher actually transmits his spiritual power to his disciple. A certainspiritual vibration of the Satguru is actually transferred to the mind of the disciple.Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa actually transmitted his spiritual power to Swami Vivekananda.Lord Jesus did the same to his disciples. This is Master’s spiritual touch. A disciple ofSamartha Ramdas transmitted his power to that dancing girl’s daughter who was verypassionate towards him. The disciple gazed at her and gave her Samadhi. Her passionvanished. She became very religious and spiritual. Mukund Rai, a Maharashtra saint, putthe Badshah in Samadhi.

By the Guru’s Grace, the devotee attains the eight-stepped Yoga (Ashtanga Yoga); by theGrace of Lord Siva, he attains perfection in Yoga which is eternal.

Chapter 41

Hints To Aspirants

Aspirants to Yoga are classified into three degrees: (1) Arurukshu, one who isattempting to climb the steps of Yoga, (2) Yunjana, one who is busily engaged in thepractice of Yoga and (3) Yogarudha, one who has already reached the height of Yoga.

Indispensability Of Inner Purity

Aspirants are very eager for realisation. But, when that realisation actually comes,they begin to tremble, to quiver. They cannot bear the illuminating blaze of God. They areso puny, impure and weak that they cannot face the mighty brilliance and divine splendour.They have not prepared the vessel to hold on the Divine Light. Mark how Arjuna trembledwith fear at the huge cosmic vision of Virat and prayed to Lord Krishna to show him againthe usual form with four hands which represents harmony, perfection, power and wisdom.

It is difficult to speak about Brahman. It is still more difficult to understand. It isyet still more difficult to practise spiritual Sadhana. This corresponds to the Gita’steaching, Chapter II-29:

“As marvellous one regardeth Him, as marvellous one speaketh thereof, asmarvellous one heareth thereof; yet, having heard, none indeed understood.”

It demands a subtle, pure, clear mind, determined will, patience, perseverance andUtsaha (cheerfulness) for the realisation of Brahman.

Vital Need For Moral Strength And Courage

A spiritual aspirant will have to face boldly misrepresentation, calumny andmisunderstanding. That has always been the lot of those who tried to raise themselvesabove their fellows. Moral strength and courage are necessary to meet that and to enablethat man to maintain his position and what he thinks right, whatever those around him maythink or say or do. People will despise and persecute you. You will have to stand boldlyon your moral footing to live for your own convictions. As aspirant who has outgrown therules of society should act according to the dictates of his pure conscience and purereason. Then alone he can grow spiritually.

When anyone rises to fame and power, enemies come in by themselves. Even SriSankaracharya had many enemies. Even Sannyasins who live in forests have enemies. Jealousand petty-minded men create various sorts of mischief against people who are prosperousand famous. Have Sakshi-Bhava (feeling of witness) and rise above the idea of friend orfoe. Become an Udasina (indifferent man). Develop the power of endurance. Bear insult,injury with a cool mind. Then only you can be happy in this world.

There are as many spiritual Sadhanas as there are individual minds. What suits one mindmay not suit another. Raja Yoga will be easy for one mind, while Jnana Yoga will be easyfor another. One form of Tapas may suit one mind. A different kind of Tapas will suitanother.

Daily Spiritual Routine

Here is a daily spiritual routine for whole-time aspirants. Those who work in officesand business-houses can adjust and make necessary alterations according to theirconvenience and time at their disposal.

Japa and Meditation         Morning … 4 hours
Night                                            … 4 hrs
Svadhyaya (study)                        … 3 hrs
Interview (if need be)                    … 1 hr
Asana and Pranayama     Morning … 1 hr
Night                                           … 1 hr
Walking                                       … 1 hr
Sleep                                           … 5 hrs
Service                                        … 1.5 hrs
Bath, etc.                                     … 1 hr
Food                                           … 1 hr
Rest                                            … 0.5 hr
                                                       24 hrs

A Slightly Different Schedule

It is difficult in the beginning to fix the mind on God all the twenty-four hours. Assoon as meditation is over, the mind will begin to wander, will try its level best to haveits old habits. What are you going to do to check its habits? You must give anotherSattvic object for its grasp. It wants variety. Now, study philosophical books for somehours. As soon as study is over, take down notes on what you have studied. You can devotesome time in this direction. This will serve to relax the mind. This will form a mentalrecreation. You can spend some time in serving poor, sick persons, according to yourcapacity. I give below a time-table for your daily routine:

Meditation                … 8 hours
Study                        … 4 hrs
Writing                     … 2 hrs
Service                     … 2 hrs
Food, bath, exercise  … 2 hrs
Sleep                       … 6 hrs
                                   24 hrs

The most impious of men can, by earnestly devoting himself to God, reach the highestBliss. “Even if the most sinful worship Me, with undivided heart, he too must beaccounted righteous, for he hath rightly resolved” (Gita, IX-30). “Pratijanihina me bhaktah pranasyati-Know thou for certain that My devotee perisheth not” (Gita,IX-31). What reason, then, is there for despair? Therefore, be up and doing. God willsurely crown your efforts with success. Even the vilest of us shall obtain Moksha.

Om purnamadah purnamidam purnat purnamudachyate
Purnasya purnam-adaya purnam-eva-vasishyate

Om Santih Santih Santih


Hari Om Tat Sat


To The Mind

Thy Life-History

O Mind; O Maya’s child!
You always want a form
To lean upon;
You have two forms-
Suddha Manas, pure mind,
Asuddha Manas, impure mind.
Time, space and causation
Are thy categories.
You work through
The law of association;
You think, feel and know.

You are Atma-Sakti.
You are Manomaya Kosha.
You are like a mirror;
Brahman is reflected on you.
You are compared to a tree:
Ego is the seed of this tree,
Sankalpas are the branches,
Buddhi is the first sprout.

You have another three forms
The conscious mind,
The subconscious mind,
And the superconscious mind.
You are made up of
The subtlest form of food.
You are a bundle of habits,
Samskaras and Vasanas.

You are fourfold:
Manas does Sankalpa-Vikalpa,
Buddhi determines,
Chitta executes,
Ahankara self-arrogates.
Chitta comes under mind,
Buddhi comes under Ahankara.
It is all Vritti-Bheda.

Thy Birth

Thy father, Supreme Brahman,
Felt loneliness once.
He was alone,
One without a second.
He wanted to multiply;
He thought,
“May I become many.”
There was a vibration or Spandan
In thy mother, Maya,
The undifferentiated,
The unmanifested;
The equilibrium was disturbed.
You were born at once.
Thy body was made of pure Sattva;
You were known by the name ‘Manas’.
The Lord ordained you to do four functions;
So you became fourfold-
Manas, Chitta, Buddhi, Ahankara.
You separated yourself from the Lord
Through self-arrogating ‘I’.
You indulged in sensual objects
In company with the senses
And forgot thy divine origin.
You became attached to sons, wife,
Property, names, titles and honours;
You became quite worldly.
You identified yourself with the body,
Sons, wife, house and property
Through Avidya or ignorance.
This is the cause for your downfall
And all sorts of miseries and sufferings.
This is, in short, your life-history.
Give up attachments
And identification with the body.
Annihilate ignorance
By attaining Brahma-Jnana;
You can become one with Brahman
And regain thy divine nature.

Thy Abode

O wandering Mind!
You have three abodes.
In the waking state,
Your abode is the right eye
And the brain;
In the dreaming state,
You rest in the Hita Nadi
Of the throat;
In the deep sleep state
You rest in the Puritat Nadi
In the heart.
According to the Hatha Yogins,
Ajna Chakra is thy seat.
You can be easily controlled
If one concentrates on the Ajna.
Aspirants know now
Thy resting places;
They will surely attain you
And drive you out ruthlessly.
Vacate these dwelling houses
And go back to your original home,
The “Omkar Bhavan”
In the limitless Brahmapuri.

Thy Nature

You are compared to quicksilver,
Because your rays are scattered.
You are compared to a deer,
Because you are unsteady.

You are compared to a monkey,
Because you jump from
One object to another.
You are compared to a bird,
Because you fly like a bird.

You are compared to a ghost,
Because you behave like a devil.
You are compared to wind
Because you are impetuous
Like the wind.

You are compared to an engine,
Because you work
When the food-fuel is supplied.

You are compared to a child,
Because you need caning.
You are compared to the reins
In the Kathopanishad;
He who holds the mind-reins tight
Can reach the Abode of Bliss.

You are compared to a dog
That strolls in the streets.
You are compared to a flower,
Because a devotee offers you to the Lord;
This is the only good compliment for you.

Thy Thick Friends

O Mind! O Enemy of Peace!
Thy friends are many.
They help you
In a variety of ways.
So you are very strong.
Ahankara is your best friend;
He is very powerful too;
He is thy commander general.
Lust is your thick chum;
He is your right hand;
He lives with you always;
He is your constant companion;
You are attached to him.
Anger is your amiable friend;
He is your war-minister;
He is your left hand;
He assists you very much.
Raga-Dvesha are your
Intimate acquaintances;
They are very dear to you;
They render you great service.
Greed is your best friend;
He follows you
Like your shadow;
He is your obedient servant.
Pride feeds you;
Hypocrisy ministers you;
Moha counsels you;
Jealousy inspires you;
Cunningness vivifies you;
He is thy propaganda minister.
Crookedness energises you;
Arrogance fattens you;
Deceit rejuvenates you.

Thy Enemies

O Mind, why do you tremble?
Show your strength now.
You cannot stand now.
Surrender yourself
Or you will be killed.
You shudder
When you hear the words
“Vairagya,” “Tyaga,” “Sannyasa,”
“Satsanga,” “Sadhana,” “Yoga.”
Vairagya is your dire enemy;
It is an axe to cut you.
Renunciation is a sword
To cut your throat.
Sannyasa is an atom bomb
To reduce you to ashes.
Meditation will roast you.
Samadhi will fry you.
Take to your heels, O Mind;
Run away at once,
Get thee gone.
Tarry not; stop thy havoc.
You will be crushed now.
Your teeth will be extracted.
You will be blown out.
You will be smashed.
Japa and Kirtan also
Have joined the forces.
Pranayama is working hard.
Vichara is fiery.
Viveka is persevering.
There is not the least hope for you.
Go back to your original home
And rest peacefully.

Thy Tricks

O Mind! O Wanderer!
In this dire Samsara,
I have found out thy tricks;
You cannot delude me now.
You tempt the worldlings
Through imagination.
You produce intoxication
And turbulence of the mind.
You put on a veil also.
There is nothing in the objects;
And yet you make the people
Believe there is great pleasure
In the sensual objects.
You cause forgetfulness in people.
You cause perversions
Of the intellect.
You tantalise, tempt and enchant.
You cause disgust in monotony.
You always want variety.
You excite the emotions.
You play through instincts.
You agitate the senses.
You destroy discrimination.
Attachment, affection,
Praise, respect, name and fame
Are thy tempting baits.
O Mind! I cannot live with you;
I cannot tolerate now your company.
You are a traitor, diplomat.
You are treacherous.
You cannot play with me now.
Enough, enough of thy tricks.
I am a Viveki.
I will rest in Brahman.
I will ever be blissful.

Thy Secrets

O Mind! O Slayer of Atman!
I know thy secrets now.
You have no real existence.
You appear like a mirage.
You borrow your power
From the Brahman, the substratum.
You are only Jada,
But appear to be intelligent.
You lurk like a thief,
When thy nature is found out;
You are definitely pleased,
When you are coaxed;
You hiss and raise your hood,
When you are directly attacked.
You can be easily attacked
Through Pratipaksha-Bhavana method.
You keep the Samskaras
In the subconscious;
This is your strength,
This is your strong fortress.
You emerge out of your fort
And attack the Jiva again and again
And then hide yourself
In the subconscious.

You play with the Gunas.
You have three colours-
White, red and black.
When you are Sattvic,
You are white;
When you are Rajasic,
You are red;
When you are Tamasic,
You are black.

Vasanas and Sankalpas
Are your vital forces;
You exist
On account of them.
You are nowhere
If these are destroyed;
I will subdue you now
And attain Eternal Bliss.

Thy Blunder

O Mind! Thy glory is indescribable.
Thy essential nature is all-bliss.
Thou art born of Sattva.
Thou art pure like crystal and snow.
Thy powers are ineffable.
Thou canst do anything.
Thou canst do and undo things.

Thou hast spoiled thyself
In company with Rajas and Tamas,
In friendship with the senses and objects.
Thou hast forgotten all about thy divine nature.
Bad company has tainted you.
The evil Vrittis have degraded you.

You were tempted once by lust;
You have become a slave of lust now.
You were very quiet, calm and serene;
Desires have made you restless now.
You were very near the Supreme Lord once;
Worldliness has blinded thy heart
And taken you away from the Lord.

Keep company with saints and sages;
Shun the company of Rajas, Tamas and senses.
Free yourself from the taint of desires.
You can regain your original position;
You can reach your original sweet home.

Thy Weakness

O Mind! You are the greatest fool on this earth!
You are dull, stupid and obstinate;
You never heard the words of the wise;
You have your own foolish ways;
You do not wish to attend Satsanga of saints;
You dislike, hate, speak ill of Mahatmas;
You belong to the dregs of the society;
You always like to revel in filth.

You never find out your own faults,
But you magnify the faults of others;
You even superimpose Doshas on them.
You never like to hear the praise of others;
You want to glorify yourself only;
You hide cleverly your own faults.
You never think of the glorious feet of the Lord,
But you think of all sorts of rubbish things.

You know you can get Supreme Bliss
Through meditation on the Supreme Lord;
And yet you wander here and there
Like the strolling street-dog.
I rebuked you, scolded you;
I reprimanded you;
I gave you admonitions;
And yet you stick to your own ways.

Thy Powers

O Mind! you are not weak.
You are not impotent
You are not a beggar.
You are not a slave of objects.
You are not impure.
You are not a clerk.
You are not poor.

You are omnipotent.
You are Light of lights.
You are Sun of suns.
You are King of kings.
The whole wealth of the Lord belongs to you.
You are the nectar’s son.
You are the child of Immortality.
You are Amrita Putra.

You are purity itself.
You are strength itself.
You are fountain of joy.

You are ocean of bliss.
You are pool of immortality.
You are river of felicity.
You are the abode of peace.
You are sweet harmony.
Restlessness is not thy nature.
You have clairvoyance.
Ashta Siddhis are yours.
Nava Riddhis are thine.
Powers of judgment,
Discrimination, Vichara,
Reflection, meditation,
Thought-reading, telepathy,
Are all yours only.

Brahmakara Vritti
Rises from you alone.
The door of intuition is in you.
The key of knowledge is with you.
Thou art the Lord of lords.

Way To Bliss

O Mind!
I shall show you the way
To Eternal Bliss.
March in the way boldly
And go direct to the abode.

Do not think of objects any more.
Do not keep company with the senses.
Free yourself from Rajas and Tamas.
Kill Vasanas and cravings.
Give up ‘mine-ness’ and ‘I-ness’.
Let thy conduct be pure.
Let thy behaviour be noble.
Let thy Nishtha be steady.

Be firm in your resolves.
Cultivate virtuous qualities.
Stick to daily spiritual routine.
Keep daily spiritual diary.
Follow the “Twenty Instructions.”
Write Mantra for two hours daily.
Be truthful and non-violent.
Do 200 Malas of Japa.
Do Kirtan daily for one hour.
Study Gita and Bhagavata,
Upanishads and Yoga Vasishtha.
Fast on Ekadasi.
Take simple, Sattvic diet.
Be moderate in everything.

Have Saguna realisation first.
This will enable you
To equip yourself with the “Four Means”
And to attain Nirguna realisation.
Bhakti alone will give you Jnana.

Glory Of Divine Life

O Mind! Just hear
The glory of the Divine Life.
You will love it immensely;
You will rejoice and dance.
The glory of Divine Life
Is the glory of the father,
Thy creator, thy master,
Thy source and support.
You will be ever peaceful.
You will be always blissful.
You will be one with the Lord.
No cares, worries and anxieties
Will affect you.
You will not be touched
By hunger and thirst.

You will be free from fear,
Fatigue and disease.
No enemies will attach you.
Atomic bomb cannot touch you.
Heat will not torment you.
Cold will not benumb you.
You will sleep soundly.
You will enjoy sleepless sleep.
You will experience Samadhi.
No bugs, no scorpions, no snakes,
No mosquitoes are there.
You will drink the nectar
Of Immortality.

No floods, no earthquake,
No epidemics are there.
There is no communal strife there.
There is no hooliganism.
There is no riot or strike there.

Rivers of honey flow there.
You will enjoy the celestial manna
And all divine Aisvarya.
You will feel oneness
With the Supreme Lord.
You will never be reborn
In the terrestrial plane.
You will become Immortal.

Drink The Nectar Of Name

O dull Mind!
Throw away laziness.
Meditate upon Lord Hari.
Drink, O Mind,
That immortal Elixir
Of Lord Hari’s Name,
The joy of the devotees,
The medicine that destroys
The fear of Samsara
And all delusion in man.

Drink, O Mind,
The Divine Medicine
Of Sri Krishna’s Name,
That excites the flow
Of divine ecstasy,
That awakens Kundalini
And makes it rise
In the Sushumna Nadi,
That helps the flow of nectar
From the Sahasrara.
Drink, O Mind,
The Amrita of Vishnu’s Name.
There is no better Elixir
Than the nectar of
The remembrance of Lord’s Name.
The Name will take you
To the other shore-
Of fearlessness and immortality.


O Mind! Drink thou
The nectar of Lord’s holy Name.
Shun evil company.
Abandon tea, liquor and smoking.
Give up tobacco, costly dress.
Wear simple clothing.
Have plain living
And high thinking.
Associate with the saints,
Devotees and sages.
Hear thou Lord’s discourses.
Drive lust, anger and greed.
Keep thy abode holy.
Then only the Lord
Will dwell in ‘Mano-Mandir’,
Temple of Mind.
A pure mind
Is the house of love.
Remove the seeds
Of jealousy and pride
Then only my King
Will dwell in you,
Light the light of love
And illumine His palace.

Serve The Saints

O Murkha Mind!
You can’t expect
An iota of happiness
In sensual objects.
Give up all vain hopes
If you still hope.
It is like trying
To get butter
By churning water.
It is like the attempt
Of the Chatak bird
To get water from the smoke;
Its eyes will be spoiled.
It is like the attempt
To drink water
In the mirage;
Or to get silver
From the mother of pearl.
Think of the feet of Hari.
Recite His Name.
Live in the company
Of saints and Bhaktas.
Do regular Kirtan.
Meditate on His form.
Serve the saints.
You will enjoy bliss.


O Mind! Devotion’s path and devotees’ company take;
Then Sri Hari will in thy inner Self, His sacred abode make.
Give up forever all abuse of man or beast;
Love and praise all, greatest as well as least.
At early dawn, O Mind, think intently on Ram;
Then soft, yet audible, chant Ram’s sweet Name.
Right conduct, the supreme good, never a moment renounce;
The righteous one, all mankind on earth, most blessed pronounce.

O Mind! Vasanas wicked do thou never have.
Likewise, O Mind, sinful mentality never have.
O Mind! Ethics and morality, never leave;
And ever inwardly the essence of truth perceive.
O Mind! thou shouldst all sinful intent abandon;
Cling throughout life to pure and sincere intention.
Give up imagination vain of sensual pleasure;
Such indulgence brings on life-long shame and endless censure.

Never have, O Mind, this anger, so fraught with untold harm;
Never foul desire with all its variegated charm.
Never into thyself, the least access give,
To pride and to jealousy as long as you live.
A lofty ideal in life you shouldst conceive,
All the abuse of the world with forbearance receive.
Thyself shouldst always observe sweetness of speech,
For sweetness, the inmost heart of mankind doth reach.
Perform, O Mind, such actions just, noble and pure,
That, after demise, tend forever to make thy fame endure.
In selfless service wear thyself like sandal-wood;
In inmost heart do thou pray for universal good.
O Mind! Earthly wealth and treasures do not covet;
Selfishness of nature, O Mind, most ruthlessly reject.
Greed of mind, when unfulfilled, great sorrow brings;
Sinful acts, the heart later on with sharp remorse wrings.
Ever and anon on the Divine Lord let pour thy love,
To vicissitudes of life calmly and fearlessly bow.
Pains of physical form as mere trifles regard,
For, in essential nature, thou art nature’s overlord.

Rest At The Feet Of Hari

O Mind! You have all along been
In the habit of thinking
That wife, children and bungalows
Are your great possessions.
You have failed to bow
Before the Supreme Lord and saints.
Rest, my Mind, rest at the feet of Hari.
O Mind! Surely this body will drop down.
Every moment life is shortening;
The Serpent of Time is swallowing.
The Prana will depart at any moment.
You are happy-go-lucky and playful.
You are silly and stupid.
O Mind! Thou art blind.
You see only this vanity of things.
You do not see the great end drawing near.
Death is creeping in silently.
Wake up, O Mind,
From thy slumber of ignorance
And think of the all-merciful Hari.
There is no hope for thee
Except through the glorious Hari.
Break through the illusion
And take refuge in Hari.
Then alone you are blessed.
Thus sayeth Sivananda.

Why Do You Forget?

O Mind! You are still under delusion,
Even after doing some Sadhana
And enjoying the Satsanga of great souls.
Why do you, O Mind, forget
That this world is a manifestation of Lord Hari?
Why do you become angry,
Although you know
That all are forms of Lord Hari?
Why do you offer stale plantains to Hari,
Who feeds the whole world
With all kinds of food?
How vainly do you offer to the Lord
Sweetmeats, fruits and Shundal!
Feed Him with the nectar of devotion
And be happy forever.

Sacrifice The Passions

O Mind, why art thou so anxious?
Abandon all anxieties.
Repeat Lord Hari’s Name.
Sit in meditation in a quiet place.
Worship the Lord in secret
So that none may know.
You will become proud
From all pomp of worship.
Why do you sacrifice animals?
Sacrifice egoism, Raga-Dvesha
And the sex-passions.
What need is there for drums,
Bells and tom-toms?
Clap your hands
And lay your mind at His feet.
Why do you endeavour to illumine Him
With lamp, petromax and candle?
Light the jewelled lamp of the Mind.
Let is flash its lustre day and night.

To The Mind And Senses-i

O Mind! You are a fool. You have dragged me in the avenues of senses and broughtdisgrace on me.

I will not keep company with you in future.

You are playing truant. You are a mischievous monkey. You are a strolling street-dog.You are a pig who revels in filth. You are a vile wretch. You are a vagabond.

You are born of Ananda (bliss). Your parentage is very high. Your father is Brahman orthe Absolute. You are born in a very exalted, reputed and cultured family and yet you havedegraded yourself and me also by your useless company. Your mother Maya also is born in avery high family. She is the wife of Brahman.

Your very Svabhava is to run towards external, sensual objects. Just as the water runsdownwards without any effort by its very nature, so also you run by your very naturetowards perishable mundane things. You get knocks, blows and kicks and yet you repeat thesame old things. You have become like a habitual, old criminal. Any amount of advice andadmonition has not done you any good nor reformed your nature and character. Fie on thee!

Now I will totally disconnect myself from you. I will leave you alone. You can do justas you please. Good-bye unto you! I am going back to my original Supreme Abode ofImmortality and Eternal Bliss (Param Dhama).

O Ear! You also have been spoiled by your company with the mind. You do take immensedelight in hearing the censure of others and all sorts of news of the world, but you donot take so much delight in hearing the Lilas of the Lord and the Kirtan, religiousdiscourses and sermons.

O Eye! You have no interest in looking at the picture of the Lord, images of God intemples, saints and Mahatmas; but you are wholly absorbed in looking at women.

O Nose! You are highly pleased in smelling the odour of scents, lavender, etc.; but youdo not evince any interest in smelling the sweet fragrance of the flowers etc., offered tothe Lord.

O Tongue! You dance in joy in eating sweet-meats, fruits and all other palatabledishes; but there is no joy for you in taking Charanamrita and Prasad of the Lord intemples.

O Skin! You rejoice in touching women and other soft things; but you do not experiencehappiness in touching the feet of the Lord and the saints.

O Vak-Indriya! You daily talk all sorts of non-sense. You take delight in abusingothers, in scandal-mongering and backbiting; but you do not feel any joy in singing Lord’sName and doing Japa and studying the Gita and other holy scriptures.

O Hands! You are highly pleased in taking bribes, in beating others, in stealingothers’ properties, in touching women; but you do not rejoice in doing charity, in servingthe poor people and Sadhus, in doing worship of the Lord and offering flowers to Him.

O Feet! You take delight in going to cinemas, clubs, restaurants, hotels; but you donot find happiness in going to places of pilgrimage, temples and Ashrams.

O Senses! Behave properly in future. This is the last chance for you. Improveyourselves and get a good name. If you live for the Lord and serve Him, you will be everhappy. All miseries will come to an end.

Good-bye unto you all!

To The Mind And Senses-ii

O Mind!
Always think of Lord Narayana.
Repeat Hari’s Name.
Meditate on His form with four hands.
Fix yourself at His lotus-feet.

O Tongue!
Always sing Achyuta’s Name and glory.
Do Kirtan and Bhajan.
Take His Prasad and Charanamrita.

O Ears!
Hear the Lilas of Kesava
And Hari Kirtan.

O Eyes!
Behold the image of Mukunda.

O Nose!
Smell the Tulasi leaves and flowers
That have been used in the worship of
Sri Krishna.

O Hands!
Offer flowers to Govinda.
Wave lights to Sri Rama.
Sweep the temple.
Clean the lights in the temple.
Bring flowers and Tulasi for worship.
Do charity and do service,
In worship of Panduranga.

O Feet!
Do Pradakshina around the temple.
Go on pilgrimage to temples of Vishnu.

O Body!
Serve the Bhaktas, saints and the Guru.
Serve the poor and the sick.

Prayer To The Lord

O Lord of compassion!
Just hear my prayer.
The mind is very mischievous.
It is very turbulent.
It is disobedient.
I scolded the mind.
I gave him admonitions.
I gave him good counsels.
But he has his own ways.
I told the mind clearly
Not to take Laddu
When there is diarrhoea.
He said, ‘Very well’
Like the lady in labour pains.
But he eats Laddu again!
I told the mind
Not to speak ill of others.
But he never leaves this habit!
I again and again told the mind
Not to become angry.
But he becomes annoyed
For trifling things!
I cannot control the mind.
Thou art the Indweller
And prompter of the mind.
You alone can control him,
Please do this for me.


Psychic Influence


In common parlance when one says that Dr. Tagore has a good personality, he means thatDr. Tagore has a strong, stalwart, tall figure, a beautiful complexion, a fine nose, sharpand lustrous eyes, broad chest, a muscular body, symmetrical limbs, curly hair and so on.That which distinguishes one man from another is personality. In reality, personality issomething more than this. It includes a man’s character, intelligence, noble qualities,moral conduct, intellectual attainments, certain striking faculties, special traits orcharacteristics, sweet powerful voice, etc. All these things put together constitute thepersonality of Mr. So and so. The sum total of all these things makes up the personalityof a man. Mere physical characteristics cannot make up the personality.

What you call an umbrella is really a long stick plus a black cloth and some thin ironpieces. Similarly, what you call ‘personality’ is really the external physical body, plusbrain and the nervous system and the mind which has its seat in the brain.

If one man is able to influence many people, we say that such and such a man has amagnetic personality. A full-blown Yogi or Jnani is the greatest personality in the world.He may be of a small stature. He may be ugly also. He may be clad in rags. And yet he is amighty personality, a great Mahatma. People flock to him in thousands and pay homage tohim. A man who has attained ethical perfection by the continued practice of right conductor Yama and Niyama has also got a magnetic personality. He can influence millions. But heis inferior to a Jnani or a Yogi who has got full knowledge of the Self.

Dr. Samuel Johnson had an awkward figure, a pot belly and unsymmetrical limbs. But hewas the greatest personality of the age. He was neither a Yogi nor a Jnani. But he hadintellectual attainments. He was a great essayist. He had good command of the Englishlanguage. He was famous for his bombastic style. It was called Johnsonian English. Justhear some of his lines: “Will you be kind enough to allow my digits into yourodoriferous concavity and extract therefrom some of the pulverised atoms which, ascendingmy nasal promontory, cause a great titillation of all my olfactory nerves?”

Rich people also have some personality. This is due to the ‘Money-power’. They may belicentious. Money has its own share in the making up of the personality of man. It infusesin him a sort of colouring. The charitable nature may cover up their licentious nature andmay send some fragrance abroad. People flock to them. Lord Jesus says: “Charitycovereth a multitude of sins.”

Character gives a strong personality to man. People respect a man who has a goodcharacter. Moral people command respect everywhere. He who is honest, sincere, truthful,kind and liberal-hearted always commands respect and influence at the hands of people.Sattvic virtues make a man divine. He who speaks truth and practises Brahmacharya becomesa great and dynamic personality. Even if he speaks a word, there is power in it and peopleare magnetised. Character-building is of paramount importance if a man wants to develophis personality. Brahmacharya is the root of a magnetic personality. No development of astrong personality is possible without celibacy.

Personality can be developed. Practice of virtues is indispensable. One should try tobe always cheerful. A morose, gloomy man cannot attract and influence people. He is aninfectious parasite amidst society. He spreads gloom everywhere. A man of a jolly naturewith the spirit of service, with humility and obedience can influence millions. The law of”like attracts like” operates in the physical and mental planes. A man of strongpersonality need not send invitations to people. Just as bees come and perch as soon asflowers blossoms, so also people of lesser mind are attracted to men of strongpersonality, of their own accord.

A powerful, sweet voice, knowledge of music, knowledge of astrology, astronomy,palmistry, art, etc., add to the personality of man. One should know how to behave andadjust himself with other people. You must talk sweetly and gently. This produces atremendous impression. You must be polite, civil, courteous. You must treat others withrespect and consideration. He who gives respect to others gets respect. Humility bringsrespect by itself. Humility is a virtue that subdues the hearts of others. A man ofhumility is a powerful magnet or loadstone.

You must know the ways to approach people. You must know how to talk with them and howto behave towards them. Behaviour is most important. An arrogant, stubborn and self-willedman can never become a man of strong personality. He is disliked by all.

Develop joyful nature. Always keep a smiling and cheerful face. This will give you agood personality. People will like you much. Your superiors will be very much pleased.Have an amiable nature, a modest and unassuming temperament. You will succeed in yourinterviews with all big guns. Take down notes of what you want to speak with them in thecourse of the interview. Keep a small memorandum slip in your pocket. Remember the pointswell and talk slowly and gently. Then the man will patiently hear. Do not be agitated inyour talks. Do not become nervous. Be bold. Pay respects with sincerity as soon as you seethe person. Do not stand erect like the proverbial man who holds the gas-light in amarriage procession. Gently bow your head with feeling. The man will be immensely pleased.He will be glad to receive you with a depth of feeling and you will get success in yourinterview. Talk about the important points first and just review in your mind whether youhave finished all the eight points you wanted to talk. In the West, people care forpersonality. In India, people care for individuality and assert: “AhamAsmi”-which means “I exist.” They try to destroy the personality to realisethe Self.

Endeavour to possess a magnetic personality. Try to possess that strange and mysteriouspower, personal magnetism which charms and fascinates people. Understand the secrets ofpersonal influence. Develop your will-power. Conserve all leaking energy. Enjoy robust,blooming health and a high standard of vigour and vitality and achieve social andfinancial success in every walk of life. If you can understand the amazing secrets ofpersonal influence, you can increase the earning capacity and can have a broader andhappier life.

A strong personality is a very valuable asset for you. You can develop it if you will.”Where there is a will there is a way” is a maxim which is as true today as itwas from the time of Adam. Win laurels of name and fame and attain success in life througha dynamic personality. You can do it. You must do it. You know the science now. I shallback you up.

Power Of Suggestions

You should have a clear understanding of suggestions and their effects upon the mind.You should be careful in the use of suggestion. Never give wrong suggestion which willhave destructive results to anybody. You will be doing a great harm and a disservice tohim. Think well before you speak. Teachers and professors should have a thorough knowledgeof the Science of Suggestion and Auto-suggestion. Then they can educate and elevatestudents in an efficient manner. In Southern India, when children cry out in houses,parents frighten them by saying: “Look here, Balu! Irendukannan has come. (Thetwo-eyed man has come.) Keep quiet. Or I will hand you over to this man.””Puchandi (or ghost) has come” and suggestions of this sort are verydestructive. The child becomes timid. The minds of children are elastic, tender andpliable. Samskaras are indelibly impressed at this age. Changing or obliterating theSamskaras becomes impossible when they grow. When the child grows into a man, he manifeststimidity. Parents should infuse courage into the minds of their children. They should say:”Here is a lion. See the lion in this picture. Roar like a lion. Be courageous. Seethe picture of Shivaji, Arjuna or Clive. Become chivalrous.” In the West, teachersshow the pictures of battlefields to children and say: “Look here, James! See thispicture of Napoleon. Look at his cavalry. Won’t you like to become a Commander-in-Chief ofthe army or a Brigadier-General?” They infuse courage into the minds of children fromtheir very childhood. When they grow, these Samskaras get strengthened by additionalexternal stimuli.

Doctors should have a thorough knowledge of the science of suggestion. Sincere,sympathetic doctors are very rare. Doctors who have no knowledge of suggestion do moreharm than good. They kill patients sometimes by unnecessarily frightening them. If thereis a little cough of an ordinary nature, the doctor says: “Now, my friend, you havegot T.B. You must go to Bhowali or Switzerland or Vienna. You must go in for a course oftuberculin injections.” Poor patient is frightened. There is not at all any sign ofconsumption. The case is an ordinary one. It is simple catarrh of the chest from exposureto chills. The patient actually develops phthisis by fright and worry owing to the wrongdestructive suggestion of the doctor. The doctor ought to have told him: “Oh, it isnothing. It is simple cold. You will be all right by tomorrow. Take a purgative and inhalea little oil of eucalyptus. Adjust your diet. It is better you fast today.” Such adoctor is God Himself. He must be adored. A doctor may say now: “Well, sir, if I sayso, I will lose my practice. I cannot pull on in this world.” This is a mistake.Truth always gains victory. People will run to you as you are sympathetic and kind. Youwill have a roaring practice.

There is healing by suggestion. This is a drugless treatment. This is suggestivetherapeutics. By good and powerful suggestion, you can cure any disease. You will have tolearn this science and practise it. All doctors of Homoeopathic, Allopathic, Ayurvedic andUnani systems should know this science. They can combine this system along with their ownsystems. They will have a roaring practice by this happy combination.

Do not be easily influenced by the suggestions of others. Have your own sense ofindividuality. A strong suggestion, though it does not influence the subject immediately,will operate in due course. It will never go in vain.

We all live in a world of suggestions. Our character is daily modified unconsciously byassociation with others. We unconsciously imitate the actions of those whom we admire. Wedaily absorb the suggestions of those with whom we come in daily contact. We are actedupon by these suggestions. A man of weak mind yields to the suggestions of a man of strongmind.

The servant is always under the influence of the suggestions of his master. The wife isunder the influence of the suggestions of her husband. The patient is under the influenceof the suggestions of the doctor. The student is under the influence of the teacher.Custom is nothing but the product of suggestion. The dress that you put on, the manners,the behaviour and even the food that you eat are all the outcome of suggestions only.Nature suggests in various ways. The running rivers, the shining sun, fragrant flowers,the growing trees, are all incessantly sending you suggestions.

All the prophets of yore were hypnotists. They knew the science of suggestion fullywell. Their words had tremendous powers. Every word they uttered had magic power and apeculiar charm. All the hearers remained spell-bound. A spiritual preacher produces a sortof hypnosis in the minds of others. The hearers come under the influence of hissuggestions.

There is power in every word that is spoken. There are two kinds of Vrittis, viz.,Sakti-Vritti and Lakshana-Vritti in words. In the Upanishads, the Lakshana-Vritti istaken. “Vedasvarupoham” does not mean “embodiment of Vedas.” TheLakshana-Vritti does denote “Brahman” who can be reached by the study of theUpanishads alone: by the Sabda Pramana alone.

Mark here the power in the words. If anyone calls another “Sala” or”Badmash” or “fool,” he is thrown into a state of fury immediately.Fight ensues. If you address anyone as “Bhagavan” or “Prabhu” or”Maharaj,” he is immensely pleased.

Hypnotism And Mesmerism

A greater mind can influence a smaller mind. This is mesmerism or hypnotism. This isnot at all a new science. It is also Anadi. It has existed from beginningless time. It wasonly Mesmer and Braid who popularised this science in the West. Hindu Rishis knew thisscience in days long gone by. Demosthenes and Socrates, Visvamitra and Patanjali Maharshiused hypnotism and mesmerism in olden days. It was James Braid, the Manchester surgeon,who gave this name hypnotism to this science and who first founded this science in theWest. The term ‘hypnotism’ has a Greek origin which means sleep.

Mesmer was a philosopher, physician and astrologer. He was born in 1784. He died in1815. He brought in the theory of animal magnetism. He believed that man had a wonderfulmagnetic power by which he could heal and influence other people. He made use of thispower in the treatment of various diseases. The system of mesmerism is known after hisname.

All orators possess the power of hypnotism. Consciously or unconsciously they subduethe minds of hearers. The hearers are swayed by the powerful speech of orators. They arecharmed, as it were, for the time being. All the religious preachers and prophets of theworld possessed this power to a remarkable degree.

Suggestion is the master-key to hypnotism. The hypnotist suggests and the operator actsimplicitly. The lesser mind implicitly obeys the higher mind. Suggestion is an ideacommunicated by the operator to the subject. Suggestion is a science. One should be veryclever in putting the suggestion in a skilful manner. We live in the world of suggestionand under the magic spell and influence of hypnotism. Hypnotism is a mighty power in theworld. We are all hypnotised by the spell of Maya. We will have to dehypnotise ourselvesto obtain a knowledge of the Self. Vedanta gives powerful suggestions to dehypnotiseourselves. Hypnotism is a state of mind in which suggestions, verbal and visual, arereceived as true whether they are true or not. There is an irresistible desire to carryout the suggestions. The power of will and the power of suggestion are very closely linkedtogether.

The operator develops his power of hypnosis through the practice of crystal-gazing andother methods of concentration. Pranayama also helps a lot in the development of thispower. Brahmacharya also is very essential. A man of loose character cannot become apowerful hypnotist.

A man can be hypnotised by gazing or suggestion or passes. The operator makes some’passes’ in front of the subject and the subject passes into a hypnotic state. The passesin the reverse direction will bring back the subject to normal consciousness. Sometimes,if the hypnotist is a powerful man, he can hypnotise several persons in a group or bunch.That man who resists the suggestions of the hypnotist cannot be hypnotised so easily. Ifone believes in the hypnotiser and thinks he can be hypnotised, he can rapidly come underhis spell and operation.

There is also another variety of hypnotism called the stage hypnotism in which thehypnotist hypnotises the whole audience and shows several tricks. He puts a lady in asmall tight box in standing posture, ties her hands and closes the box and then cuts thebox with a saw. Afterwards he opens the broken box and the lady comes out without anyinjury. A famous Fakir ascended the platform in England with a red rope in his hand, threwit in the air and climbed up through the rope and then vanished in the air. This isstage-hypnotism. This is the famous ‘rope-trick’ of the Fakir. There was no impression inthe plate of a camera. This is a trick only after all. A hypnotist hypnotises a boy andplaces his head and feet over two chairs. He then places a large weight over his body. Thebody does not bend. He asks the audience to clasp the fingers of both hands and makes astrong current of electricity to pass. They all actually feel the shock of the current. Hefirst starts the current in his own hands and thinks strongly that the current should passto the hands of others.

Hypnotism is very beneficial in the correction of bad habits of boys and in thetreatment of hysteria and other nervous diseases. The opium habit and the drinking habitare also removed. The hypnotist should not misuse the power in wrong channels. He will geta hopeless downfall. Wherever there is power, there is side by side a chance for misuse.There are temptations also. One has to be very careful.

A hypnotist looks at the second-hand of a watch and the second-hand stops immediately.He asks a subject to look at the second-hand of a watch and stops his thinking. His eyesbecomes listless. A hypnotist makes the body of a hypnotised subject to levitate and movein the air through a big iron ring. The hypnotised person is blindfolded. He is able towalk over a rope that is distributed on the ground in quite a zigzag manner. He is able toread the contents of a sealed letter and give proper answers to questions. Here theunconscious mind of the subject operates. He can see through an opaque wall. Marvellousare the mysteries of the science of hypnotism! Thanks to Mr. James Braid of happy memory!


Telepathy is thought-transference from one person to another. Just as sound moves inthe ethereal space, so also thought moves in the mental space, Chidakasa. There is anocean of ether all round. There is also an ocean of mind all round. Thought has shape,colour, weight and form. It is as much matter as this pencil. When you have some goodthought of an elevating nature sometimes, it is very difficult to say whether it is yourown thought or the thought of some other person. Thoughts of other persons enter yourbrain.

Telepathy was the first wireless telegraphy of the Yogis. Yogis send their messagesthrough telepathy. Thought travels with electric speed that is unimaginable. Sometimes youthink of a friend with such intensity in the evening that you get a letter from him earlyin the morning. This is unconscious telepathy. Your powerful thought has travelled andreached the brain of your friend immediately and he has replied you then and there. Somany interesting and wonderful things are going on in the thought-world. Ordinarily,people who have not developed the power of telepathy are groping in the darkness.

Telepathy is communication of mind with mind. The pineal gland which is considered byoccultists as the seat of the soul plays an important part in telepathy. It is this pinealgland that actually receives messages. It is a small piece of nervous matter that isimbedded in the brain or hind-brain in the floor of the mind ventricle. It is an endocrinegland that is ductless. It has got an internal secretion which is directly poured into theblood.

Practise telepathy in the beginning from a short distance. It is better to practise atnights, to start with. Ask your friend to have the receptive attitude and concentration atten o’clock. Ask him to sit on Virasana or Padmasana with closed eyes in a dark room. Tryto send your message exactly at the appointed time. Concentrate on the thoughts that youwant to send. Will strongly now. The thoughts will leave your brain and enter the brain ofyour friend. There may be some mistakes in the beginning here and there. When you advancein practice and know the technique well, you will always be correct in sending andreceiving messages. Later on, you will be able to forward messages to different corners ofthe world. Thought-waves vary in intensity and force. The sender and receiver shouldpractise great and intense concentration. Then there will be force in sending themessages, clarity and accuracy in receiving the messages. Practise in the beginningtelepathy form one room to the next room in the same house. This science is very pleasantand interesting. It needs patient practice. Brahmacharya is very essential.

You can influence another man without any audible language. What is wanted isconcentration of thought that is directed by the will. This is telepathy. Here is anexercise for your practice in telepathy. Think of your friend or cousin who is living in adistant land. Bring a clear-cut image of his face to your mind. If you have his photo lookat it and speak to it audibly. When you retire to bed think of the picture with intenseconcentration. He will write to you the desired letter the following day or so. Try thisyourself. Do not doubt. You will be quite surprised. You will get success and firmconviction in the science of telepathy. Sometimes, when you are writing something orreading a newspaper, suddenly you get a message from some one near and dear to you. Youthink of him suddenly. He has sent you a message. He has thought of you seriously.Thought-vibrations travel faster than light or electricity. In such instances, thesubconscious mind receives the messages or impressions and transmits the same to theconscious mind.

Great adepts or Mahatmas who live in the Himalayan caves transmit their messagesthrough telepathy to deserving aspirants or Yogis in the world. These Jijnasus or Yogiscarry out their orders and disseminate their knowledge far and wide. It is not necessarythat Mahatmas should come on the platform and preach. Whether they preach or not, it doesnot matter. Their very life is an embodiment of teaching. They are the living assurancefor God-realisation. Preaching on the platform belongs to the second-class type of men whohave no knowledge of telepathy. The hidden Yogis help the world through their spiritualvibrations and magnetic aura more than the Yogis of the platform. In these days,Congressmen expect even Sannyasins to work on the Congress platform. They even force them.As their minds are saturated with Karma Samskaras, they are not able to grasp andunderstand the grandeur, utility and magnanimity of pure Nivritti of Dhyana-Yogis. Thefield or domain of activity of Sannyasins is entirely different. They cannot becomepresidents of Sabhas or Mandalas. Their sphere is of a cosmic nature. Their field isAdhyatmic that relates to the science of the Self. Let me repeat the words of Bhagavan SriKrishna:

“Lokesmin dvividha nishtha pura prokta mayanagha,
Jnanayogena samkhyanam karmayogena yoginam.”

“In this world there is a twofold path, as I said before, O sinless one, that ofYoga by Knowledge, of the Sankhyas, and that of Yoga by action, of the Yogis” (Gita,III-3). The glory of Hinduism will be lost, if Sannyasins become extinct. They can neverbecome extinct from India. The Samskaras of Tyaga and renunciation are ingrained in theircells, nerves and tissues. Buddhists have got monks. Mohammedans have their Fakirs.Christians have got their priests, clergymen and reverend fathers. Every religion haspeople in the world with the spirit of renunciation. There must be a set of people inevery religion who are entirely devoted to divine contemplation. It is the duty ofhouseholders to attend to their wants. They will receive their blessings. It is thesepeople who lead the life of Nivritti Marga, who can make researches in Yoga and give tothe world new messages. It is these men who can really help the world at large and doLoka-Kalyana.


Clairvoyance is vision of distant objects through the inner astral eye or psychic eye.Just as you have physical sense in the physical body, there are astral counterparts ofthese Indriyas in the inner, subtle, astral body. The Yogi or the occultist develops theseinner organs through practice of concentration. He develops clairvoyant vision. He can seeobjects in far-off climes. This Siddhi or power is called Dura Drishti.

Just as light rays penetrate a glass, just as X-rays penetrate solid, opaque objects,so also the Yogi can see the things through a solid wall, can see the contents of a sealedenvelope and the contents of a hidden treasure underneath the ground through his innerpsychic eye. This psychic eye is the eye of intuition or Divya Drishti or Jnana-Chakshus.One has to develop this inner eye through concentration. Just as the microscope magnifiesthe small cells, germs, etc., so also he can see things of the astral world very clearlythrough this inner eye and can magnify them also by special focussing of the inner astrallens.

He creates an astral tube by willing and the strong wishing and thinking and, throughthis astral tube, he sees things at a distance. The vision may not be very clear in thebeginning. Just as the new-born baby learns, so also he learns in the beginning. As headvances in his practice, his inner vision becomes quite distinct. There is anothermethod. The Yogi takes astral journey and sees things during his astral travellingunconsciously.

Just as light rays travel in space, so also astral light rays travel with tremendousvelocity. They are caught up by the astral eye. Every one of you has got these astralsenses. But few only consciously develop them. A clairvoyant can see the events of thepast by looking into the Akasic records and have Trikala Jnana also. The degree of powervaries in different individuals. Advanced clairvoyants are very rare.


Clairaudience is the hearing of distant sounds in the astral plane by means of theastral ear. The process is similar to clairvoyance. The astral sound-vibrations are caughthold of by the astral sense of hearing. A clairvoyant need not necessarily be aclairaudient. These are two distinct powers.

Patanjali Maharshi gives the method to develop this power of distant hearing. “Shrotrakasayoh”(Patanjali Yoga Sutras, 3-41). By Samyama on the relation between the ear and Akasa, comesdivine hearing. Samyama is concentration and meditation combined.

All the inhabitants of the Pitriloka possess this power. Where their descendantsperform Sraaddha and Tarpana in this world, they hear these sounds through the power ofclairaudience and they are highly pleased.

These psychic Siddhis are all by-products of concentration. Just as there are variouscoal-tar derivatives and various petroleum preparations, so also there are these Siddhismanifest in a Yogi when he concentrates. These are all obstacles in the path ofspirituality. The aspirant should ignore them and develop Vairagya. Then only will he beable to reach the goal.

All the sound vibrations of the past are in the Akasic records. The Yogi can hear thesesounds nicely. He can hear the sounds of Shakespeare, Johnson, Valmiki, Visvamitra, etc.Just as you can hear now the music and song of a songster who died fifty years ago in thegramophonic records, so also the Yogi can hear the sounds of those persons of the past byconcentration connecting his astral hearing to the Akasic records. Just as impressions ofyour boyhood remain in your brain and the subconscious mind, so also the impressions ofold sounds remain in the Akasic records. One should know the Yogis’ technique only. Justas the experienced record-keeper in the office can bring out in a short time any oldrecord, so also the Yogi can hear the sound of good old days in the twinkling of an eye.


Annihilation Of Mind

Mind is Atma-Sakti. Mind is a bundle of Vasanas (desires) and Sankalpas (thoughts,imaginations). Mind is a bundle of Raga-Dvesha (likes and dislikes). Annihilation of mindis Manonasa.

Manolaya is temporary absorption of the mind. This cannot give Moksha. The mind cancome back again and wander in sensual objects. Manonasa alone can give release or Moksha.


How is the mind purified, brought under control and how are its activities stopped andhow is it annihilated? Here are some useful and practical points. Mind can be controlledand annihilated by Vichara or enquiry of “Who am I?” This is the best and mosteffective method. This will annihilate the mind. This is the Vedantic method. Realise theunreality of the mind through philosophical thinking.

Slay The Ego

Eradicate the feeling of egoism. Ego is the seed of the tree of mind. “I”thought is the source of all thoughts. All thoughts are centred on the little”I.” Find out what the little “I” is. This little “I” willdwindle into an airy nothing. It will be absorbed in the infinite “I” orParabrahman, the source for the little “I” or Ahankara (egoism).

The Sun of Self-realisation is fully seen when the cloud of ego disappears.


Vairagya (dispassion) is another method for annihilating mind. It is distaste forobjects of sense-pleasures by finding out the defects in the sensual life. Objects areperishable. Sensual pleasure is momentary and illusory.


Abhyasa or practice is another method. Concentrate the mind by fixing it on Brahman.Make it steady. Abhyasa is ceaseless meditation. This leads to Samadhi.


Asanga or non-attachment is a sword to destroy the mind. Take the mind away fromobjects. Detach. Attach. Detach it from the objects. And attach it to the Lord. Do thisagain and again. The essence of the seed of the sprout of world experience, which isdesire, can be destroyed by the fire of non-attachment.


Vasana-Kshaya is another method. Vasana is desire. Renunciation of desires leads toVasana-Kshaya. This will lead to annihilation of mind (Manonasa). Desire for objects ofpleasure is bondage; giving it up is emancipation. Desire is the most essential nature ofthe mind. Mind and egoism are synonymous.


Vibration of Prana causes movement of the mind. It gives life to the mind. Pranayama orcontrol of Prana will stop the activities of the mind. But it cannot destroy the mind toits roots like Vichara.

Control The Thoughts

Control the thoughts or Sankalpas. Avoid imagination or day-dreaming. The mind will beannihilated. Extinction of Sankalpas alone is Moksha or release. The mind is destroyedwhen there is no imagination. The experience of the world illusion is due to yourimagination. It vanishes away when imagination is completely stopped.


Mental renunciation of possessions is another method. The absolute experience can alsobe realised if you learn to be in a state of thought-suspending Samadhi.

Be Balanced

Attainment of equanimity is another method. Be balanced in pain and pleasure, heat andcold, etc.

He alone experiences everlasting peace and eternal bliss who has transcended the mindand rests in his own Satchidananda Atman.

Devotion And Service

Japa, Kirtan, prayer, devotion, service of Guru and study are also means to annihilatethe mind.


NOTE: This includes only those Sanskrit terms for which the English equivalents arenot indicated simultaneously (or almost simultaneously) with their first occurrence in thetext.


ABHASA: reflection
ABHEDA: without difference
ABHIMANA: ego-centred attachment
ABHYASA: spiritual practice
ACHARYA: preceptor
ADAMBHITVA: unpretentiousness
ADHAMA-UDDHARAKA: uplifter of the downtrodden
ADHIBHAUTIC: elemental
ADHIDAIVIC: celestial
ADHYATMIC: spiritual
ADVAITA: non-duality
ADVAITA-NISHTHA: establishment in the state of non-duality
AGNI: fire
AGNI-ASTRA: fire-missile
AGNIHOTRA: a fire-offering
AHAM: “I” or the ego
AHANGRAHA UPASANA: meditation in which the aspirant identifies himself with Brahman
AHANKARA: egoism
AHIMSA: non-violence
AISVARYA: divine powers
AJNA CHAKRA: centre of spiritual energy between the two eyebrows
AJNANA: ignorance
AKHANDA EKARASA: the one undivided Essence
AKARTA: non-doer
AKASA: ether
AKASAMATRA: ether only
AKHANDA: indivisible
AKHANDAKARA: of the nature of indivisibility
AMALAKA: phyllanthus emlica, Indian gooseberry
AMRITA: nectar
AMRITA PUTRA: nectar’s son
AMSA: part
ANADI: beginningless
ANAHATA: mystic sounds heard by Yogins
ANANDAGHANA: mass of bliss
ANANDAMAYA: full of bliss
ANANTA: infinite
ANANYA BHAKTI: exclusive devotion to the Lord
ANASAKTA: unattched
ANATMA: not-Self
ANITYA: transitory
ANNAMAYA KOSHA: food sheath, the gross physical body
ANTARGATA: immanent
ANTARIKA: internal
ANTAR-INDRIYA: internal sense-organ
ANTARJYOTIS: inner Light
ANTARMUKHA VRITTI: introspective thought-current
ANTARVAHA SARIRA: the subtle body of a Yogi by which he accomplishes entry into the bodiesof others
ANUBHAVA: spiritual realisation
ANUBHAVA-GURU: preceptor who has had pesonal spiritual realisation
ANUSANDHANA: enquiry into the nature of Brahman
ANVAYA: the positive aspect
APANA: the down-going breath
APANCHIKRITA: non-quintuplicated
APAS: water
APAVADA-YUKTI: employment of the logical method of negation
ASABDA: soundless
ASAMPRAJNATA SAMADHI: superconscious state where the mind is totally annihilated
ASANA: bodily pose
ASANGA: unattached
ASHRAMA: hermitage
ASHTA: eight
ASHTAVADHANA: doing eight things at a time
ASTI-BHATI-PRIYA: same as Satchidananda, the eternal qualities inherent in Brahman
ASTRA: a missile invoked with a Mantra
ASUBHA: inauspicious
ASUDDHA: impure
ASUDDHA MANAS: impure mind
ASVANI MUDRA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
ATMA(N): the Self
ATMA-DRISHTI: the vision of seeing everything as the Self
ATMA-JNANA: Knowledge of the Self
ATMAKARA: pertaining to Atman
ATMA-SAKSHATKARA: Self-realisation
ATMA-SAKTI: Soul-power
AVASTHA: state
AVICHHINNA: continuous
AVIDYA: nescience
AVINASI: imperishable
AVYAKTA: unmanifest


BAHIRMUKHA VRITTI: the outgoing thought-current
BAHIR-VRITTI: same as above
BAHIR-VRITTI-NIGRAHA: restraint of the outgoing thought-current
BHAJANA: devotional singing
BHAKTA: devotee
BHAKTI YOGA: the Yoga of devotion
BHASTRIKA PRANAYAMA: a type of breathing exercise
BHAVA(NA): attitudinal feeling
BHAVA-SAMADHI: supeconscious state attained by devotees through intense divine emotion
BHEDA BUDDHI: the intellect which divides
BHOGA: enjoyment
BHOKTRITVA: the stage of being an enjoyer
BHRANTIMATRA: mere illusion
BHUTAJAYA: control over the elements
BHUTA-SAKTI: the power of the element
BRAHMACHARI(N): celibate
BRAHMAKARA VRITTI: thought of Brahman
BRAHMA LOKA: the world of Brahma, the four-headed Creator
BRAHMAN: the Absolute Reality
BRAHMANA: member belonging to the priestly caste
BRAHMA NADI: same as Sushumna
BRAHMA-NISHTHA: one who is established in the Knowledge of Brahman
BRAHMANUBHAVA: Self-realisation
BRAHMIN: Same as Brahmana
BUDDHI: intellect


CHAITANYA: pure consciousness
CHAKRA: centre of spiritual energy
CHANCHALA: wavering
CHANCHALATA: tossing of the mind
CHARANAMRITA: water sanctified by the feet of a Deity or of a holy man
CHATAK: a bird
CHELA (Hindi): Disciple
CHIDGHANA: mass of consciousness
CHINMAYA: full of consciousness
CHINTANA: thinking
CHIRANJIVI: one who has gained eternal life
CHIT-MATRA: consciousness alone
CHIT-SVARUPA: of the very form of consciousness
CHITTA: subconscious mind
CHITTA-SUDDHI: purity of mind


DAMA: restraint of the sense-organs
DAMBHA: hypocrisy
DANA: charity
DARPA: vanity
DARSANA: vision
DEHADHYASA: attachment to the body, identification with the body
DEHATMA-BUDDHI: the intellect that makes one identify with the body
DEVA: a celestial being
DEVATA: a Deity, also the Lord
DHAIRYA: courage
DHARANA: concentration
DHARMA: righteous conduct; characteristic
DHRITI: spiritual patience
DHYANA: meditation
DHYANA YOGA: the Yoga of meditation
DINABANDHU: friend of the poor and the helpless, God
DOSHA: defect
DOSHA-DHRISHTI: the vision that perceives defects
DRISHTI: vision
DRISHTI-SRISHTI VADA: the theory that the world exists only so long as it is perceived
DURA-DRISHTI: distant vision
DVAITA: dualism


EKADASI: the eleventh day of the Hindu lunar fortnight
EKAGRA: one-pointed
EKAGRATA: one-pointedness of mind


GANIKA: prostitute
GHRINA: ill-will
GUNA: quality
GURU: preceptor


HATHA YOGA: the Yoga of physical perfection
HITA: astral tubes near the heart


IDA NADI: the psychic nerve-current which flows in the left nostril
INDRIYA: sense-organ
ISVARA: Lord, God


JAALA: jugglery, illusion
JAGADGURU: world-preceptor
JAGAT: world
JAGRAT: waking state
JALANDHARA BANDHA: a Hatha Yogic exercise
JAPA: repetition of the Name of the Lord
JIVA: the individual soul
JIVANMUKTA: one who is liberated in this life
JIVASRISHTI: creations of the individual soul such as egoism, mine-ness, etc.
JIVATMA(N): the individual soul
JNANA: knowledge of the Self
JNANA-BHUMIKA: plane of knowledge
JNANAGNI: fire of spiritual knowledge
JNANA-INDRIYAS: organs of knowledge or perception
JNANA YOGA: the Yoga of knowledge
JNANA YOGI(N): one who practises the Yoga of Knowledge
JNANI(N): the sage of wisdom


KALA-SAKTI: Divine Mother manifesting as Time
KALPA: a period of 432,00,00,000 years
KALPANAMATRA: lying only in imagination
KAMA: desire, lust
KAMANA: longing
KANDAMULA: roots and tubers
KARANA SARIRA: the causal body or the seed body
KARIKA: commentary
KARMA: action operating through the Law of Cause and Effect
KARMA-INDRIYAS: organs of action
KARMA YOGI(N): one who practises the Yoga of selfless service
KASHAYA: a subtle influence in the mind produced by enjoyment, hidden Vasana
KEVALA ASTI: pure Existence
KIRTAN: singing the Lord’s Name
KRIYA: Hatha Yogic exercise
KRODHA: anger
KSHAMA: forgiveness
KSHATRIYA: member belonging to the ruling caste
KULA-KUNDALINI: same as Kundalini
KUMBHAKA: retention of breath
KUNDALINI: the primordial cosmic energy located in the individual
KUTASTHA: the rock-seated, unchanging Brahman


LAKSHANA: characteristic
LAYA: absorption
LILA: divine sport
LILA-VILASA: the splendour of divien sport
LINGA SARIRA: the subtle body, the astral body
LOBHA: covetousness
LOKA-KALYAN(A): good of the world


MADA: pride
MADHUKARI BHIKSHA: alms collected from door to door like a bee collecting honey fromflower to flower
MAHABHEDA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
MAHARAJA: emperor
MAHARSHI: great sage
MAHATMA: great soul
MAHAVAKYA: (Lit.) Great sentence; Upanishadic declarations, four in number,expressing the identity between the individual soul and the Supreme Soul
MAHAVAKYANUSANDHANA: enquiry into the truth of the Mahavakyas
MALA-VASANA-RAHITA: free from impurities and subtle desires
MANO-MANDIR: temple of mind
MANAS: mind
MANDALA: region, sphere
MANIPURA CHAKRA: centre of spiritual energy in the region of the navel
MANONASA: annihilation of the mind
MANTRA: incantation
MANTRA SIDDHI: psychic power acquired through repetition of Mantra
MARGA: path
MATRA: unit; alone
MATSARYA: jealousy
MAUJA (Urdu): sweet will
MOUNA: silence
MAYA: the illusory power of Brahman
MAYURASANA: the peacock pose
MITHYA-DRISHTI: the vision that the universe is unreal
MITHYATVA-BUDDHI: the intellect that considers this world as unreal
MOHA: delusion
MOKSHA: liberation
MUDRA: a type of exercise in Hatha Yoga
MUKTI: liberation
MULA AVIDYA: primal ignorance
MULA BANDHA: a Hatha Yogic exercise
MULADHARA CHAKRA: centre of spiritual energy located at the base of the spinal column
MUNI: an ascetic
MURKHA: foolish


NADA: a mystic sound
NAIYAYIKAS: followers of the Nyaya school of Indian philosophy
NAMA: name
NAVA RIDDHIS: the nine minor spiritual powers
NETI, NETI: not this, not this
NIDIDHYASANA: profound meditation
NIRABHIMANATA: free from ego-centred attachment
NIRABHIMANI: one who is devoid of Abhimana
NIRAKARA: formless
NIRAVAYAVA: without limbs
NIRBIJA-SAMADHI: Samadhi wherein the Bija or seeds of Samskaras are fried by Jnana
NIRGUNA: without attributes
NIRGUNA BRAHMAN: the impersonal, attributeless Absolute
NIRODHA: suppression
NIRVANA: liberation
NIRVIKALPA: without the modifications of the mind
NIRVIKARA: unchanging
NIRVISHAYA: without object
NISCHAYATMIKA: with firm conviction
NISHKAMA: without desire
NISHKRIYA: without action
NISHTHA: meditation, establishment (in a certain state)
NISSANKALPA: devoid of thought or imagination
NIVRITTI: renunciation
NIYAMA: observances
NYAYA: logic


OM(KARA): the sacred syllable symbolising Brahman
OM TAT SAT: a benediction, a solemn invocation of the Divine blessing


PADMASANA: the lotus pose
PARAMAHAMSA: the fourth or the highest class of Sannyasins
PARAMANANDA: supreme bliss
PARAMATMA(N): the Supreme Soul
PARAM DHAMA: the Supreme Abode (Brahman)
PINGALA NADI: the psychic nerve-current which flows in the right nostril
PITRILOKA: the world of manes
PRACHARANA: A Hatha Yogic Kriya
PRADAKSHINA: circumambulation
PRAJNA: Chaitanya associated with the causal body in the deep sleep state
PRAJNANAGHANA: mass of consciousness
PRAJNA-SAKTI: power of consciousness
PRAKAMYA: unhampered will
PRAKASA: luminosity
PRAKRITI: Nature, the primitive non-intelligent principle
PRAMANA: proof
PRANA: the vital force, the life-current
PRANAVA: same as OM
PRANAVA DHVANI: the cosmic sound of OM
PRANAYAMA: control of breath
PRAPANCHA VISHAYA: worldly objects
PRARABDHA: destiny
PRASAD: anything consecrated by being offered to God or to a saint
PRATIPAKSHA BHAVANA: entertaining a counter-idea
PRATISHTA: reputation, fame
PRATYAGATMA: Inner Self, Brahman
PRATYAHARA: abstraction or withdrawal of the senses from their objects
PRATYAKSHA: direct perception
PRAVAHA: flood-tide
PREMA: affection
PRITHVI: earth
PUJA: worship
PUNDIT: a learned man
PURITAT NADI: one of the astral tubes or subtle passages in the body


RAGA-DVESHA: attraction and repulsion, like and dislike, love and hatred
RAGA-RAGINIS: melodic structures in music
RAJA: king
RAJASIC: passionate, active
RAJA YOGA: the Yoga of meditation
RIDDHIS: minor spiritual powers
RISHI: a seer of Truth
RUPA: form


SABDA: sound
SABDA-BHEDA: difference in sound
SABDA BRAHMAN: sound-form of Brahman
SABDA-JAALA: jugglery of words
SABHA: assembly
SADHAKA: spiritual aspirant
SADHANA: spiritual discipline
SADHU: a righteous man; a Sannyasin
SAGUNA: with attributes
SAHAJA: natural
SAHAJANANDA: state of bliss that has become natural
SAHAJA PARAMANANDA: state of absolute bliss that has become natural
SAHAJAVASTHA: superconscious state that has become natural and continuous
SAHASRARA: centre of spiritual energy at the crown of the head
SAKSHI: witness
SAKTI: power, potency
SAKTI-CHALANA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
SAMA: calmness of mind induced by eradication of Vasanas
SAMA-BHAVA: feeling of equality
SAMADHANA: mental balance
SAMADHI: the state of superconsciousness where Absoluteness is experienced
SAMA-DRISHTI: equal vision
SAMANYA: ordinary
SAMBHAVI MUDRA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
SAMSARA: the wheel of transmigration, cycle of birth and death
SAMSKARA: impression in the subconscious mind
SAMYAG-DARSANA: unclouded vision
SAMYAG-JNANA: Supreme knowledge
SAMYAMA: concentration, meditation and Samadhi
SAMYAVASTHA: the state of equanimity
SANDHYA: the daily worship of offering oblations to the Sun-God thrice a day-at sunrise,noon and sunset
SANGRAHA BUDDHI: the intellect that wants to accumulate and possess
SANKALPA: thought, imagination
SANKALPAMATRA: existing in thought only
SANKHYA: system of Indian philosophy founded by Kapila Muni
SANNYASI(N): renunciate, monk
SANTA-SIVA-ADVAITA: peaceful, auspicious, non-dual Brahman
SANTI: peace
SAPTA SVARA: the seven notes of the Indian scale of music
SARA VASTU: true substance, real entity
SARVA: all, everything
SARVANGASANA: a Yogic pose
SARVATMA BHAVA: feeling the one Self in all
SASTRAS: scriptures
SATAVADHANA: doing hundred things at a time
SATCHIDANANDA: Existence-Absolute, Knowledge-Absolute, Bliss-Absolute; Brahman
SATGURU: a true preceptor
SATSANGA: company of the wise
SAT SANKALPA: pure will
SATYA: truth
SAVIKALPA: with modifications
SAVITARKA SAMADHI: Samadhi with argumentation
SEVA: service
SIDDHANTA: established doctrine
SIDDHASANA: a meditative pose
SIDDHI: major psychic power; perfection
SIRSHASANA: the topsy-turvy pose
SIVOHAM: a Vedantic assertion meaning “I am Siva (the Absolute)”
SLOKA: verse
SMRITI: memory
SOHAM: a Vedantic assertion meaning “I am He (Brahman)”
SPHURANA: vibration. bursting forth
SRAADDHA: an annual ceremony when oblations are offered to the manes
SRADDHA: faith
SRUTI: musical refrain
STHULA AVIDYA: gross ignorance
STOTRAS: verses of praise
SUBHA: auspicious
SUDDHA: pure
SUDDHA MANAS: the pure mind
SUDDHI: purity
SUKHA: happiness
SUKHASANA: the comfortable pose
SUKSHMA: subtle
SUKSHMA SARIRA: the subtle body, the astral body
SUSHUMNA: the psychic nerve-current that passes through the spinal column and throughwhich the Kundalini is made to rise through the practice of Yoga
SUSHUPTI: the deep sleep state
SUTRADHARA: the wire-puller, God
SVABHAVA: innate nature
SVADHYAYA: reading of scriptures
SVAPNA: dreaming state
SVARA-SADHANA: science of breath
SVARODAYA: same as above
SVARUPA: essential nature
SVARUPA-LAKSHANA: distinguishing marks of the essential nature of Brahman


TADANA: a Hatha Yogic Kriya
TAIJASA: Chaitanya associated with the astral body in the dream state
TANMATRAS: subtle elements
TAPA: burning
TAPAS: penance
TAPASYA: practice of penance
TARPANA: libation of water for gratifying the manes
TATTVA: principle, Reality
TATTVA-JNANA: knowledge of Brahman
TAT TVAM ASI: That Thou Art
TIRTHA: place of pilgrimage usually containing a bathing place
TIRTHA-YATRA: pilgrimage
TITIKSHA: endurance
TRATAK(A): steady gazing
TRIKALA JNANA: knowledge of the three periods of time
TRIPHALA: three fruits used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine
TRIVENI: the place where three holy rivers meet
TUL(A)SI: the Indian holy basil plant
TURIYA: superconscious state
TUSHNIMBHUTA AVASTHA: a neutral state of the mind
TYAGA: renunciation


UDBODHAKA: stimulus, awakener
UDDIYANA: a Hatha Yogic exercise for raising the diaphragm
UDDIYANA BANDHA: same as above
UDGITHA: sonorous prayer prescribed in the Chhandogya Upanishad to be sung aloud
UNMANI AVASTHA: mindless state of Yogins
UPADHI: limiting adjunct
UPAHITA CHAITANYA: pure consciousness associated with Upadhis, the individual soul
UPASAKA: worshipper
UPASANA: worship
URDHVARETAS: a Yogi in whom the seminal energy flows upwards to the brain and is stored upas Ojas Sakti or spiritual energy
UTSAHA: cheerfulness, enthusiam


VAIRA-BHAKTI: constant and intense thought of God induced by hatred and enmity
VAIRAGYA: dispassion
VAISESHIKA: system of Indian philosophy founded by Kanada Rishi
VAK-INDRIYA: the organ of speech
VAKYA: sentence
VARUNA-ASTRA: water-missile
VASANA: latent subtle desire
VASTU: substance, entity
VAYU: air
VEDA: the revealed scripture of the Hindus containing the Upanishads
VEDANTA: (Lit.) end of the Vedas; the school of thought based primarily on theVedic Upanishads
VIBHU: all-pervading
VICHARA: enquiry
VIDEHAMUKTA: one who has attained disembodied Salvation
VIJATIYA-VRITTI-TIRASKARA: casting aside of alien thoughts, i.e., thoughts other thanthose of God
VIJNANAMAYA KOSHA: the intellectual sheath
VIJNANAVADA: subjective idealism
VIKALPA: fancy
VIKARA: modifications or change
VIKSHEPA: tossing of mind
VIRAT: macrocosm; the Lord in His form as the manifested universe
VIRAT-VISVARUPA-DARSANA: the vision of the Lord’s cosmic form
VISESHA: special
VISHAYA: sense-object
VISHAYAKARA-VRITTI: the flow of objective thinking
VISHAYA-VRITTI-PRAVAHA: the continuous thought-current of worldly objects
VISISHTADVAITA: the doctrine of conditioned non-dualism
VISTARA: expansion
VISVA: Chaitanya associated with the gross body in the waking state
VIVARTA: illusory appearance, apparent variation, superimposition
VIVEKA: discrimination
VRATA: religious vow
VRITTI: a wave of thought, a modification of the mind
VYANJAKA: indicative, manifesting
VYAPAKA: all-pervading
VYAVAHARA-RAHITA: devoid of worldly activity
VYAVASAYATMIKA: with resolution and determination


YAJNA: sacrifice
YAMA: self-restraint
YOGA: (Lit.) union; union of the individual soul with the Supreme Soul; any course whichmakes for such union
YOGABHRASHTA: one who has fallen from the high state of Yoga
YOGAMAYA: the power of divine illusion
YOGA SADHANA: the spiritual discipline of Yoga
YOGI(N): one who practises Yoga; one who is established in Yoga
YONI-MUDRA: the Mudra in which one closes the ears, eyes, nose and mouth with the thumbsand fingers of the hands to enable one to hear the Anahata sounds

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